Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(3-4): 195-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126615

RESUMO

Ctenoluciidae (Characiformes), a family of freshwater fishes, comprises 2 genera, Ctenolucius and Boulengerella, with 7 recognized species. Up to now, only species of the genus Boulengerella have been subjected to cytogenetic studies. Here, we investigated the karyotype and other cytogenetic features of pike characin, Ctenolucius hujeta, using conventional (Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining) and molecular (rDNA, telomeric sequences, and fiber-FISH mapping) procedures. This species has a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 36, and a karyotype composed of 12m + 20sm + 4a and FN = 68, similar to that found in Boulengerella species. However, differences regarding the number and distribution of several chromosomal markers support a distinct generic status. Colocalization of the 18S and 5S rDNA genes is an exclusive characteristic of the C. hujeta genome, with an interspersed distribution in the chromosomal fiber, an unusual phenomenon among eukaryotes. Additionally, our results support the view that Ctenoluciidae and Lebiasinidae families are closely related.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Cariótipo , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Telômero/genética
2.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(1-2): 5, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887739
3.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(1-2): 52-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887732

RESUMO

With 82 species currently described, the genus Leptodactylus is the most diverse and representative one in the family Leptodactylidae. Concerning chromosomal organization, this genus represents an interesting and underexplored group since data from molecular cytogenetics are incipient, and little is known about the organization and distribution of repetitive DNA elements in the karyotypes. In this sense, this study aimed at providing a comparative analysis in 4 Leptodactylus species (L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, L. fuscus, and Leptodactylus cf. podicipinus), combining conventional cytogenetics (Giemsa staining, C-banding, and AgNOR staining) and mapping of molecular markers (18S rDNA, telomeric and microsatellite probes), to investigate mechanisms underlying their karyotype differentiation process. The results showed that all species had karyotypes with 2n = 22 and FN = 44, except for Leptodactylus cf. podicipinus which presented FN = 36. The 18S rDNA was observed in pair 8 of all analyzed species (corresponding to pair 4 in L. pentadactylus), coinciding with the secondary constrictions and AgNOR staining. FISH with microsatellite DNA probes demonstrated species-specific patterns, as well as an association of these repetitive sequences with constitutive heterochromatin blocks and ribosomal DNA clusters, revealing the dynamics of microsatellites in the genome of the analyzed species. In summary, our data demonstrate an ongoing process of genomic divergence inside species with almost similar karyotype, driven most likely by a series of pericentric inversions, followed by differential accumulation of repetitive sequences.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Cariotipagem , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Inversão Cromossômica , Análise Citogenética , Citogenética , Sondas de DNA , Feminino , Geografia , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Meiose , Mitose , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(3-4): 187-194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744896

RESUMO

Despite conservation of the diploid number, a huge diversity in karyotype formulae is found in the Ancistrini tribe (Loricariidae, Hypostominae). However, the lack of cytogenetic data for many groups impairs a comprehensive understanding of the chromosomal relationships and the impact of chromosomal changes on their evolutionary history. Here, we present for the first time the karyotype of Panaqolus tankei Cramer & Sousa, 2016. We focused on the chromosomal characterization, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques to unravel the evolutionary trends of this tribe. P. tankei, as most species of its sister group Pterygoplichthini, also possessess a conserved diploid number of 52 chromosomes. We observed heterochromatin regions in the centromeres of many chromosomes; pairs 5 and 6 presented interstitial heterochromatin regions, whereas pairs 23 and 24 showed extensive heterochromatin regions in their q arms. In situ localization of 18S rDNA showed hybridization signals correlating with the nucleolus organizer regions, which are located in the q arms of pair 5. However, the 5S rDNA was detected in the centromeric and terminal regions of the q arms of pair 8. (TTAGGG)n hybridized only in the terminal regions of all chromosomes. Microsatellite in situ localization showed divergent patterns, (GA)15 repeated sequences were restricted to the terminal regions of some chromosomes, whereas (AC)15 and (GT)15 showed a scattered hybridization pattern throughout the genome. Intraspecific comparative genomic hybridization was performed on the chromosomes of P. tankei to verify the existence of sex-specific regions. The results revealed only a limited number of overlapping hybridization signals, coinciding with the heterochromatin in centromeric regions without any sex-specific signals in both males and females. Our study provides a karyotype description of P. tankei, highlighting extensive differences in the karyotype formula, the heterochromatin regions, and sites of 5S and 18S rDNA, as compared with data available for the genus.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Centrômero/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Diploide , Feminino , Heterocromatina , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Cariótipo , Masculino , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Rios
5.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(9): 539-553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227787

RESUMO

The family Aspredinidae comprises a clade of complex systematic relationships, both from molecular and morphological approaches. In this study, conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies coupled with nucleotide sequencing were performed in 6 Aspredininae species (Amaralia hypsiura, Bunocephalus cf. aloikae, Bunocephalus amaurus, Bunocephalus aff. coracoideus, Bunocephalus verrucosus, and Platystacus cotylephorus) from different locations of the Amazon hydrographic basin. Our results showed highly divergent diploid numbers (2n) among the species, ranging from 49 to 74, including the occurrence of an XX/X0 sex chromosome system. A neighbor-joining phylogram based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) showed that Bunocephalus coracoideus is not a monophyletic clade, but closely related to B. verrucosus. The karyotypic data associated with COI suggest an ancestral karyotype for Aspredinidae with a reduced 2n, composed of bi-armed chromosomes and a trend toward chromosomal fissions resulting in higher diploid number karyotypes, mainly composed of acrocentric chromosomes. Evolutionary relationships were discussed under a phylogenetic context with related species from different Siluriformes families. The karyotype features and chromosomal diversity of Aspredinidae show an amazing differentiation, making this family a remarkable model for investigating the evolutionary dynamics in siluriforms as well as in fish as a whole.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Brasil , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(10)2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050411

RESUMO

The armored Harttia catfishes present great species diversity and remarkable cytogenetic variation, including different sex chromosome systems. Here we analyzed three new species, H. duriventris, H. villasboas and H. rondoni, using both conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa-staining and C-banding), including the mapping of repetitive DNAs using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experiments. Both H. duriventris and H. villasboas have 2n = ♀56/♂55 chromosomes, and an X1X1X2X2 /X1X2Y sex chromosome system, while a proto or neo-XY system is proposed for H. rondoni (2n = 54♀♂). Single motifs of 5S and 18S rDNA occur in all three species, with the latter being also mapped in the sex chromosomes. The results confirm the general evolutionary trend that has been noticed for the genus: an extensive variation on their chromosome number, single sites of rDNA sequences and the occurrence of multiple sex chromosomes. Comparative genomic analyses with another congeneric species, H. punctata, reveal that the X1X2Y sex chromosomes of these species share the genomic contents, indicating a probable common origin. The remarkable karyotypic variation, including sex chromosomes systems, makes Harttia a suitable model for evolutionary studies focusing on karyotype differentiation and sex chromosome evolution among lower vertebrates.

7.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932633

RESUMO

The Amazonian red side-necked turtle Rhynemis rufipes is an endemic Amazonian Chelidae species that occurs in small streams throughout Colombia and Brazil river basins. Little is known about various biological aspects of this species, including its sex determination strategies. Among chelids, the greatest karyotype diversity is found in the Neotropical species, with several 2n configurations, including cases of triploidy. Here, we investigate the karyotype of Rhinemys rufipes by applying combined conventional and molecular cytogenetic procedures. This allowed us to discover a genetic sex-determining mechanism that shares an ancestral micro XY sex chromosome system. This ancient micro XY system recruited distinct repeat motifs before it diverged from several South America and Australasian species. We propose that such a system dates back to the earliest lineages of the chelid species before the split of South America and Australasian lineages.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Tartarugas/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Cariótipo , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Telômero/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283616

RESUMO

Freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium are one of the important components of circumtropical marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments. They have been extensively exploited for human consumption for many years. More than 250 species reflect the evolutionary success of this highly diversified group, with a complex and challenging taxonomy due to morphological variations and vast geographical distribution. Although genetic approaches have been used to clarify phylogenetic and taxonomic aspects of Macrobrachium species, cytogenetic information is still very scarce and mostly focused on chromosome number and morphology. Here, we present chromosome data for three species from the Neotropical region, M. carcinus, M. acanthurus, and M. amazonicum, and one species from the Oriental region, M. rosenbergii. Using conventional cytogenetic approaches and chromosome mapping of repetitive DNAs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified numerical diversification of the diploid set, within and between both zoogeographic regions. These included M. acanthurus and M. amazonicum sharing diploid chromosomes of 98, while M. carcinus has 94, and M. rosenbergii has 118 chromosomes. Argentophilic sites are also variable in number, but they occur in a much higher number than 18S rDNA, representing two to 10 sites within the study species. Microsatellites repeat motifs are also abundant in the chromosomes, with a co-localization and uniform distribution along the chromosome arms, but completely absent in the AT-rich centromeric regions. As a whole, our study suggests that the 2n divergence was followed by a considerable rDNA diversification. The abundance of the exceptional amount of microsatellite sequences in the chromosomes also suggests that they are essential components of the Macrobrachium genome and, therefore, maintained as a shared feature by the species, the reason for which is yet unknown.


Assuntos
Análise Citogenética , Palaemonidae/genética , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Palaemonidae/classificação
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434289

RESUMO

The recent advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling a rapid increase in the number of genomes being sequenced. However, many fundamental questions in genome biology remain unanswered, because sequence data alone is unable to provide insight into how the genome is organised into chromosomes, the position and interaction of those chromosomes in the cell, and how chromosomes and their interactions with each other change in response to environmental stimuli or over time. The intimate relationship between DNA sequence and chromosome structure and function highlights the need to integrate genomic and cytogenetic data to more comprehensively understand the role genome architecture plays in genome plasticity. We propose adoption of the term 'chromosomics' as an approach encompassing genome sequencing, cytogenetics and cell biology, and present examples of where chromosomics has already led to novel discoveries, such as the sex-determining gene in eutherian mammals. More importantly, we look to the future and the questions that could be answered as we enter into the chromosomics revolution, such as the role of chromosome rearrangements in speciation and the role more rapidly evolving regions of the genome, like centromeres, play in genome plasticity. However, for chromosomics to reach its full potential, we need to address several challenges, particularly the training of a new generation of cytogeneticists, and the commitment to a closer union among the research areas of genomics, cytogenetics, cell biology and bioinformatics. Overcoming these challenges will lead to ground-breaking discoveries in understanding genome evolution and function.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Humanos
10.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(3): 152-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272100

RESUMO

Among birds, species with the ZZ/ZW sex determination system generally show significant differences in morphology and size between the Z and W chromosomes (with the W usually being smaller than the Z). In the present study, we report for the first time the karyotype of the spot-flanked gallinule (Gallinula melanops) by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. The spot-flanked gallinule has 2n = 80 (11 pairs of macrochromosomes and 29 pairs of microchromosomes) with an unusual W chromosome that is larger than the Z. Besides being totally heterochromatic, it has a secondary constriction in its long arm corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region, as confirmed by both silver staining and mapping of 18S rDNA probes. This is an unprecedented fact among birds. Additionally, 18S rDNA sites were also observed in 6 microchromosomes, while 5S rDNA was found in just 1 microchromosomal pair. Seven out of the 11 used microsatellite sequences were found to be accumulated in microchromosomes, and 6 microsatellite sequences were found in the W chromosome. In addition to the involvement of heterochromatin and repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the large W chromosome, the results also show an alternative scenario that highlights the plasticity that shapes the evolutionary history of bird sex chromosomes.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Cariótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética
11.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(2): 98-105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158838

RESUMO

As in many other bird groups, data on karyotype organization and distribution of repetitive sequences are also lacking in species belonging to the family Hirundinidae. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the karyotypes of 3 swallow species (Progne tapera, Progne chalybea, and Pygochelidon cyanoleuca) by Giemsa and AgNOR staining, C-banding, and FISH with 11 microsatellite sequences. The diploid chromosome number was 2n = 76 in all 3 species, and NORs were observed in 2 chromosome pairs each. The microsatellite distribution pattern was similar in both Progne species, whereas P. cyanoleuca presented a distinct organization. These repetitive DNA sequences were found in the centromeric, pericentromeric, and telomeric regions of the macrochromosomes, as well as in 2 interstitial blocks in the W chromosome. Most microchromosomes had mainly telomeric signals. The Z chromosome displayed 1 hybridization signal in P. tapera but none in the other species. In contrast, the W chromosome showed an accumulation of different microsatellite sequences. The swallow W chromosome is larger than that of most Passeriformes. The observed enlargement in chromosome size might be explained by these high amounts of repetitive sequences. In sum, our data highlight the significant role that microsatellite sequences may play in sex chromosome differentiation.


Assuntos
Análise Citogenética/veterinária , Cariótipo , Andorinhas/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/veterinária , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
12.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 157(4): 239-248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991393

RESUMO

Centropomus is the sole genus of the Centropomidae family (Teleostei), comprising 12 species widely distributed throughout the Western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, with 6 of them occurring in the Western Atlantic in extensive sympatry. Their life history and phylogenetic relationships are well characterized; however, aspects of chromosomal evolution are still unknown. Here, cytogenetic analyses of 2 Centropomus species of great economic value (C. undecimalis and C. mexicanus) were performed using conventional (Giemsa, Ag-NOR, and fluorochrome staining, C- and replication banding) and molecular (chromosomal mapping of 18S and 5S rDNA, H2A-H2B and H3 hisDNA, and (TTAGGG)n repeats) approaches. The karyotypes of both species were composed of 48 solely acrocentric chromosomes (2n = 48; FN = 48), but the single ribosomal site was located in varying positions in the long arms of the second largest chromosome pair. Replication bands were generally similar, although conspicuous differences were observed in some chromosome regions. In both species, the histone H3 genes were located on 3 apparently homeologous chromosome pairs, but the exact position of these clusters differed slightly. Interspecific hisDNA and rDNA site displacements can indicate the occurrence of multiple paracentric inversions during the evolutionary diversification of the Centropomus genomes. Although the karyotypes remained similar in both species, our data demonstrate an unsuspected microstructural reorganization between them, driven most likely by a series of paracentric inversions.


Assuntos
Inversão Cromossômica , Cromossomos/genética , Peixes/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/classificação , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Filogenia
13.
Comp Cytogenet ; 12(2): 145-162, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675141

RESUMO

Representatives of the order Labriformes show karyotypes of extreme conservatism together with others with high chromosomal diversification. However, the cytological characterization of epigenetic modifications remains unknown for the majority of the species. In the family Labridae, the most abundant fishes on tropical reefs, the genomes of the genus Bodianus Bloch, 1790 have been characterized by the occurrence of a peculiar chromosomal region, here denominated BOD. This region is exceptionally decondensed, heterochromatic, argentophilic, GC-neutral and, in contrast to classical secondary constrictions, shows no signals of hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. In order to characterize the BOD region, the methylation pattern, the distribution of Alu and Tol2 retrotransposons and of 18S and 5S rDNA sites, respectively, were analyzed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes of two Bodianus species, B. insularis Gomon & Lubbock, 1980 and B. pulchellus (Poey, 1860). Immunolocalization of the 5-methylcytosine revealed hypermethylated chromosomal regions, dispersed along the entire length of the chromosomes of both species, while the BOD regions exhibited a hypomethylated pattern. Hypomethylation of the BOD region is associated with the precise co-location of Tol2 and Alu elements, suggesting their active participation in the regulatory epigenetic process. This evidence underscores a probable differential methylation action during the cell cycle, as well as the role of Tol2/Alu elements in functional processes of fish genomes.

14.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 153(2): 96-104, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186711

RESUMO

The genus Colomesus is the sole representative of the family Tetraodontidae in the Amazon region. Here, Colomesus asellus was analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. Its diploid chromosome number is 2n = 46 with 12 meta-, 10 submeta-, 16 subtelo-, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes and a fundamental number of FN = 84. An XX/XY sex chromosome system was identified. Mapping of 18S rDNA correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in the short arms of the 2 X chromosomes in females and in the Y chromosome in males. C-banding revealed heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes, except for pair 3. Prominent sex chromosome-specific heterochromatin amplification was observed, covering the short arms of the Y chromosome almost entirely. FISH with telomeric and tropomyosin (tpm1) sequences, respectively, revealed terminal signals in all chromosomes. The analysis of extended DNA fibers confirmed the colocalization and the interspersed pattern of the telomeric and tpm1 sequences. Thus, this study highlights the remarkable evolutionary dynamism presented by the Amazonian puffer fish regarding the differentiation of a heteromorphic XY sex chromosome system and a particular sex-specific amplification of rDNA sites. This is the first record of such an association in the Tetraodontidae family.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Tetraodontiformes/genética , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Brasil , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Telômero/genética , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Tropomiosina/genética
15.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 152(4): 194-203, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942442

RESUMO

Ctenoluciidae is a Neotropical freshwater fish family whose representatives are known as bicudas. The genus Boulengerella contains 5 species, and 4 of them (B. cuvieri, B. lateristriga, B. lucius, and B. maculata) were cytogenetically analyzed in the present study by conventional and molecular procedures. All 4 species have a very similar karyotype, with 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 metacentrics + 16 submetacentrics + 6 subtelocentrics; FN = 72). However, the heterochromatin distribution pattern is species-specific. In all 4 species, the nucleolus organizer region is located in pair 18, as also confirmed by cytogenetic mapping of 18S rDNA. In turn, 5S rRNA genes are present in 2 chromosome pairs: in pair 1 of all 4 species, and in pair 10 of B. lateristriga, B. maculata, and B. cuvieri, but in pair 4 of B. lucius. The telomeric probe highlighted terminal regions in all chromosomes, as well as an interstitial centromeric sequence in pair 3 of the 3 first-mentioned species. Notably, a conspicuous heteromorphic secondary constriction in chromosomes 18 was found only in the males of the 3 species, rendering one of the homologs much larger than the other one. This feature, associated with a large 18S rDNA block and accumulation of telomeric sequences, suggests the presence of an XX/XY sex chromosome system in the analyzed Boulengerella species.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/classificação , Caraciformes/genética , Animais , Brasil , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Cromossomo X/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética
16.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 151(3): 151-160, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359066

RESUMO

Here, for the first time, we describe the karyotype of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae, Arini). We found 2n = 48, corresponding to the lowest diploid number observed in Neotropical Psittaciformes so far, with an uncommonly large W chromosome homomorphic to the Z. In order to better understand the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this species, we applied several molecular cytogenetic approaches, including C-banding, FISH mapping of repetitive DNAs (several microsatellite repeats), and whole-chromosome painting on metaphases of M. monachus. For comparison, another species belonging to the same tribe but with a smaller W chromosome (A. aestiva) was also analyzed. The results show that the constitutive heterochromatin has a very diverse distribution pattern in these species revealing heterochromatic blocks in the centromeric region of all chromosomes and in most of the length of the W chromosome in A. aestiva, while in M. monachus they were found in interstitial and telomeric regions. Concerning the microsatellites, only the sequence (CG)n produced signals on the W chromosome of A. aestiva, in the distal region of both arms. However, in M. monachus, (CAA)n, (CAG)n, and (CG)n probes were accumulated on the W chromosome, and, in addition, the sequence (CAG)n also hybridized to heterochromatic regions in macrochromosomes, as well as in microchromosomes. Based on these results, we suggest that the increase in length of the W chromosome in M. monachus is due to the amplification of repetitive elements, which highlights their significant role in the evolutionary process of sex chromosome differentiation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Psittaciformes/classificação , Psittaciformes/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Telômero/genética
17.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 149(4): 312-320, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27710958

RESUMO

The monophyletic order Osteoglossiformes represents one of the most ancestral groups of teleosts and has at least 1 representative in all continents of the southern hemisphere, with the exception of Antarctica. However, despite its phylogenetic and biogeographical importance, cytogenetic data in Osteoglossiformes are scarce. Here, karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of the lower Niger River population of the African butterfly fish Pantodon buchholzi, the sole species of the family Pantodontidae (Osteoglossiformes), were examined using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches. All specimens examined had 2n = 46 chromosomes, with a karyotype composed of 5 pairs of metacentric, 5 pairs of submetacentric, and 13 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes in both sexes. No morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes were identified. C-bands were located in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of all chromosomes and were associated with the single AgNOR site. FISH with ribosomal DNA probes revealed that both 5S and 18S rDNA were present in only 1 pair of chromosomes each, but did not colocalize. CMA3+ bands were observed near the telomeres in several chromosome pairs and also at the 18S rDNA sites. The mapping of di- and trinucleotide repeat motifs, Rex6 transposable element, and U2 snRNA showed a scattered distribution over most of the chromosomes, but for some microsatellites and the U2 snRNA also a preferential accumulation at telomeric regions. This study presents the first detailed cytogenetic analysis in the African butterfly fish by both conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. This is the first of a series of further cytogenetic and cytogenomic studies on osteoglossiforms, aiming to comprehensively examine the chromosomal evolution in this phylogenetically important fish order.


Assuntos
Análise Citogenética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/genética , Cariótipo , África , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Telômero/genética
18.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(2): e150141, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-785086

RESUMO

Characiformes is the most cytogenetically studied group of freshwater Actinopterygii, but karyotypical data of several taxa remain unknown. This is the case of Nematocharax , regarded as a monotypic genus and characterized by marked sexual dimorphism. Therefore, we provide the first cytogenetic report of allopatric populations of Nematocharax venustus based on distinct methods of chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with repetitive DNA probes (18S and 5S rDNA). The karyotype macrostructure was conserved in all specimens and populations, independently on sex, since they shared a diploid number (2n) of 50 chromosomes divided into 8m+26sm+14st+2a. The heterochromatin was mainly distributed at pericentromeric regions and base-specific fluorochrome staining revealed a single pair bearing GC-rich sites, coincident with nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). On the other hand, interpopulation variation in both number and position of repetitive sequences was observed, particularly in relation to 5S rDNA. Apparently, the short life cycles and restricted dispersal of small characins, such as N. venustus , might have favored the divergence of repetitive DNA among populations, indicating that this species might encompass populations with distinct evolutionary histories, which has important implications for conservation measures.


Characiformes é o grupo de Actinopterygii de água doce mais estudado citogeneticamente, porém dados cariotípicos de vários taxa permanecem desconhecidos. Este é o caso de Nematocharax , considerado um gênero monotípico e caracterizado pelo acentuado dimorfismo sexual. Em vista disso, nós fornecemos a primeira descrição citogenética de populações alopátricas de Nematocharax venustus , baseada em métodos distintos de bandamento cromossômico e hibridação fluorescente in situ (FISH) com sondas de DNA repetitivo (DNAr 18S e 5S). A macroestrutura cariotípica mostrou-se conservada em todos os espécimes e populações, independentemente do sexo, uma vez que compartilharam um número diploide (2n) de 50 cromossomos dividido em 8m+26sm+14st+2a. A heterocromatina distribuiu-se principalmente nas regiões pericentroméricas e a coloração com fluorocromos base-específicos revelou um único par portador de sítios GC-ricos, coincidentes com as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo (RONs). Por outro lado, foi observada uma variação interpopulacional no número e na posição das sequências repetitivas, especialmente em relação ao DNAr 5S. Aparentemente, ciclos de vida curtos e dispersão restrita dos pequenos caracídeos, tal como N. venustus , podem ter favorecido a divergência do DNA repetitivo entre as populações, indicando que essa espécie pode englobar populações com distintas histórias evolutivas, o que tem implicações importantes para medidas de conservação.


Assuntos
Animais , Caraciformes/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/tendências , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/veterinária
19.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 147(2-3): 169-78, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895457

RESUMO

Sites and amounts of 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC)-rich chromosome regions were detected in the karyotypes of 9 Brazilian species of Characiformes fishes by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-MeC antibody. These species, belonging to the genera Leporinus, Triportheus and Hoplias, are characterized by highly differentiated and heteromorphic ZW and XY sex chromosomes. In all species, the hypermethylated regions are confined to constitutive heterochromatin. The number and chromosome locations of hypermethylated heterochromatic regions in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific. Generally, heterochromatic regions that are darkly stained by the C-banding technique are distinctly hypermethylated, but several of the brightly fluorescing hypermethylated regions merely exhibit moderate or faint C-banding. The ZW and XY sex chromosomes of all 9 analyzed species also show species-specific heterochromatin hypermethylation patterns. The analysis of 5-MeC-rich chromosome regions contributes valuable data for comparative cytogenetics of closely related species and highlights the dynamic process of differentiation operating in the repetitive DNA fraction of sex chromosomes.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Metilação de DNA , Heterocromatina/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Centrômero/genética , Caraciformes/classificação , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 144(1): 62-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25341625

RESUMO

Rachycentron canadum, the only representative of the family Rachycentridae, has been the focus of biotechnological interest due to its significant potential in marine fish farming. The chromosome set of this species has been widely investigated with respect to the location of genes and multigene families. A FISH analysis was performed using 4 multigene families as probes, represented by 5S and 18S ribosomal genes and histones H2B-H2A and H3. Earlier data suggested that differential replication of heterochromatin could be partially associated with functional genes. Indeed, our results showed that the DNA contained in heterochromatic regions of R. canadum contains 5S and 18S ribosomal genes as well as the gene sequences of histones H2B-H2A and H3, which were colocalized. The distribution of H3 sequences in all heterochromatic regions, except in 13q, could indicate an important evolutionary role for this class of repetitive sequences. Besides, the presence of chromosome regions bearing multifunctional repetitive sequences formed by H2B-H2A/H3/18S rDNA and H2B-H2A/H3/5S rDNA clusters was demonstrated for the first time in fishes. The implications of differential histone gene extension and its functionality in the karyotype of R. canadum remain unknown.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Histonas/genética , Perciformes/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Heterocromatina/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...