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1.
Nanoscale ; 12(36): 18733-18741, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970083

RESUMO

Supercapacitor energy storage devices recently garnered considerable attention due to their cost-effectiveness, eco-friendly nature, high power density, moderate energy density, and long-term cycling stability. Such figures of merit render supercapacitors unique energy sources to power portable electronic devices. Among various energy storage materials, graphene-related materials have established themselves as ideal electrodes for the development of elite supercapacitors because of their excellent electrical conductivity, high surface area, outstanding mechanical properties combined with the possibility to tailor various physical and chemical properties via chemical functionalization. Increasing the surface area is a powerful strategy to improve the performance of supercapacitors. Here, modified polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) is used to improve the electrochemical performance of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through the enhancement of porosity and the extension of interlayer space between the sheets allowing efficient electrolyte transport. rGO-POSS hybrids exhibited a high specific capacitance of 174 F g-1, power density reaching 2.25 W cm-3, and high energy density of 41.4 mW h cm-3 endowed by the introduction of POSS spacers. Moreover, these electrode materials display excellent durability reaching >98% retention after 5000 cycles.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880164

RESUMO

Humidity sensors have been gaining increasing attention because of their relevance for well-being. To meet the ever-growing demand for new cost-efficient materials with superior performances, graphene oxide (GO)-based relative humidity sensors have emerged recently as low-cost and highly sensitive devices. However, current GO-based sensors suffer from important drawbacks including slow response and recovery, as well as poor stability. Interestingly, reduced GO (rGO) exhibits higher stability, yet accompanied by a lower sensitivity to humidity due to its hydrophobic nature. With the aim of improving the sensing performances of rGO, here we report on a novel generation of humidity sensors based on a simple chemical modification of rGO with hydrophilic moieties, i.e., triethylene glycol chains. Such a hybrid material exhibits an outstandingly improved sensing performance compared to pristine rGO such as high sensitivity (31% increase in electrical resistance when humidity is shifted from 2 to 97%), an ultrafast response (25 ms) and recovery in the subsecond timescale, low hysteresis (1.1%), excellent repeatability and stability, as well as high selectivity toward moisture. Such highest-key-performance indicators demonstrate the full potential of two-dimensional (2D) materials when decorated with suitably designed supramolecular receptors to develop the next generation of chemical sensors of any analyte of interest.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(44): 19602-19609, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634276

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted enormous attention in recent years. Recently, MOF@COF are emerging as hybrid architectures combining the unique features of the individual components to enable the generation of materials displaying novel physicochemical properties. Herein we report an unprecedented use of aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction as post-synthetic modification of MOF@COF-LZU1, to generate aza-MOFs@COFs hybrid porous materials with extended π-delocalization. A a proof-of-concept, the obtained aza-MOFs@COFs is used as electrode in supercapacitors displaying specific capacitance of 20.35 µF cm-2 and high volumetric energy density of 1.16 F cm-3 . Our approach of post-synthetic modification of MOFs@COFs hybrids implement rational design for the synthesis of functional porous materials and expands the plethora of promising application of MOFs@COFs hybrid porous materials in energy storage applications.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2001268, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378243

RESUMO

Van der Waals heterostructures (VDWHs), obtained via the controlled assembly of 2D atomically thin crystals, exhibit unique physicochemical properties, rendering them prototypical building blocks to explore new physics and for applications in optoelectronics. As the emerging alternatives to graphene, monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides and bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are promising candidates for overcoming the shortcomings of graphene, such as the absence of a bandgap in its electronic structure, which is essential in optoelectronics. Herein, VDWHs comprising GNRs onto monolayer MoS2 are fabricated. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on such VDWHs show an efficient suppression of the persistent photoconductivity typical of MoS2 , resulting from the interfacial charge transfer process. The MoS2 -GNR FETs exhibit drastically reduced hysteresis and more stable behavior in the transfer characteristics, which is a prerequisite for the further photomodulation of charge transport behavior within the MoS2 -GNR VDWHs. The physisorption of photochromic molecules onto the MoS2 -GNR VDWHs enables reversible light-driven control over charge transport. In particular, the drain current of the MoS2 -GNR FET can be photomodulated by 52%, without displaying significant fatigue over at least 10 cycles. Moreover, four distinguishable output current levels can be achieved, demonstrating the great potential of MoS2 -GNR VDWHs for multilevel memory devices.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(50): 6878-6881, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432577

RESUMO

Dual functionalization of chemically exfoliated MoS2 has been achieved by exploiting coulombic interactions among positively charged molecules and the negatively charged 2D flakes. The reversibility and kinetics of the process have been studied by spectroscopic tools. The hybrid material has been transferred to various substrates, yielding multifunctional robust flexible films.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(19): 7319-7330, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898855

RESUMO

Molecular/supramolecular springs are artificial nanoscale objects possessing well-defined structures and tunable physicochemical properties. Like a macroscopic spring, supramolecular springs are capable of switching their nanoscale conformation as a response to external stimuli by undergoing mechanical spring-like motions. This dynamic action offers intriguing opportunities for engineering molecular nanomachines by translating the stimuli-responsive nanoscopic motions into macroscopic work. These nanoscopic objects are reversible dynamic multifunctional architectures which can express a variety of novel properties and behave as adaptive nanoscopic systems. In this Minireview, we focus on the design and structure-property relationships of supramolecular springs and their (self-)assembly as a prerequisite towards the generation of novel dynamic materials featuring controlled movements to be readily integrated into macroscopic devices for applications in sensing, robotics, and the internet of things.

7.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 9431-9441, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386338

RESUMO

Graphene has been the subject of widespread research during the past decade because of its outstanding physical properties which make it an ideal nanoscale material to investigate fundamental properties. Such characteristics promote graphene as a functional material for the emergence of disruptive technologies. However, to impact daily life products and devices, high-quality graphene needs to be produced in large quantities using an environmentally friendly protocol. In this context, the production of graphene which preserves its outstanding electronic properties using a green chemistry approach remains a key challenge. Herein, we report the efficient production of electrode material for micro-supercapacitors obtained by functionalization of water-dispersed high-quality graphene nanosheets with polydopamine. High-frequency (terahertz) conductivity measurements of the graphene nanosheets reveal high charge carrier mobility up to 1000 cm-2 V-1 s-1. The fine water dispersibility enables versatile functionalization of graphene, as demonstrated by the pseudocapacitive polydopamine coating of graphene nanosheets. The polydopamine functionalization causes a modest, i.e., 20%, reduction of charge carrier mobility. Thin film electrodes based on such hybrid materials for micro-supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, namely a volumetric capacitance of 340 F cm-3 and a power density of 1000 W cm-3, thus outperforming most of the reported graphene-based micro-supercapacitors. These results highlight the potential for water-dispersed, high-quality graphene nanosheets as a platform material for energy-storage applications.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(52): 18758-18775, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407848

RESUMO

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of molecules at surfaces and interfaces as well as to precisely manipulate atoms and molecules by applying an external force, by inelastic electron tunneling, or by means of an electric field. The rapid development of these SPM manipulation modes made it possible to achieve fine-control over fundamental processes in the physics of interfaces as well as chemical reactivity, such as adsorption, diffusion, bond formation, and bond dissociation with precision at the single atom/molecule level. Their controlled use for the fabrication of atomic-scale structures and synthesis of new, perhaps uncommon, molecules with programmed properties are reviewed. Opportunities and challenges towards the development of complex chemical systems are discussed, by analyzing potential future impacts in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(61): 8900-8914, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281916

RESUMO

During the last five years, the scientific community has witnessed tremendous progress in solution-processed semiconducting 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), in combination with the use of chemical approaches to finely tune their electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Because of the strong structure-properties relationship, the adopted production methods contribute in affecting the quality and characteristics of the nanomaterials, along with the costs, scalability and yield of the process. Nevertheless, a number of (supra)molecular approaches have been developed to meticulously tailor the properties of TMDs via formation of both covalent and non-covalent bonds, where small molecules, (bio)polymers or nanoparticles interact with the basal plane and/or edges of the 2D nanosheets in a controlled fashion. In this Feature Article, we will highlight the recent advancements in the development of production strategies and molecular approaches for tailoring the properties of solution-processed TMD nanosheets. We will also discuss opportunities and challenges towards the realization of multifunctional devices and sensors based on such novel hybrid nanomaterials.

10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(9): 1801195, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065510

RESUMO

This study reports on the development of a cementitious composite incorporating electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EEG). This hybrid functional material features significantly enhanced microstructure and mechanical properties, as well as unaffected workability; thus, it outperforms previously reported cementitious composites containing graphene derivatives. The manufacturing of the composite relies on a simple and efficient method that enables the uniform dispersion of EEG within cement matrix in the absence of surfactants. Different from graphene oxide, EEG is found to not agglomerate in cement alkaline environment, thereby not affecting the fluidity of cementitious composites. The addition of 0.05 wt% graphene content to ordinary Portland cement results in an increase up to 79%, 8%, and 9% for the tensile strength, compressive strength, and Young's modulus, respectively. Remarkably, it is found that the addition of EEG promotes the hydration reaction of both alite and belite, thus leading to the formation of a large fraction of 3CaO·2SiO2·3H2O (C-S-H) phase. These findings represent a major step forward toward the practical application of nanomaterials in civil engineering.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(37): 5331-5334, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946411

RESUMO

Large quantities of high-quality graphene has been produced through a green and up-scalable method based on the exfoliation and dispersion of graphene in a sugar-based wax, by mimicking the Scotch tape approach to enable the production of graphene paste with unprecedently high concentration of 30% in weight exhibiting ultrahigh stability.

12.
Adv Mater ; 31(1): e1804600, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387217

RESUMO

The development of pressure sensors is crucial for the implementation of electronic skins and for health monitoring integrated into novel wearable devices. Tremendous effort is devoted toward improving their sensitivity, e.g., by employing microstructured electrodes or active materials through cumbersome processes. Here, a radically new type of piezoresistive pressure sensor based on a millefeuille-like architecture of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) intercalated by covalently tethered molecular pillars holding on-demand mechanical properties are fabricated. By applying a tiny pressure to the multilayer structure, the electron tunnelling ruling the charge transport between successive rGO sheets yields a colossal decrease in the material's electrical resistance. Significantly, the intrinsic rigidity of the molecular pillars employed enables the fine-tuning of the sensor's sensitivity, reaching sensitivities as high as 0.82 kPa-1 in the low pressure region (0-0.6 kPa), with short response times (≈24 ms) and detection limit (7 Pa). The pressure sensors enable efficient heartbeat monitoring and can be easily transformed into a matrix capable of providing a 3D map of the pressure exerted by different objects.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Pressão , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(1): 482-487, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517783

RESUMO

Toward the introduction of fast faradaic pseudocapacitive behavior and the increase of the specific capacitance of carbon-based electrodes, we covalently functionalized graphene oxide with a redox active thiourea-formaldehyde polymer, yielding a multifunctional hybrid system. The multiscale physical and chemical characterization of the novel 3-dimensional hybrid revealed high material porosity with high specific surface area (402 m2 g-1) and homogeneous element distribution. The presence of multiple functional groups comprising sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen provide additional contribution of Faradaic redox reaction in supercapacity performance, leading to a high effective electrochemical pseudocapacitance. Significantly, our graphene-based 3-dimensional thiourea-formaldehyde hybrid exhibited specific capacitance as high as 400 F g-1, areal capacitance of 160 mF cm-2, and an energy density of 11.1 mWh cm-3 at scan rate of 1 mV s-1 with great capacitance retention (100%) after 5000 cycles at scan rate of 100 mV s-1.

14.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1366-1374, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944042

RESUMO

This paper describes a study on the charge transport in a composite of liquid-exfoliated graphene nanoparticles (GNPs) and a polythiophene semiconducting polymer. While the former component is highly conducting, although it consists of isolated nanostructures, the latter offers an efficient charge transport path between the individual GNPs within the film, overall yielding enhanced charge transport properties of the resulting bi-component system. The electrical characteristics of the composite layers were investigated by means of measurements of time-of-flight photoconductivity and transconductance in field-effect transistors. In order to analyze both phenomena separately, charge density and charge mobility contributions to the conductivity were singled out. With the increasing GNP concentration, the charge mobility was found to increase, thereby reducing the time spent by the carriers on the polymer chains. In addition, for GNP loading above 0.2 % (wt.), an increase of free charge density was observed that highlights an additional key role played by doping. Variable-range hopping model of a mixed two- and three-dimensional transport is explained using temperature dependence of mobility and free charge density. The temperature variation of free charge density was related to the electron transfer from polythiophene to GNP, with an energy barrier of 24 meV.

15.
Nanoscale ; 10(48): 23182-23190, 2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516773

RESUMO

Phyllosilicates are layered materials possessing unique thermal properties, commonly exploited in their multilayered crystalline form as refractory insulators and heating elements. A more versatile use of such materials, however, would require their existence in the form of inks and dispersions ready to be patterned. Within this framework, the liquid-phase exfoliation of low-cost, low-purity materials such as bulk multiphasic minerals and powders represents an economically advantageous approach for the production of 2D nano-sized objects with a defined composition, size and morphology. Here, ultrasound-assisted exfoliation and shear-mixing of a multi-phasic vermiculite in mild acidic aqueous solutions were employed to successfully obtain dispersions of mono- and few-layer thick clay nanosheets. The exfoliated materials were thoroughly investigated through granulometry, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), specific surface area measurements and AFM imaging. Despite the fact that the lateral size and the thickness distribution of exfoliated flakes obtained with the two approaches appear similar, the ultrasound-assisted exfoliation process yielded a larger amount of mono- and bi-layer thick flakes as well as materials with a higher specific surface area. XRD analysis revealed that the use of ultrasound waves in an acidic environment results in the complete exfoliation of the vermiculite layer, whereas the use of shear forces under the same conditions results in the exfoliation of hydrobiotite and mica crystalline phases. Thermal conductivity measurements provided clear evidence on how the structural changes - arising from the exfoliation process - have a direct impact on the properties of the exfoliated clay. Remarkably, compared to the raw material, the thermal conductivity of the exfoliated material decreases by 25%, reaching the ultra-low thermal conductivity regime (<0.1 W m-1 K-1). Our approach may enable in the future the generation of patterns of thermal insulators onto different surfaces by applying vermiculite nanosheets in the form of dispersions and printable inks.

16.
Langmuir ; 34(26): 7698-7707, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889539

RESUMO

We combine ambient (air) and ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) investigations together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to gain a subnanometer insight into the structure and dynamic of two-dimensional (2D) surface-supported molecular networks. The planar tetraferrocene-porphyrin molecules employed in this study undergo spontaneous self-assembly via the formation of hydrogen bonded networks at the gold substrate-solution interface. To mimic liquid phase ambient deposition conditions, film formation was accomplished in UHV by electro-spraying a solution of the molecule in chloroform onto an Au(111) substrate, thereby providing access to the full spectroscopic capabilities of STM that can be hardly attained under ambient conditions. We show that molecular assembly on Au (111) is identical in films prepared under the two different conditions, and in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, we observe the contrast found for a given STM bias condition to be different in ambient and UHV conditions despite the similarity of the structures, and we propose possible origins of the different imaging contrast. This approach could be valuable for the thorough characterization of surface systems that involve large molecules and are prepared mainly in ambient conditions.

17.
Chem Soc Rev ; 47(13): 4860-4908, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938255

RESUMO

During the last decade, two-dimensional materials (2DMs) have attracted great attention due to their unique chemical and physical properties, which make them appealing platforms for diverse applications in opto-electronic devices, energy generation and storage, and sensing. Among their various extraordinary properties, 2DMs possess high surface area-to-volume ratios and ultra-high surface sensitivity to the environment, which are key characteristics for applications in chemical sensing. Furthermore, 2DMs' superior electrical and optical properties, combined with their excellent mechanical characteristics such as robustness and flexibility, make these materials ideal components for the fabrication of a new generation of high-performance chemical sensors. Depending on the specific device, 2DMs can be tailored to interact with various chemical species at the non-covalent level, making them powerful platforms for fabricating devices exhibiting a high sensitivity towards detection of various analytes including gases, ions and small biomolecules. Here, we will review the most enlightening recent advances in the field of chemical sensors based on atomically-thin 2DMs and we will discuss the opportunities and the challenges towards the realization of novel hybrid materials and sensing devices.

18.
Chemistry ; 24(46): 11954-11960, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603481

RESUMO

Salophens and Salens are Schiff bases generated through the condensation of two equivalents of salicylaldehyde with either 1,2-phenylenediamines or aliphatic diamines, respectively. Both ligands have been extensively exploited as key building blocks in coordination chemistry and catalysis. In particular, their metal complexes have been widely used for various catalytical transformations with high yield and selectivity. Through the modification of the phenol unit it is possible to tune the steric hindrance and electronic properties of Salophen and Salen. The introduction of long aliphatic chains in salicylaldehydes can be used to promote their self-assembly into ordered supramolecular structures on solid surfaces. Herein, we report a novel method towards the facile synthesis of robust and air-stable [Al(Salophen)] derivatives capable of undergoing spontaneous self-assembly at the graphite/solution interface forming highly-ordered nanopatterns. The new synthetic approach relies on the use of [MeAlIII (Salophen)] as a building unit to introduce, via a simple acid/base reaction with functionalized acidic phenol derivatives, selected frameworks integrating multiple functions for efficient surface decoration. STM imaging at the solid/liquid interface made it possible to monitor the formation of ordered supramolecular structures. In addition, the redox properties of the Salophen derivatives functionalized with ferrocene units in solution and on surface were unraveled by cyclic voltammetry. The use of a five-coordinate aluminum alkyl Salophen precursor enables the tailoring of new Salophen molecules capable of undergoing controlled self-assembly on HOPG, and thereby it can be exploited to introduce multiple functionalities with subnanometer precision at surfaces, ultimately forming ordered functional patterns.

19.
Chem Asian J ; 13(5): 465-481, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323791

RESUMO

Within the last two decades, dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) has emerged as an efficient and versatile strategy for the design and synthesis of complex molecular systems in solution. While early examples of supramolecularly assisted covalent synthesis at surfaces relied strongly on kinetically controlled reactions for post-assembly covalent modification, the DCC method takes advantage of the reversible nature of bond formation and allows the generation of the new covalently bonded structures under thermodynamic control. These structurally complex architectures obtained by means of DCC protocols offer a wealth of solutions and opportunities in the generation of new complex materials that possess sophisticated properties. In this focus review we examine the formation of covalently bonded imine-based discrete nanostructures as well as one-dimensional (1D) polymers and two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) physisorbed on solid substrates under various experimental conditions, for example, under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) or at the solid-liquid interface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to gain insight, with a sub-nanometer resolution, into the structure and properties of those complex nanopatterns.

20.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 168: 211-216, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198983

RESUMO

Here we report on a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation on the self-assembly of C3- and C2-symmetric molecules at the solution/graphite interface. 1,3,5-tris((E)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)vinyl)benzene and 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)ethane are used as model systems. These molecules displayed a concentration dependent self-assembly behaviour on graphite, resulting in highly ordered supramolecular structures, which are stabilized jointly by van der Waals substrate-adsorbate interactions and in-plane intermolecular H-bonding. Denser packing is obtained when applying a relatively high concentration solution to the basal plane of the surface whereas a less dense porous network is observed upon lowering the concentration. We show that the molecular conformation does not influence the stability of the self-assembly and a twisted molecule can pack into dense and porous architectures under the concentration effect.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Conformação Molecular , Nanoestruturas/química , Soluções/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
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