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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199930

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder that has been associated with endometrial, breast and epithelial ovarian cancers in epidemiological studies. Since complex diseases are a result of multiple environmental and genetic factors, we hypothesized that the biological mechanism underlying their comorbidity might be explained, at least in part, by shared genetics. To assess their potential genetic relationship, we performed a two-sample mendelian randomization (2SMR) analysis on results from public genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This analysis confirmed previously reported genetic pleiotropy between endometriosis and endometrial cancer. We present robust evidence supporting a causal genetic association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer, particularly with the clear cell and endometrioid subtypes. Our study also identified genetic variants that could explain those associations, opening the door to further functional experiments. Overall, this work demonstrates the value of genomic analyses to support epidemiological data, and to identify targets of relevance in multiple disorders.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endométrio/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endometriose/genética , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/genética , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 358: 1-45, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707051

RESUMO

Celiac Disease (CeD) is an immune-mediated complex disease that is triggered by the ingestion of gluten and develops in genetically susceptible individuals. It has been known for a long time that the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules DQ2 and DQ8 are necessary, although not sufficient, for the disease development, and therefore other susceptibility genes and (epi)genetic events must participate in CeD pathogenesis. The advances in Genomics during the last 15 years have made CeD one of the immune-related disorders with the best-characterized genetic component. In the present work, we will first review the main Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) carried out in the disorder, and emphasize post-GWAS discoveries, including diverse integrative strategies, SNP prioritization approaches, and insights into the Microbiome through the host Genomics. Second, we will explore CeD-related Epigenetics and Epigenomics, mostly focusing on the emerging knowledge of the celiac methylome, and the vast but yet under-explored non-coding RNA (ncRNA) landscape. We conclude that much has been done in the field although there are still completely unvisited areas in the post-Genomics of CeD. Chromatin conformation and accessibility, and Epitranscriptomics are promising domains that need to be unveiled to complete the big picture of the celiac Genome.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401535

RESUMO

Endometriosis, one of the most common gynecological disorders, is a complex disease characterized by the growth of endometrial-like tissue in extra-uterine locations and is a cause of pelvic pain and infertility. Evidence from observational studies indicate that endometriosis usually appears together with several other phenotypes. These include a list of autoimmune diseases, most of them more prevalent in women, anthropometric traits associated with leanness in the adulthood, as well as female reproductive traits, including altered hormone levels and those associated with a prolonged exposure to menstruation. However, the biological mechanisms underlying their co-morbidity remains unknown. To explore whether those phenotypes and endometriosis share a common genetic origin, we performed a systematic Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization (2SMR) analysis using public GWAS data. Our results suggest potential common genetic roots between endometriosis and female anthropometric and reproductive traits. Particularly, our data suggests that reduced weight and BMI might be mediating the genetic susceptibility to suffer endometriosis. Furthermore, data on female reproductive traits strongly suggest that genetic variants that predispose to a more frequent exposure to menstruation, through earlier age at menarche and shorter menstrual cycles, might also increase the risk to suffer from endometriosis.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423041

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CeD) is a complex immune-mediated inflammatory condition triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Literature suggests that alterations in gut microbiota composition and function precede the onset of CeD. Considering that microbiota is partly determined by host genetics, we speculated that the genetic makeup of CeD patients could elicit disease development through alterations in the intestinal microbiota. To evaluate potential causal relationships between gut microbiota and CeD, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis (2SMR). Exposure data were obtained from the raw results of a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gut microbiota and outcome data from summary statistics of CeD GWAS and Immunochip studies. We identified a number of putative associations between gut microbiota single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CeD. Regarding bacterial composition, most of the associated SNPs were related to Firmicutes phylum, whose relative abundance has been previously reported to be altered in CeD patients. In terms of functional units, we linked a number of SNPs to several bacterial metabolic pathways that seemed to be related to CeD. Overall, this study represented the first 2SMR approach to elucidate the relationship between microbiome and CeD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/genética , Doença Celíaca/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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