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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443484

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has rapidly spread on a global scale, affecting the economy and public health systems throughout the world. In recent years, peptide-based therapeutics have been widely studied and developed to treat infectious diseases, including viral infections. Herein, the antiviral effects of the lysine linked dimer des-Cys11, Lys12,Lys13-(pBthTX-I)2K ((pBthTX-I)2K)) and derivatives against SARS-CoV-2 are reported. The lead peptide (pBthTX-I)2K and derivatives showed attractive inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 (EC50 = 28-65 µM) and mostly low cytotoxic effect (CC50 > 100 µM). To shed light on the mechanism of action underlying the peptides' antiviral activity, the Main Protease (Mpro) and Papain-Like protease (PLpro) inhibitory activities of the peptides were assessed. The synthetic peptides showed PLpro inhibition potencies (IC50s = 1.0-3.5 µM) and binding affinities (Kd = 0.9-7 µM) at the low micromolar range but poor inhibitory activity against Mpro (IC50 > 10 µM). The modeled binding mode of a representative peptide of the series indicated that the compound blocked the entry of the PLpro substrate toward the protease catalytic cleft. Our findings indicated that non-toxic dimeric peptides derived from the Bothropstoxin-I have attractive cellular and enzymatic inhibitory activities, thereby suggesting that they are promising prototypes for the discovery and development of new drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Dimerização , Papaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Papaína/química , Papaína/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117818, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333265

RESUMO

Knowledge about how the COVID-19 pandemic can affect aquatic wildlife is still extremely limited, and no effect of SARS-CoV-2 or its structural constituents on invertebrate models has been reported so far. Thus, we investigated the presence of the 2019-new coronavirus in different urban wastewater samples and, later, evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of the exposure of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to two SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptides (PSPD-2002 and PSPD-2003) synthesized in our laboratory. Initially, our results show the contamination of wastewater by the new coronavirus, via RT-qPCR on the viral N1 gene. On the other hand, our study shows that short-term exposure (48 h) to a low concentration (40 µg/L) of the synthesized peptides induced changes in the locomotor and the olfactory-driven behavior of the C. quinquefascitus larvae, which were associated with increased production of ROS and AChE activity (cholinesterase effect). To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the larval phase of a freshwater invertebrate species. The results raise concerns at the ecological level where the observed biological effects may lead to drastic consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Culicidae , Animais , Biota , Humanos , Larva , Pandemias , Peptídeos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126463, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216962

RESUMO

The Spike protein (S protein) is a critical component in the infection of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The objective of this work was to evaluate whether peptides from S protein could cause negative impact in the aquatic animals. The aquatic toxicity of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein peptides derivatives has been evaluated in tadpoles (n = 50 tadpoles/5 replicates of 10 animals) from species Physalaemus cuvieri (Leptodactylidae). After synthesis, purification, and characterization of peptides (PSDP2001, PSDP2002, PSDP2003) an aquatic contamination has been simulated with these peptides during 24 h of exposure in two concentrations (100 and 500 ng/mL). The control group ("C") was composed of tadpoles kept in polyethylene containers containing de-chlorinated water. Oxidative stress, antioxidant biomarkers and AChE activity were assessed. In both concentrations, PSPD2002 and PSPD2003 increased catalase and superoxide dismutase antioxidants enzymes activities, as well as oxidative stress (nitrite levels, hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species). All three peptides also increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the highest concentration. These peptides showed molecular interactions in silico with acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes. Aquatic particle contamination of SARS-CoV-2 has cholinesterasic effect in P. cuvieri tadpoles. These findings indicate that the COVID-19 can constitute environmental impact or biological damage potential.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Anuros , Humanos , Larva , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
4.
Virology ; 557: 62-69, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667752

RESUMO

Dengue virus infection depends on its fusion with the host membrane, where the binding occurs through interaction between proteins on the virus cell surface and specific viral receptors on target membranes. This process is mediated by the fusion peptide located between residues 98 and 112 (DRGWGNGCGLFGKGG) that forms a loop in domain II of dengue E glycoprotein. In this study, we evaluated the role of fusion peptide surrounding regions (88-97 and 113-123) of the Dengue 2 subtype on its interaction with the membrane and fusion activity. These sequences are important to stabilize the fusion peptide loop and increase fusion activity. Three peptides, besides the fusion peptide, were synthesized by SPPS using the Fmoc chemical approach. The first contains the fusion peptide and the C-terminal region of the loop (sequence 98-123); another contains the N-terminal region (88-112) and the larger peptide contains both regions (88-123). The peptides were able to interact with a model membrane. Differences in morphology of the monolayer promoted by the peptides were assessed by Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM). Our data indicated that the C-terminal region of fusion peptide loop is more efficient in promoting fusion and interacting with the membrane than the N-terminal sequence, which is responsible for the electrostatic initial interaction. We propose a 2-step mechanism for the interaction of the dengue virus fusion peptide with the host membrane, where the N-terminal sequence docks electrostatically on the headgroups and then the C-terminal interacts via hydrophobic forces in the acyl chains.

5.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 138: 107692, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291002

RESUMO

Peptides with an active redox molecule are incorporated into nanostructured films for electrochemical biosensors with stable and controllable physicochemical properties. In this study, we synthesized three ferrocene (Fc)-containing peptides with the sequence Fc-Glu-(Ala)n-Cys-NH2, which could form self-assembled monolayers on gold and be attached to antibodies. The peptide with two alanines (n = 2) yielded the immunosensor with the highest performance in detecting C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation. Using electrochemical impedance-derived capacitive spectroscopy, the limit of detection was 240 pM with a dynamic range that included clinically relevant CRP concentrations. With a combination of electrochemical methods and polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, we identified the chemical groups involved in the antibody-CRP interaction, and were able to relate the highest performance for the peptide with n = 2 to chain length and efficient packing in the organized films. These strategies to design peptides and methods to fabricate the immunosensors are generic, and can be applied to other types of biosensors, including in low cost platforms for point-of-care diagnostics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteína C-Reativa/química , Impedância Elétrica , Eletroquímica , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Metalocenos/química
6.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 24: 100827, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195825

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been appointed as a possible alternative to traditional antibiotics in face of pathogens increasing resistance to conventional drugs. Hylin a1 (IFGAILPLALGALKNLIK), an AMP extracted from the skin secretion of a South American frog, Hypsiboas albopunctatus, was found to show a strong cytotoxicity against bacteria and fungus, but also a considerable hemolytic action. Considering the toxicity of the peptide in eukaryotic cells, this work focuses on investigating the effects of the interaction of the Hylin a1 analogues W6Hya1, D0W6Hya1 and K0W6Hya1 with models of eukaryotic structures, namely zwitterionic liposomes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA). Through intrinsic Trp fluorescence we determined that the peptide affinity for fluid DPPC bilayers follows the decreasing order: D0W6Hya1 (+2) > W6Hya1 (+3) ¼ K0W6Hya1 (+4). Fluorescence data also indicate that the Trp residue in the more positively charged peptide, K0W6Hya1, is less deep in the bilayer than the residue in the other two peptides. This finding is supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data, which shows that both D0W6Hya1 and W6Hya1 disturb DPPC gel-fluid transition slightly more effectively than K0W6Hya1. DPPC DSC profiles are homogeneously disturbed by the three peptides, probably related to peptide-membrane diffusion. Surprisingly, the peptide that displays the lowest affinity for PC membranes and is located at the more superficial position in the bilayer, K0W6Hya1, is the most efficient in causing formation of pores on the membrane, as attested by carboxyfluorescein leakage assays. The three peptides were found to interact with CT DNA, with a deep penetration of the Trp residue into hydrophobic pockets of the double helix, as indicated by the significant blue shift on the Trp fluorescence, and the displacement of DNA-bound ethidium bromide by the peptides. The experiments of DNA electrophoresis confirm that Hylin peptides bind DNA in a concentration-dependent manner, inducing complete DNA retardation at the relative AMP/plasmid DNA weight ratio of ~17. These findings could help to better understand the AMPs toxic effects on eukaryotic cells, thus contributing to the design of healthier therapeutic agents.

7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076779

RESUMO

The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the most common causes of acute respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children worldwide. Among the viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (N) stands out for forming the nucleocapsid (NC) that functions as a template for replication and transcription by the viral polymerase complex. The NC/polymerase recognition is mediated by the phosphoprotein (P), which establishes an interaction of its C-terminal residues with a hydrophobic pocket in the N-terminal domain of N (N-NTD). The present study consists of biophysical characterization of N-NTD and investigation of flavonoids binding to this domain using experimental and computational approaches. Saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR measurements showed that among the investigated flavonoids, only hesperetin (Hst) bound to N-NTD. The binding epitope mapping of Hst suggested that its fused aromatic ring is buried in the protein binding site. STD-NMR and fluorescence anisotropy experiments showed that Hst competes with P protein C-terminal dipeptides for the hRSV nucleoprotein/phosphoprotein (N/P) interaction site in N-NTD, indicating that Hst binds to the hydrophobic pocket in this domain. Computational simulations of molecular docking and dynamics corroborated with experimental results, presenting that Hst established a stable interaction with the N/P binding site. The outcomes presented herein shed light on literature reports that described a significant antireplicative activity of Hst against hRSV, revealing molecular details that can provide the development of a new strategy against this virus.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214347

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases are a neglected and serious problem, especially in underdeveloped countries. Among the major parasitic diseases, Leishmaniasis figures as an urgent challenge due to its high incidence and severity. At the same time, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the population is increasing together with resistance to medicines. To address this problem, new antibiotic-like molecules that directly kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms are necessary, where antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can be of great help. In this work, the ferrocene molecule, one active compound with low levels of in vivo toxicity, was coupled to the N-terminus of the RP1 peptide (derived from the human chemokine CXCL4), aiming to evaluate how this change modifies the structure, biological activity, and toxicity of the peptide. The peptide and the conjugate were synthesized using the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Circular dichroism assays in PBS showed that the RP1 peptide and its conjugate had a typical spectrum for disordered structures. The Fc-RP1 presented anti-amastigote activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 0.25 µmol L-1). In comparison with amphotericin B, a second-line drug approved for leishmaniasis treatment, (IC50 = 0.63 µmol L-1), Fc-RP1 was more active and showed a 2.5-fold higher selectivity index. The RP1 peptide presented a MIC of 4.3 µmol L-1 against S. agalactiae, whilst Fc-RP1 was four times more active (MIC = 0.96 µmol L-1), indicating that ferrocene improved the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The Fc-RP1 peptide also decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the assays against E. faecalis (MIC = 7.9 µmol L-1), E. coli (MIC = 3.9 µmol L-1) and S. aureus (MIC = 3.9 µmol L-1). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested against HaCaT cells, and no significant activity at the highest concentration tested (500 µg. mL-1) was observed, showing the high potential of this new compound as a possible new drug. The coupling of ferrocene also increased the vesicle permeabilization of the peptide, showing a direct relation between high peptide concentration and high carboxyfluorescein release, which indicates the action mechanism by pore formation on the vesicles. Several studies have shown that ferrocene destabilizes cell membranes through lipid peroxidation, leading to cell lysis. It is noteworthy that the Fc-RP1 peptide synthesized here is a prototype of a bioconjugation strategy, but it still is a compound with great biological activity against neglected and fish diseases.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Metalocenos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Permeabilidade
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 151: 111972, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999580

RESUMO

Dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1 DENV) is considered a biomarker for dengue fever in an early stage. A sensitive and rapid assay for distinguishing positive from negative dengue infection samples is imperative for epidemic control and public health in tropical regions because it enables the development of instantaneous updatable databases and effective surveillance systems. Presently, we successfully report, for the first time, the use of the electrochemical capacitive method for the detection of NS1 DENV biomarker in human serum samples. By using a ferrocene-tagged peptide modified surface containing anti-NS1 as the receptor, it was possible to differentiate positive from negative samples with a p < 0.01 in a reagentless and label-free capacitive format. This capacitive assay had a cut-off of 1.36% (confidence interval of 99.99%); it therefore opens new avenues for developing miniature label-free electrochemical devices for infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/sangue , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia
10.
Arch Oral Biol ; 103: 19-25, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of analogues of cationic peptides on the viability and the expression of phenotypic and genotypic markers of dentin mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblast-like cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were exposed to serial dilutions of analogues of cationic peptides hBD-3-1CV and KR-12-a5 compared to peptide LL-37 and their viability was assessed by methyltetrazolium assay. Next, peptides (0.78-62.5 µg/mL) were applied on the MDPC-23 cells for evaluating the total protein (TP) production, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule deposition. Gene expression of mineralization markers (DSPP and DMP-1) was also determined by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: LL-37 and hBD-3-1CV treatment did not affect cellular viability at concentrations below 62.5 µg/mL. KR-12-a5 reduced cell viability above 31.25 µg/mL. TP production was similar for all groups compared with the control group, except by hBD-3-1CV (at 15.62 µg/mL). LL-37 (at 62.5 µg/mL) induced higher ALP activity than control and other experimental groups. LL-37 and hBD-3-1CV, at 62.5 µg/mL and KR-12-a5 at 31.25 µg/mL stimulated the highest deposition of mineralized nodule. Overall, no statistical differences were observed between the groups for DSPP-1 and DMP-1 expressions. CONCLUSIONS: LL-37 was the only peptide that induced both ALP activity and mineralized nodules deposition, without affecting cell viability. None of peptides tested induced the expression of DSPP or DMP-1, genes commonly involved in active dentin mineralization.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Catelicidinas , Dentinogênese , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Odontoblastos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Fosfoproteínas , Sialoglicoproteínas , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dentina , Dentinogênese/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Peptídeos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1993, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760803

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are a promising class of new antibiotics with the ability to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell membrane, which is especially difficult for Gram-negative bacteria whose cell wall contains an outer layer of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Here we show that the cyclic decapeptide Labaditin (Lo), with proven activity against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, is not able to kill the Gram-negative Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S.e.s. Typhimurium). We found that Lo induced significant changes in the surface pressure isotherms of Langmuir monolayers representing the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inner membrane (S.e.s. Typhimurium IM), and caused leakage in large unilamellar vesicles made with this IM lipid composition. On the basis of these results one should expect bactericidal activity against S.e.s. Typhimurium. However, Lo could not interact with a monolayer of LPS, causing no significant changes in either the surface pressure isotherms or in the polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectra (PM-IRRAS). Therefore, the failure of Lo to kill S.e.s. Typhimurium is associated with the lack of interaction with LPS from the outer bacteria membrane. Our approach with distinct monolayer compositions and combined techniques to investigate molecular-level interactions is useful for drug design to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/fisiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
12.
Protein Pept Lett ; 26(2): 98-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605048

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health problem with strong social and economic impacts. The development of new antimicrobial agents is considered an urgent challenge. In this regard, Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) appear to be novel candidates to overcome this problem. The mechanism of action of AMPs involves intracellular targets and membrane disruption. Although the exact mechanism of action of AMPs remains controversial, most AMPs act through membrane disruption of the target cell. Several strategies have been used to improve AMP activity, such as peptide dimerization. In this review, we focus on AMP dimerization, showing many examples of dimerized peptides and their effects on biological activity. Although more studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between peptide properties and the dimerization effect on antimicrobial activity, dimerization constitutes a promising strategy to improve the effectiveness of AMPs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Multimerização Proteica , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 127: 215-220, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616114

RESUMO

We demonstrated here that molecular redox films are electrochemical capacitive devices possessing specific field effect in which molecular moieties within films act as sensitive gates. We confirm that the field effect present in these redox switches is suitable in detecting, in a label-free manner (without needs of redox probe in the biological samples), biomarkers of essential importance for dengue, heart risks and inflammation, Parkinson's disease and tumors. Though the sensitiveness is high, it is governed by Thomas Fermi screening and thus depends on the target-to-receptor size ratio. Thus, we also demonstrated how this target-to-receptor size ratio affects the sensitivity. We concluded that the smaller the biological receptor the greater the sensitivity. Consequently, a larger molecular target associated with a smaller receptor provides a considerable (predictable) improvement of the sensitiveness.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Dengue/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Oxirredução , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico
14.
Biochimie ; 156: 109-117, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326255

RESUMO

Sticholysin I and II (Sts: St I and St II) are proteins of biomedical interest that form pores upon the insertion of their N-terminus in the plasma membrane. Peptides spanning the N-terminal residues of StI (StI1-31) or StII (StII1-30) can mimic the permeabilizing ability of these toxins, emerging as candidates to rationalize their potential biomedical applications. These peptides have different activities that correlate with their hydrophobicity. However, it is not clear how this property contributes to peptide folding in solution or upon binding to membranes. Here we compared the conformational properties of these peptides and shorter versions lacking the hydrophobic segment 1-11 of StI (StI12-31) or 1-10 of StII (StII11-30). Folding of peptides was assessed in solution and in membrane mimetic systems and related with their ability to bind to membranes and to permeabilize lipid vesicles. Our results suggest that the differences in activity among peptides could be ascribed to their different folding propensity and different membrane binding properties. In solution, StII1-30 tends to acquire α-helical conformation coexisting with self-associated structures, while StI1-31 remains structureless. Both peptides fold as α-helix in membrane; but StII1-30 also self-associates in the lipid environment, a process that is favored by its higher affinity for membrane. We stress the contribution of the non-polar/polar balance of the 1-10 amino acid sequence of the peptides as a determining factor for different self-association capabilities. Such difference in hydrophobicity seems to determine the molecular path of peptides folding upon binding to membranes, with an impact in their permeabilizing activity. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the permeabilizing activity of Sts N-terminal derived peptides, with connotation for the exploitation of these small molecules as alternative of the full-length toxins in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Venenos de Cnidários/química , Membranas Artificiais , Dobramento de Proteína , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(27): 6985-6990, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155702

RESUMO

L-asparaginase or ASNase (L-asparagine aminohydrolase, E.C.3.5.1.1) is an enzyme clinically accepted as an antitumor agent to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphosarcoma through the depletion of L-asparagine (L-Asn) resulting in cytotoxicity to leukemic cells. ASNase is also important in the food industry, preventing acrylamide formation in processed foods. Several quantification techniques have been developed and used for the measurement of the ASNase activity, but standard pharmaceutical quality control methods were hardly reported, and in general, no official quality control guidelines were defined. To overcome this lack of information and to demonstrate the advantages and limitations, this work properly compares the traditional colorimetric methods (Nessler; L-aspartic acid ß-hydroxamate (AHA); and indooxine) and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. A comparison of the methods using pure ASNase shows that the colorimetric methods both overestimate (Nessler) and underestimate (AHA and indooxine) the ASNase activity when compared to the values obtained with HPLC, considered the most precise method as this method monitors both substrate consumption and product formation, allowing for overall mass-balance. Correlation and critical analysis of each method relative to the HPLC method were carried out, resulting in a demonstration that it is crucial to select a proper method for the quantification of ASNase activity, allowing bioequivalence studies and individualized monitoring of different ASNase preparations. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/metabolismo , Colorimetria/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Asparaginase/análise , Asparagina/análogos & derivados , Asparagina/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos
16.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202981, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161192

RESUMO

Actinoporins sticholysin I and sticholysin II (St I, St II) are proposed to lyse model and biomembranes via toroidal pore formation by their N-terminal domain. Based on the hypothesis that peptide fragments can reproduce the structure and function of this domain, the behavior of peptides containing St I residues 12-31 (StI12-31), St II residues 11-30 (StII11-30), and its TOAC-labeled analogue (N-TOAC-StII11-30) was examined. Molecular modeling showed a good match with experimental structures, indicating amphipathic α-helices in the same regions as in the toxins. CD spectra revealed that the peptides were essentially unstructured in aqueous solution, acquiring α-helical conformation upon interaction with micelles and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of variable lipid composition. Fluorescence quenching studies with NBD-containing lipids indicated that N-TOAC-StII11-30's nitroxide moiety is located in the membranes polar head group region. Pyrene-labeled phospholipid inter-leaflet redistribution suggested that the peptides form toroidal pores, according to the mechanism of action proposed for the toxins. Binding occurred only to negatively charged LUV, indicating the importance of electrostatic interactions; in contrast the peptides bound to both negatively charged and zwitterionic micelles, pointing to a lesser influence of these interactions. In addition, differences between bilayers and micelles in head group packing and in curvature led to differences in peptide-membrane interaction. We propose that the peptides topography in micelles resembles that of the toxins in the toroidal pore. The peptides mimicked the toxins permeabilizing activity, St II peptides being more effective than StI12-31. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that differences in the toxins N-terminal amphipathic α-helix play a role in the difference between St I and St II activities.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Venenos de Cnidários/metabolismo , Animais , Venenos de Cnidários/genética , Venenos de Cnidários/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolíticos/metabolismo , Hemolíticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Micelas , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Eletricidade Estática
17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 167: 432-440, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705666

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are alternatives to conventional antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria with low potential for developing microbial resistance. The design of such molecules requires understanding of the mechanisms of action, particularly the interaction with bacteria cell membranes. In this work, we determine the mechanism responsible for the higher activity against Escherichia coli of the C-terminal lysine dimer of magainin 2, (MG2)2K, in comparison to the monomeric peptide magainin 2 (MG2). Langmuir monolayers and vesicles made with the E. coli lipid extract were used to address the two possible states for the peptide-membrane interaction, namely the "binding state" and "pore state", respectively. The incorporation of MG2 and (MG2)2K in lipid monolayers at the air-water interface caused slight differences in surface pressure isotherms and polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption (PM-IRRAS) spectra, and therefore the difference in activity is not associated with the binding state. In contrast, large differences were observed in the leakage experiments where (MG2)2K was shown to disrupt the large unilamellar vesicles to a much higher extent owing to efficient pore formation. The binding and penetration of MG2 and (MG2)2K were also probed with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for bilayers made with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine:1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPE:POPG). (MG2)2K forms disordered toroidal pores at a significant lower concentration than for MG2. In summary, the combination of experimental and computational simulation results indicated that the "pre-assembling state" of (MG2)2K dimer leads to a reduced number of molecules and shorter time being required to kill E. coli.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Lisina/química , Magaininas/química , Multimerização Proteica , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Magaininas/metabolismo , Magaininas/farmacologia , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/metabolismo
18.
Peptides ; 104: 24-34, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684590

RESUMO

Venom small peptides that target neurotrophin receptors might be beneficial in neurodegeneration, including Parkinsons disease (PD). Their small size, ease of synthesis, structural stability and target selectivity make them important tools to overcome the limitations of endogenous neurotrophins as therapeutic agents. Additionally, they might be optimized to improve resistance to enzymatic degradation, bioavailability, potency and, mainly, lipophilicity, important to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of the synthetic snake-venom-based peptide p-BTX-I (Glu-Val-Trp) in PC12 cells treated with MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), a dopaminergic neurotoxin that induces Parkinsonism in vivo. The peptide p-BTX-I induced neuritogenesis, which was reduced by (i) k252a, antagonist of the NGF-selective receptor, trkA (tropomyosin receptor kinase A); (ii) LY294002, inhibitor of the PI3 K/AKT pathway and (iii) U0126, inhibitor of the MAPK-ERK pathway. Besides that, p-BTX-I also increased the expression of GAP-43 and synapsin, which are molecular markers of axonal growth and synaptic communication. In addition, the peptide increased the viability and differentiation of cells exposed to MPP+, known to inhibit neuritogenesis. Altogether, our findings suggest that the synthetic peptide p-BTX-I protects PC12 cells from MPP+ toxicity by a mechanism that mimics the neurotrophic action of NGF. Therefore, the molecular structure of p-BTX-I might be relevant in the development of drugs aimed at restoring the axonal connectivity in neurodegenerative processes.


Assuntos
1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio/toxicidade , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína GAP-43/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/química , Células PC12 , Ratos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Sinapsinas/metabolismo
19.
Anal Chem ; 90(5): 3005-3008, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411973

RESUMO

Electrochemical immunosensors offer much in the potential translation of a lab based sensing capability to a useful "real world" platform. In previous work we have introduced an impedance-derived electrochemical capacitance spectroscopic analysis as supportive of a reagentless means of reporting on analyte target capture at suitably prepared mixed-component redox-active, antibody-modified interfaces. Herein we directly integrate receptive aptamers into a redox charging peptide support in enabling a label-free low picomolar analytical assay for C-reactive protein with a sensitivity that significantly exceeds that attainable with an analogous antibody interface.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , DNA/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Proteína C-Reativa/química , Capacitância Elétrica , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/química
20.
Langmuir ; 34(5): 2014-2025, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284086

RESUMO

Considering the known different mode of action of antimicrobial peptides in zwitterionic and anionic cell membranes, the present work compares the action of the antimicrobial peptide K0-W6-Hya1 (KIFGAIWPLALGALKNLIK-NH2) with zwitterionic and negatively charged model membranes, namely, liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membranes, and a mixture of the two. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady state fluorescence of the Trp residue, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and measurement of the leakage of an entrapped fluorescent dye (carboxyfluorescein, CF) were performed with large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). All techniques evidenced the different action of the peptide in zwitterionic and anionic vesicles. Trp fluorescence spectroscopy shows that the differences are related not only to the partition of the cationic peptide in zwitterionic and anionic membranes, but also to the different penetration depth of the peptide into the lipid bilayers: Trp goes deeper into negatively charged membranes, both in the gel and fluid phases, than into zwitterionic ones. DSC shows that the peptide is strongly attached to anionic bilayers, giving rise to the coexistence of two different lipid regions, one depleted of peptide and another one peptide-disturbed, possibly a stable or transient polar pore, considering the leakage of CF. This contrasts with the homogeneous effect produced by the peptide in zwitterionic membranes, probably related to peptide-membrane diffusion. Moreover, in mixed bilayers (PC:PG), the peptide sequesters negatively charged lipids, creating peptide-rich anionic lipid regions, strongly disturbing the membrane. The distinct structural interaction displayed by the peptide in PC and PG membranes could be related to the different mechanisms of action of the peptide in anionic prokaryotic and zwitterionic eukaryotic cell membranes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos
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