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Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524


Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n = 87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year posttransplant. PKs were described with a two-compartment model. During follow-up, 11 of 87 patients died and 12 of 87 patients had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) of 1,000 mg hour/L the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23-1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36-1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4,800 mg hour/L maximized the probability of success (> 20% engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80% and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in nonmalignant disease.

Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566733


Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) contribute to the morbidity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and strategies to prevent and treat VRIs are warranted. We monitored VRIs before and after transplant in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and assessed the impact on clinical outcome. Between 2007 and 2017, 585 children underwent 620 allogeneic HSCT procedures. Out of 75 patients with a positive NPA screen (12%), transplant was delayed in 25 cases (33%), while 53 children started conditioning with a VRI. Patients undergoing HSCT with a positive NPA screen had a significantly lower overall survival (54% vs. 79%) and increased TRM (26% vs. 7%) compared to patients with a negative NPA. Patients with a positive NPA who delayed transplant and cleared the virus before conditioning had improved overall survival (90%) and lower TRM (5%). Pre-HSCT positive NPA was the only significant risk factor for progression to a lower respiratory tract infection and was a major risk factor for TRM. Transplant delay, whenever feasible, in case of a positive NPA screen for VRIs can positively impact on survival of children undergoing HSCT.

Nat Med ; 25(9): 1408-1414, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477906


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 demonstrate unparalleled responses in relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)1-5, but toxicity, including cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity, limits broader application. Moreover, 40-60% of patients relapse owing to poor CAR T cell persistence or emergence of CD19- clones. Some factors, including the choice of single-chain spacer6 and extracellular7 and costimulatory domains8, have a profound effect on CAR T cell function and persistence. However, little is known about the impact of CAR binding affinity. There is evidence of a ceiling above which increased immunoreceptor affinity may adversely affect T cell responses9-11. We generated a novel CD19 CAR (CAT) with a lower affinity than FMC63, the high-affinity binder used in many clinical studies1-4. CAT CAR T cells showed increased proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro and had enhanced proliferative and in vivo antitumor activity compared with FMC63 CAR T cells. In a clinical study (CARPALL, NCT02443831 ), 12/14 patients with relapsed/refractory pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with CAT CAR T cells achieved molecular remission. Persistence was demonstrated in 11 of 14 patients at last follow-up, with enhanced CAR T cell expansion compared with published data. Toxicity was low, with no severe CRS. One-year overall and event-free survival were 63% and 46%, respectively.

Antígenos CD19/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos CD19/genética , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550


BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.