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1.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2081-2091, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837697

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of rare inherited connective tissue disorders. Vascular EDS (vEDS) is caused by pathogenic variants in COL3A1, most frequently glycine substitutions. We describe the phenotype of the largest series of vEDS patients with glutamic acid to lysine substitutions (Glu>Lys) in COL3A1, which were all previously considered to be variants of unknown significance. METHODS: Clinical and molecular data for seven families with three different Glu>Lys substitutions in COL3A1 were analyzed. RESULTS: These Glu>Lys variants were reclassified from variants of unknown significance to either pathogenic or likely pathogenic in accordance with American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. All individuals with these atypical variants exhibited skin hyperextensibility as seen in individuals with classical EDS and classical-like EDS and evidence of tissue fragility as seen in individuals with vEDS. CONCLUSION: The clinical data demonstrate the overlap between the different EDS subtypes and underline the importance of next-generation sequencing gene panel analysis. The three different Glu>Lys variants point toward a new variant type in COL3A1 causative of vEDS, which has consistent clinical features. This is important knowledge for COL3A1 variant interpretation. Further follow-up data are required to establish the severity of tissue fragility complications compared with patients with other recognized molecular causes of vEDS.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 615-627, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758909

RESUMO

Mutations in the ERF gene, coding for ETS2 repressor factor, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors cause a recently recognized syndromic form of craniosynostosis (CRS4) with facial dysmorphism, Chiari-1 malformation, speech and language delay, and learning difficulties and/or behavioral problems. The overall prevalence of ERF mutations in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis is around 2%, and 0.7% in clinically nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Here, we present findings from 16 unrelated probands with ERF-related craniosynostosis, with additional data from 20 family members sharing the mutations. Most of the probands exhibited multisutural (including pan-) synostosis but a pattern involving the sagittal and lambdoid sutures (Mercedes-Benz pattern) predominated. Importantly the craniosynostosis was often postnatal in onset, insidious and progressive with subtle effects on head morphology resulting in a median age at presentation of 42 months among the probands and, in some instances, permanent visual impairment due to unsuspected raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Facial dysmorphism (exhibited by all of the probands and many of the affected relatives) took the form of orbital hypertelorism, mild exorbitism and malar hypoplasia resembling Crouzon syndrome but, importantly, a Class I occlusal relationship. Speech delay, poor gross and/or fine motor control, hyperactivity and poor concentration were common. Cranial vault surgery for raised ICP and/or Chiari-1 malformation was expected when multisutural synostosis was observed. Variable expressivity and nonpenetrance among genetically affected relatives was encountered. These observations form the most complete phenotypic and developmental profile of this recently identified craniosynostosis syndrome yet described and have important implications for surgical intervention and follow-up.

3.
Lancet ; 393(10173): 747-757, 2019 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal structural anomalies, which are detected by ultrasonography, have a range of genetic causes, including chromosomal aneuploidy, copy number variations (CNVs; which are detectable by chromosomal microarrays), and pathogenic sequence variants in developmental genes. Testing for aneuploidy and CNVs is routine during the investigation of fetal structural anomalies, but there is little information on the clinical usefulness of genome-wide next-generation sequencing in the prenatal setting. We therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of fetuses with structural abnormalities that had identifiable variants in genes associated with developmental disorders when assessed with whole-exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, two groups in Birmingham and London recruited patients from 34 fetal medicine units in England and Scotland. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to evaluate the presence of genetic variants in developmental disorder genes (diagnostic genetic variants) in a cohort of fetuses with structural anomalies and samples from their parents, after exclusion of aneuploidy and large CNVs. Women were eligible for inclusion if they were undergoing invasive testing for identified nuchal translucency or structural anomalies in their fetus, as detected by ultrasound after 11 weeks of gestation. The partners of these women also had to consent to participate. Sequencing results were interpreted with a targeted virtual gene panel for developmental disorders that comprised 1628 genes. Genetic results related to fetal structural anomaly phenotypes were then validated and reported postnatally. The primary endpoint, which was assessed in all fetuses, was the detection of diagnostic genetic variants considered to have caused the fetal developmental anomaly. FINDINGS: The cohort was recruited between Oct 22, 2014, and June 29, 2017, and clinical data were collected until March 31, 2018. After exclusion of fetuses with aneuploidy and CNVs, 610 fetuses with structural anomalies and 1202 matched parental samples (analysed as 596 fetus-parental trios, including two sets of twins, and 14 fetus-parent dyads) were analysed by WES. After bioinformatic filtering and prioritisation according to allele frequency and effect on protein and inheritance pattern, 321 genetic variants (representing 255 potential diagnoses) were selected as potentially pathogenic genetic variants (diagnostic genetic variants), and these variants were reviewed by a multidisciplinary clinical review panel. A diagnostic genetic variant was identified in 52 (8·5%; 95% CI 6·4-11·0) of 610 fetuses assessed and an additional 24 (3·9%) fetuses had a variant of uncertain significance that had potential clinical usefulness. Detection of diagnostic genetic variants enabled us to distinguish between syndromic and non-syndromic fetal anomalies (eg, congenital heart disease only vs a syndrome with congenital heart disease and learning disability). Diagnostic genetic variants were present in 22 (15·4%) of 143 fetuses with multisystem anomalies (ie, more than one fetal structural anomaly), nine (11·1%) of 81 fetuses with cardiac anomalies, and ten (15·4%) of 65 fetuses with skeletal anomalies; these phenotypes were most commonly associated with diagnostic variants. However, diagnostic genetic variants were least common in fetuses with isolated increased nuchal translucency (≥4·0 mm) in the first trimester (in three [3·2%] of 93 fetuses). INTERPRETATION: WES facilitates genetic diagnosis of fetal structural anomalies, which enables more accurate predictions of fetal prognosis and risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. However, the overall detection of diagnostic genetic variants in a prospectively ascertained cohort with a broad range of fetal structural anomalies is lower than that suggested by previous smaller-scale studies of fewer phenotypes. WES improved the identification of genetic disorders in fetuses with structural abnormalities; however, before clinical implementation, careful consideration should be given to case selection to maximise clinical usefulness. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care and The Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Cariótipo Anormal/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto/anormalidades , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Cariótipo Anormal/embriologia , Aborto Eugênico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Pais , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
5.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(1): 33-43, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rare genetic disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous, but testing is often limited by the availability of fetal DNA, leaving couples without a potential prenatal test for future pregnancies. We describe our novel strategy of exome sequencing parental DNA samples to diagnose recessive monogenic disorders in an audit of the first 50 couples referred. METHOD: Exome sequencing was carried out in a consecutive series of 50 couples who had 1 or more pregnancies affected with a lethal or prenatal-onset disorder. In all cases, there was insufficient DNA for exome sequencing of the affected fetus. Heterozygous rare variants (MAF < 0.001) in the same gene in both parents were selected for analysis. Likely, disease-causing variants were tested in fetal DNA to confirm co-segregation. RESULTS: Parental exome analysis identified heterozygous pathogenic (or likely pathogenic) variants in 24 different genes in 26/50 couples (52%). Where 2 or more fetuses were affected, a genetic diagnosis was obtained in 18/29 cases (62%). In most cases, the clinical features were typical of the disorder, but in others, they result from a hypomorphic variant or represent the most severe form of a variable phenotypic spectrum. CONCLUSION: We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples is a powerful strategy with high clinical utility for the genetic diagnosis of lethal or prenatal-onset recessive disorders. © 2017 The Authors Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Pais , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
6.
J Med Genet ; 54(4): 260-268, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, occurs in ∼1 in 2250 births, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Mutations in at least 57 genes have been associated with craniosynostosis, but only a minority of these are included in routine laboratory genetic testing. METHODS: We used exome or whole genome sequencing to seek a genetic cause in a cohort of 40 subjects with craniosynostosis, selected by clinical or molecular geneticists as being high-priority cases, and in whom prior clinically driven genetic testing had been negative. RESULTS: We identified likely associated mutations in 15 patients (37.5%), involving 14 different genes. All genes were mutated in single families, except for IL11RA (two families). We classified the other positive diagnoses as follows: commonly mutated craniosynostosis genes with atypical presentation (EFNB1, TWIST1); other core craniosynostosis genes (CDC45, MSX2, ZIC1); genes for which mutations are only rarely associated with craniosynostosis (FBN1, HUWE1, KRAS, STAT3); and known disease genes for which a causal relationship with craniosynostosis is currently unknown (AHDC1, NTRK2). In two further families, likely novel disease genes are currently undergoing functional validation. In 5 of the 15 positive cases, the (previously unanticipated) molecular diagnosis had immediate, actionable consequences for either genetic or medical management (mutations in EFNB1, FBN1, KRAS, NTRK2, STAT3). CONCLUSIONS: This substantial genetic heterogeneity, and the multiple actionable mutations identified, emphasises the benefits of exome/whole genome sequencing to identify causal mutations in craniosynostosis cases for which routine clinical testing has yielded negative results.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/patologia , Exoma/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
7.
J Craniofac Surg ; 27(6): 1543-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438438

RESUMO

The squamosal suture is one of the lateral minor skull sutures, separating the parietal and squamous temporal bones. While the phenotypic appearances and sequelae of synostosis of the major cranial vault sutures are well documented, little is reported concerning synostosis of the squamosal suture (SQS). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of squamosal suture synostosis, and to document the significance of this entity.A retrospective review of the diagnostic imaging for all new pediatric patients (aged ≤16 years) referred to the Oxford Craniofacial Unit between January 2008 and February 2013 was completed to identify patients with SQS. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was available in 422 patients and the axial and three-dimensional reconstructed images reviewed.Squamosal suture synostosis was confirmed in 38 patients (9%). It was present in conjunction with major suture synostosis in 33 patients and in isolation in 5. The incidence increased with age. It was more common in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis (18%) and associated syndromic conditions (36%) than in those with isolated major suture synostosis (6%). It was found to occur with coronal, lambdoid, and sagittal synostosis, but was most frequent with multisuture fusion patterns. Squamosal suture synostosis was not associated with a consistent calvarial deformity either in isolation or when associated with a major suture fusion. No patient underwent surgery specifically to correct SQS.In conclusion, contrary to previous reports, squamosal suture synostosis is a relatively frequent finding in the general case mix of a typical craniofacial unit, but is of limited clinical significance.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Craniossinostoses/epidemiologia , Craniossinostoses/patologia , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
J Med Genet ; 51(10): 659-68, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25125236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin components, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21 cause less typical CdLS. METHODS: We screened 163 affected individuals for coding region mutations in the known genes, 90 for genomic rearrangements, 19 for deep intronic variants in NIPBL and 5 had whole-exome sequencing. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations [including mosaic changes] were identified in: NIPBL 46 [3] (28.2%); SMC1A 5 [1] (3.1%); SMC3 5 [1] (3.1%); HDAC8 6 [0] (3.6%) and RAD21 1 [0] (0.6%). One individual had a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of 1p36.3. Another had a 520 kb duplication of 12q13.13 encompassing ESPL1, encoding separase, an enzyme that cleaves the cohesin ring. Three de novo mutations were identified in ANKRD11 demonstrating a phenotypic overlap with KBG syndrome. To estimate the number of undetected mosaic cases we used recursive partitioning to identify discriminating features in the NIPBL-positive subgroup. Filtering of the mutation-negative group on these features classified at least 18% as 'NIPBL-like'. A computer composition of the average face of this NIPBL-like subgroup was also more typical in appearance than that of all others in the mutation-negative group supporting the existence of undetected mosaic cases. CONCLUSIONS: Future diagnostic testing in 'mutation-negative' CdLS thus merits deeper sequencing of multiple DNA samples derived from different tissues.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Lange/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Mosaicismo , Face/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo
9.
Science ; 342(6160): 866-71, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24136356

RESUMO

Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to infections. Here, we describe activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation in which lysine replaced glutamic acid at residue 1021 (E1021K) in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased immunoglobulin M, and reduced immunoglobulin G2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, which suggested a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Mutação , Linhagem , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(4): 605-13, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541340

RESUMO

Perrault syndrome is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian failure. By a combination of linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in CLPP as the likely cause of this phenotype. In each family, affected individuals were homozygous for a different pathogenic CLPP allele: c.433A>C (p.Thr145Pro), c.440G>C (p.Cys147Ser), or an experimentally demonstrated splice-donor-site mutation, c.270+4A>G. CLPP, a component of a mitochondrial ATP-dependent proteolytic complex, is a highly conserved endopeptidase encoded by CLPP and forms an element of the evolutionarily ancient mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (UPR(mt)) stress signaling pathway. Crystal-structure modeling suggests that both substitutions would alter the structure of the CLPP barrel chamber that captures unfolded proteins and exposes them to proteolysis. Together with the previous identification of mutations in HARS2, encoding mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetase, mutations in CLPP expose dysfunction of mitochondrial protein homeostasis as a cause of Perrault syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteases Dependentes de ATP/genética , Endopeptidase Clp/genética , Exoma/genética , Genes Recessivos , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutação/genética , Proteases Dependentes de ATP/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(5): 1122-5, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23495203

RESUMO

Dermatosparaxis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (or EDS VIIC), a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder, is characterized by extreme skin fragility, premature rupture of membranes in pregnancy, and spontaneous rupture of internal organs. Here we report a second patient with EDS VIIC presenting with congenital skull fractures and skin lacerations at birth, complications which may occur more frequently than previously thought in this condition. We also discuss the role of prenatal diagnosis in the management of a subsequent normal pregnancy.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/genética , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Pró-Colágeno N-Endopeptidase/genética , Ruptura Espontânea/complicações , Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Proteína ADAMTS4 , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/complicações , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Gravidez
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 152A(8): 1951-9, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20635359

RESUMO

Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome seen in humans, occurring in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. Common features include mental retardation, characteristic dysmorphic features, hypotonia, seizures, hearing loss, heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and behavior abnormalities. Similar phenotypes are seen among patients with a variety of deletion sizes, including terminal and interstitial deletions, complex rearrangements, and unbalanced translocations. Consequently, critical regions harboring causative genes for each of these features have been difficult to identify. Here we report on five individuals with 200-823 kb overlapping deletions of proximal 1p36.33, four of which are apparently de novo. They present with features of monosomy 1p36, including developmental delay and mental retardation, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities including hyperphagia, and seizures. The smallest region of deletion overlap is 174 kb and contains five genes; these genes are likely candidates for some of the phenotypic features in monosomy 1p36. Other genes deleted in a subset of the patients likely play a contributory role in the phenotypes, including GABRD and seizures, PRKCZ and neurologic features, and SKI and dysmorphic and neurologic features. Characterization of small deletions is important for narrowing critical intervals and for the identification of causative or candidate genes for features of monosomy 1p36 syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Monossomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Convulsões/genética , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Genet ; 39(8): 963-5, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17632510

RESUMO

17q11 microdeletions that encompass NF1 cause 5%-10% of cases of neurofibromatosis type 1, and individuals with microdeletions are typically taller than individuals with intragenic NF1 mutations, suggesting that deletion of a neighboring gene might promote human growth. We identified mutations in RNF135, which is within the NF1 microdeletion region, in six families characterized by overgrowth, learning disability, dysmorphic features and variable additional features. These data identify RNF135 as causative of a new overgrowth syndrome and demonstrate that RNF135 haploinsufficiency contributes to the phenotype of NF1 microdeletion cases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Mutação , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neurofibromatose 1/fisiopatologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 50(3): 216-23, 2007 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17369115

RESUMO

X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a heterogeneous disorder with both syndromic and non-syndromic forms. Here we describe the clinical and molecular characterisation of a family with a syndromic form of XLMR with hypogonadism and short stature. We investigated a family in which four male members in two generations presented with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism associated with development of small and abnormal testes. In two of the males, late-onset testicular ascent was noted. In addition, all affected males had short stature (<0.4th centile) and mild learning difficulties and three out of the four had microcephaly. Karyotypes were normal and endocrine investigations confirmed primary testicular failure. The phenotype segregated as an X-linked trait. Haplotype and genetic two-point linkage analysis with 22 microsatellites excluded the whole X chromosome except for a region on Xq25-Xq27 encompassing 13.7Mb with a maximum LOD score of 1.1 for marker DXS8038 at theta=0.05. One family previously described as having XLMR with hypogonadism and short stature maps to the same X chromosome region implicated in our family. However, the more severe mental retardation, muscle wasting and tremor described in this other family would suggest that our family is affected by a novel XLMR syndrome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Doenças Testiculares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Facies , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/genética , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Microcefalia/complicações , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Síndrome , Doenças Testiculares/complicações
16.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 16(2): 121-5, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17351359

RESUMO

We report a further two patients with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia, a rare autosomal recessive condition with thoracic costovertebral dysplasia, developmental delay and characteristic facial features. One of our patients has the additional features of large, bilateral colobomas of the optic nerve, ptosis, small conical teeth and severe left-sided talipes. He also has hypermobile joints, especially in his hands and anterior subluxation of the shoulders. The second patient has hypodensity of the grey matter on magnetic resonance imaging, which is the second report of this finding in cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia. In addition, he has hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. These cases illustrate the expanding phenotype of this condition, and support the hypothesis that this is an autosomal recessive condition.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Doenças Torácicas/patologia , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Radiografia Torácica
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