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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360921

RESUMO

Hybrid varieties can provide the boost needed to increase stagnant wheat yields through heterosis. The lack of an efficient hybridization system, which can lower the cost of goods of hybrid seed production, has been a major impediment to commercialization of hybrid wheat varieties. In this review, we discuss the progress made in characterization of nuclear genetic male sterility (NGMS) in wheat and its advantages over two widely referenced hybridization systems, i.e., chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We have characterized four wheat genes, i.e., Ms1, Ms5, TaMs26 and TaMs45, that sporophytically contribute to male fertility and yield recessive male sterility when mutated. While Ms1 and Ms5 are Triticeae specific genes, analysis of TaMs26 and TaMs45 demonstrated conservation of function across plant species. The main features of each of these genes is discussed with respect to the functional contribution of three sub-genomes and requirements for complementation of their respective mutants. Three seed production systems based on three genes, MS1, TaMS26 and TaMS45, were developed and a proof of concept was demonstrated for each system. The Tams26 and ms1 mutants were maintained through a TDNA cassette in a Seed Production Technology-like system, whereas Tams45 male sterility was maintained through creation of a telosome addition line. These genes represent different options for hybridization systems utilizing NGMS in wheat, which can potentially be utilized for commercial-scale hybrid seed production.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 535, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431725

RESUMO

Modern maize hybrids often contain biotech and native traits. To-date all biotech traits have been randomly inserted in the genome. Consequently, developing hybrids with multiple traits is expensive, time-consuming, and complex. Here we report using CRISPR-Cas9 to generate a complex trait locus (CTL) to facilitate trait stacking. A CTL consists of multiple preselected sites positioned within a small well-characterized chromosomal region where trait genes are inserted. We generated individual lines, each carrying a site-specific insertion landing pad (SSILP) that was targeted to a preselected site and capable of efficiently receiving a transgene via recombinase-mediated cassette exchange. The selected sites supported consistent transgene expression and the SSILP insertion had no effect on grain yield. We demonstrated that two traits residing at different sites within a CTL can be combined via genetic recombination. CTL technology is a major step forward in the development of multi-trait maize hybrids.

3.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(5): 579-581, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152597

RESUMO

We created waxy corn hybrids by CRISPR-Cas9 editing of a waxy allele in 12 elite inbred maize lines, a process that was more than a year faster than conventional trait introgression using backcrossing and marker-assisted selection. Field trials at 25 locations showed that CRISPR-waxy hybrids were agronomically superior to introgressed hybrids, producing on average 5.5 bushels per acre higher yield.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Produção Agrícola , Edição de Genes/métodos , Introgressão Genética , Deleção de Sequência , Zea mays/genética
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708936

RESUMO

Development of transgenic cell lines or organisms for industrial, agricultural, or medicinal applications involves inserting DNA into the target genome in a way that achieves efficacious transgene expression without a deleterious impact on fitness. The genomic insertion site is widely recognized as an important determinant of success. However, the effect of chromosomal location on transgene expression and fitness has not been systematically investigated in plants. Here we evaluate the importance of transgene insertion site in maize and soybean using both random and site-specific transgene integration. We have compared the relative contribution of genomic location on transgene expression levels with other factors, including cis-regulatory elements, neighboring transgenes, genetic background, and zygosity. As expected, cis-regulatory elements and the presence/absence of nearby transgene neighbors can impact transgene expression. Surprisingly, we determined not only that genomic location had the least impact on transgene expression compared to the other factors that were investigated but that the majority of insertion sites recovered supported transgene expression levels that were statistically not distinguishable. All 68 genomic sites evaluated were capable of supporting high-level transgene expression, which was also consistent across generations. Furthermore, multilocation field evaluation detected no to little decrease in agronomic performance as a result of transgene insertion at the vast majority of sites we evaluated with a single construct in five maize hybrid backgrounds.

5.
Plant J ; 99(4): 673-685, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009129

RESUMO

Nuclear male-sterile mutants with non-conditional, recessive and strictly monogenic inheritance are useful for both hybrid and conventional breeding systems, and have long been a research focus for many crops. In allohexaploid wheat, however, genic redundancy results in rarity of such mutants, with the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant ms5 among the few reported to date. Here, we identify TaMs5 as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein required for normal pollen exine development, and by transgenic complementation demonstrate that TaMs5-A restores fertility to ms5. We show ms5 locates to a centromere-proximal interval and has a sterility inheritance pattern modulated by TaMs5-D but not TaMs5-B. We describe two allelic forms of TaMs5-D, one of which is non-functional and confers mono-factorial inheritance of sterility. The second form is functional but shows incomplete dominance. Consistent with reduced functionality, transcript abundance in developing anthers was found to be lower for TaMs5-D than TaMs5-A. At the 3B homoeolocus, we found only non-functional alleles among 178 diverse hexaploid and tetraploid wheats that include landraces and Triticum dicoccoides. Apparent ubiquity of non-functional TaMs5-B alleles suggests loss-of-function arose early in wheat evolution and, therefore, at most knockout of two homoeoloci is required for sterility. This work provides genetic information, resources and tools required for successful implementation of ms5 sterility in breeding systems for bread and durum wheats.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia
6.
Plant Mol Biol ; 97(4-5): 371-383, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959585

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Hexaploid bread wheat is not readily amenable to traditional mutagenesis approaches. In this study, we show efficient utilization of CRISPR-Cas system and Next Generation Sequencing for mutant analysis in wheat. Identification and manipulation of male fertility genes in hexaploid bread wheat is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollen development and to obtain novel sources of nuclear genetic male sterility (NGMS). The maize Male sterile 45 (Ms45) gene encodes a strictosidine synthase-like enzyme and has been shown to be required for male fertility. To investigate the role of Ms45 gene in wheat, mutations in the A, B and D homeologs were produced using CRISPR-Cas9. A variety of mutations in the three homeologs were recovered, including a plant from two different genotypes each with mutations in all three homeologs. Genetic analysis of the mutations demonstrated that all three wheat Ms45 homeologs contribute to male fertility and that triple homozygous mutants are required to abort pollen development and achieve male sterility. Further, it was demonstrated that a wild-type copy of Ms45 gene from rice was able to restore fertility to these wheat mutant plants. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the conservation of MS45 function in a polyploid species. Ms45 based NGMS can be potentially utilized for a Seed Production Technology (SPT)-like hybrid seed production system in wheat.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alinhamento de Sequência , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 869, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021581

RESUMO

The current rate of yield gain in crops is insufficient to meet the predicted demands. Capturing the yield boost from heterosis is one of the few technologies that offers rapid gain. Hybrids are widely used for cereals, maize and rice, but it has been a challenge to develop a viable hybrid system for bread wheat due to the wheat genome complexity, which is both large and hexaploid. Wheat is our most widely grown crop providing 20% of the calories for humans. Here, we describe the identification of Ms1, a gene proposed for use in large-scale, low-cost production of male-sterile (ms) female lines necessary for hybrid wheat seed production. We show that Ms1 completely restores fertility to ms1d, and encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein, necessary for pollen exine development. This represents a key step towards developing a robust hybridization platform in wheat.Heterosis can rapidly boost yield in crop species but development of hybrid-breeding systems for bread wheat remains a challenge. Here, Tucker et al. describe the molecular identification of the wheat Ms1 gene and discuss its potential for large-scale hybrid seed production in wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Triticum/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Genes de Plantas , Teste de Complementação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177632, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520767

RESUMO

Development of anthers and pollen represents an important aspect of the life cycle in flowering plants. Genes contributing to anther and pollen development have been widely studied in many plant species. Ms26/CYP704B genes play an important role in pollen development through biosynthesis of sporopollenin for pollen exine formation. To investigate the role of Ms26/CYP704B genes in anther and pollen development of bread wheat, mutations in the A-, B-, and D-homeologs of the putative Ms26/CYP704B gene were analyzed. Single and double homozygous mutants in any of the homeologs did not affect pollen development and male fertility. Triple homozygous mutants resulted in completely male sterile plants that were defective in pollen and anther development. Additionally, double homozygous-single heterozygous mutants were also male sterile although with varying levels of residual fertility. The fertility of these triple mutants was dependent upon the homeolog contributing the wild-type allele. Two heterologous Ms26/CYP704B genes, when transformed into a triple homozygous mutant background, completely restored male fertility, whereas a single gene was unable to restore fertility. Functional analysis of Ms26/CYP704B furthers the understanding of male fertility genes which can be utilized for the development of novel hybrid seed production systems in wheat.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Flores/genética , Mutação , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
9.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 15(3): 379-389, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614049

RESUMO

Targeted mutagenesis using programmable DNA endonucleases has broad applications for studying gene function in planta and developing approaches to improve crop yields. Recently, a genetic method that eliminates the need to emasculate the female inbred during hybrid seed production, referred to as Seed Production Technology, has been described. The foundation of this genetic system relied on classical methods to identify genes critical to anther and pollen development. One of these genes is a P450 gene which is expressed in the tapetum of anthers. Homozygous recessive mutants in this gene render maize and rice plants male sterile. While this P450 in maize corresponds to the male fertility gene Ms26, male fertility mutants have not been isolated in other monocots such as sorghum and wheat. In this report, a custom designed homing endonuclease, Ems26+, was used to generate in planta mutations in the rice, sorghum and wheat orthologs of maize Ms26. Similar to maize, homozygous mutations in this P450 gene in rice and sorghum prevent pollen formation resulting in male sterile plants and fertility was restored in sorghum using a transformed copy of maize Ms26. In contrast, allohexaploid wheat plants that carry similar homozygous nuclear mutations in only one, but not all three, of their single genomes were male fertile. Targeted mutagenesis and subsequent characterization of male fertility genes in sorghum and wheat is an important step for capturing heterosis and improving crop yields through hybrid seed.


Assuntos
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Mutagênese/genética , Mutagênese/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia
10.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 14(3): 1046-54, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26442654

RESUMO

We have developed a novel hybridization platform that utilizes nuclear male sterility to produce hybrids in maize and other cross-pollinating crops. A key component of this platform is a process termed Seed Production Technology (SPT). This process incorporates a transgenic SPT maintainer line capable of propagating nontransgenic nuclear male-sterile lines for use as female parents in hybrid production. The maize SPT maintainer line is a homozygous recessive male sterile transformed with a SPT construct containing (i) a complementary wild-type male fertility gene to restore fertility, (ii) an α-amylase gene to disrupt pollination and (iii) a seed colour marker gene. The sporophytic wild-type allele complements the recessive mutation, enabling the development of pollen grains, all of which carry the recessive allele but with only half carrying the SPT transgenes. Pollen grains with the SPT transgenes exhibit starch depletion resulting from expression of α-amylase and are unable to germinate. Pollen grains that do not carry the SPT transgenes are nontransgenic and are able to fertilize homozygous mutant plants, resulting in nontransgenic male-sterile progeny for use as female parents. Because transgenic SPT maintainer seeds express a red fluorescent protein, they can be detected and efficiently separated from seeds that do not contain the SPT transgenes by mechanical colour sorting. The SPT process has the potential to replace current approaches to pollen control in commercial maize hybrid seed production. It also has important applications for other cross-pollinating crops where it can unlock the potential for greater hybrid productivity through expanding the parental germplasm pool.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genes Recessivos , Hibridização Genética , Polinização , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Genes de Plantas , Pigmentação/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transgenes
11.
Plant Physiol ; 169(2): 931-45, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26269544

RESUMO

Targeted mutagenesis, editing of endogenous maize (Zea mays) genes, and site-specific insertion of a trait gene using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)-guide RNA technology are reported in maize. DNA vectors expressing maize codon-optimized Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease and single guide RNAs were cointroduced with or without DNA repair templates into maize immature embryos by biolistic transformation targeting five different genomic regions: upstream of the liguleless1 (LIG1) gene, male fertility genes (Ms26 and Ms45), and acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (ALS1 and ALS2). Mutations were subsequently identified at all sites targeted, and plants containing biallelic multiplex mutations at LIG1, Ms26, and Ms45 were recovered. Biolistic delivery of guide RNAs (as RNA molecules) directly into immature embryo cells containing preintegrated Cas9 also resulted in targeted mutations. Editing the ALS2 gene using either single-stranded oligonucleotides or double-stranded DNA vectors as repair templates yielded chlorsulfuron-resistant plants. Double-strand breaks generated by RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease also stimulated insertion of a trait gene at a site near LIG1 by homology-directed repair. Progeny showed expected Mendelian segregation of mutations, edits, and targeted gene insertions. The examples reported in this study demonstrate the utility of Cas9-guide RNA technology as a plant genome editing tool to enhance plant breeding and crop research needed to meet growing agriculture demands of the future.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , RNA Guia , Zea mays/genética , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Agrobacterium/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Insercional/métodos , Mutação , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
12.
Plant Physiol ; 169(2): 960-70, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26294043

RESUMO

Recently discovered bacteria and archaea adaptive immune system consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) endonuclease has been explored in targeted genome editing in different species. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9-guide RNA (gRNA) was successfully applied to generate targeted mutagenesis, gene integration, and gene editing in soybean (Glycine max). Two genomic sites, DD20 and DD43 on chromosome 4, were mutagenized with frequencies of 59% and 76%, respectively. Sequencing randomly selected transgenic events confirmed that the genome modifications were specific to the Cas9-gRNA cleavage sites and consisted of small deletions or insertions. Targeted gene integrations through homology-directed recombination were detected by border-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis for both sites at callus stage, and one DD43 homology-directed recombination event was transmitted to T1 generation. T1 progenies of the integration event segregated according to Mendelian laws and clean homozygous T1 plants with the donor gene precisely inserted at the DD43 target site were obtained. The Cas9-gRNA system was also successfully applied to make a directed P178S mutation of acetolactate synthase1 gene through in planta gene editing.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , RNA Guia , Soja/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Endonucleases/genética , Genoma de Planta , Recombinação Homóloga , Mutagênese Insercional , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Edição de RNA , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia
13.
Plant Reprod ; 27(3): 109-20, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24966130

RESUMO

The promoter of the maize male fertility gene ZmMs45, and other anther-specific maize promoters, was previously shown to be transcriptionally silenced by constitutively expressed promoter-inverted repeat RNAs (pIRs). In addition, ZmMS45pIR-mediated male sterility was reversed by co-expression of Ms45 transcribed by promoters not targeted by pIR RNA silencing. In this report, male fertility was restored to ms45 maize by fusing non-maize inflorescence promoters to the ZmMS45 coding region. This complementation assay also established that these rice or Arabidopsis promoters, when expressed as pIRs, functioned to silence sequence identical promoters. These observations were exploited to develop a genetic method to replace maize detasseling during hybrid seed production. In this system, the ZmMS45 coding region was fused to one of two dissimilar non-maize promoters to generate paired sets of ms45 recessive inbred parents which could be self-pollinated and maintained independently. Linked to each unique Ms45 gene was a non-maize pIR which targeted the promoter transcribing the Ms45 copy contained in the paired inbred parent plant. A cross of these pairs brings the dissimilar pIR cassettes together and resulted in silencing both transformed copies of Ms45. The net result uncovers the ms45 allele carried by the inbreds yielding male sterile progeny. The application of heterologous promoters and transcriptional silencing in plants provides an alternative to post-transcriptional gene silencing as a means to restore and silence gene function in plants.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sementes/genética , Zea mays/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia
14.
PLoS Genet ; 5(11): e1000725, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19936058

RESUMO

Paramutation involves homologous sequence communication that leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing. We demonstrate that mop2 (mediator of paramutation2), which alters paramutation at multiple loci, encodes a gene similar to Arabidopsis NRPD2/E2, the second-largest subunit of plant-specific RNA polymerases IV and V. In Arabidopsis, Pol-IV and Pol-V play major roles in RNA-mediated silencing and a single second-largest subunit is shared between Pol-IV and Pol-V. Maize encodes three second-largest subunit genes: all three genes potentially encode full length proteins with highly conserved polymerase domains, and each are expressed in multiple overlapping tissues. The isolation of a recessive paramutation mutation in mop2 from a forward genetic screen suggests limited or no functional redundancy of these three genes. Potential alternative Pol-IV/Pol-V-like complexes could provide maize with a greater diversification of RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing machinery relative to Arabidopsis. Mop2-1 disrupts paramutation at multiple loci when heterozygous, whereas previously silenced alleles are only up-regulated when Mop2-1 is homozygous. The dramatic reduction in b1 tandem repeat siRNAs, but no disruption of silencing in Mop2-1 heterozygotes, suggests the major role for tandem repeat siRNAs is not to maintain silencing. Instead, we hypothesize the tandem repeat siRNAs mediate the establishment of the heritable silent state-a process fully disrupted in Mop2-1 heterozygotes. The dominant Mop2-1 mutation, which has a single nucleotide change in a domain highly conserved among all polymerases (E. coli to eukaryotes), disrupts both siRNA biogenesis (Pol-IV-like) and potentially processes downstream (Pol-V-like). These results suggest either the wild-type protein is a subunit in both complexes or the dominant mutant protein disrupts both complexes. Dominant mutations in the same domain in E. coli RNA polymerase suggest a model for Mop2-1 dominance: complexes containing Mop2-1 subunits are non-functional and compete with wild-type complexes.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genes Dominantes/genética , Mutação/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Zea mays/enzimologia , Alelos , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pareamento de Bases , Sequência Conservada , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Transcrição Genética , Transgenes/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Nat Genet ; 39(4): 544-9, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17369828

RESUMO

Retention of juvenile traits in the adult reproductive phase characterizes a process known as neoteny, and speculation exists over whether it has contributed to the evolution of new species. The dominant Corngrass1 (Cg1) mutant of maize is a neotenic mutation that results in phenotypes that may be present in the grass-like ancestors of maize. We cloned Cg1 and found that it encodes two tandem miR156 genes that are overexpressed in the meristem and lateral organs. Furthermore, a target of Cg1 is teosinte glume architecture1 (tga1), a gene known to have had a role in the domestication of maize from teosinte. Cg1 mutant plants overexpressing miR156 have lower levels of mir172, a microRNA that targets genes controlling juvenile development. By altering the relative levels of both microRNAs, it is possible to either prolong or shorten juvenile development in maize, thus providing a mechanism for how species-level heterochronic changes can occur in nature.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Zea mays/genética , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Evolução Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
16.
Plant J ; 43(6): 929-40, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16146530

RESUMO

Transcriptional gene silencing has broad applications for studying gene function in planta. In maize, a large number of genes have been identified as tassel-preferred in their expression pattern, both by traditional genetic methods and by recent high-throughput expression profiling platforms. Approaches using RNA suppression may provide a rapid alternative means to identify genes directly related to pollen development in maize. The male fertility gene Ms45 and several anther-expressed genes of unknown function were used to evaluate the efficacy of generating male-sterile plants by transcriptional gene silencing. A high frequency of male-sterile plants was obtained by constitutively expressing inverted repeats (IR) of the Ms45 promoter. These sterile plants lacked MS45 mRNA due to transcriptional inactivity of the target promoter. Moreover, fertility was restored to these promoter IR-containing plants by expressing the Ms45 coding region using heterologous promoters. Transcriptional silencing of other anther-expressed genes also significantly affected male fertility phenotypes and led to increased methylation of the target promoter DNA sequences. These studies provide evidence of disruption of gene activity in monocots by RNA interference constructs directed against either native or transformed promoter regions. This approach not only enables the correlation of monocot anther-expressed genes with functions that are important for reproduction in maize, but may also provide a tool for studying gene function and identifying regulatory components unique to transcriptional gene control.


Assuntos
Interferência de RNA , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Fertilidade/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcrição Genética
17.
Transgenic Res ; 11(5): 455-65, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12437077

RESUMO

A mutation in the maize Ms45 gene results in abortion of microspore development and a male-sterile phenotype. MS45 protein has been localized to the tapetum and maximally expressed in anthers at the early vacuolate stage of microspore development. Molecular complementation analysis determined that a transformed copy of the gene fully restored fertility to ms45 maize. In this report, using phenotypic complementation as an assay, chimeric transcriptional activators were expressed to regulate a gal:MS45 gene and test the ability of a multi-component system to restore male fertility. A high frequency of phenotypic complementation was observed when either C1-GAL4 or VP16-GAL4 activators were transcribed by promoters that expressed at a stage of anther development that precedes the early vacuolate stage of microsporogenesis. For the conditional regulation of male fertility, these transcriptional activators were modified by the addition of regions that include the ligand-binding domain from the European corn borer ecdysone receptor to generate the nuclear receptors C1-GAL4-EcR (CGEcR) and VP16-GAL4-EcR (VGEcR). These chimeric receptors were introduced with the gal:MS45 gene into ms45 maize, and in the absence of ligand, these plants were male sterile. In contrast, application of the ecdysone agonist, methoxyfenozide, to plants containing either a constitutive (Ubiquitin1) or anther-specific (maize 5126) VGEcR resulted in the restoration of fertility to ms45 plants grown in either the greenhouse or in the field.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Esporos/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Quimera/genética , Ecdisona/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Genes Reporter/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Seleção Genética , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Transformação Genética , Ubiquitina/genética
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