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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(3): 502-516, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596411

RESUMO

Deletion 1p36 (del1p36) syndrome is the most common human disorder resulting from a terminal autosomal deletion. This condition is molecularly and clinically heterogeneous. Deletions involving two non-overlapping regions, known as the distal (telomeric) and proximal (centromeric) critical regions, are sufficient to cause the majority of the recurrent clinical features, although with different facial features and dysmorphisms. SPEN encodes a transcriptional repressor commonly deleted in proximal del1p36 syndrome and is located centromeric to the proximal 1p36 critical region. Here, we used clinical data from 34 individuals with truncating variants in SPEN to define a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with features that overlap considerably with those of proximal del1p36 syndrome. The clinical profile of this disease includes developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, aggressive behavior, attention deficit disorder, hypotonia, brain and spine anomalies, congenital heart defects, high/narrow palate, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity/increased BMI, especially in females. SPEN also emerges as a relevant gene for del1p36 syndrome by co-expression analyses. Finally, we show that haploinsufficiency of SPEN is associated with a distinctive DNA methylation episignature of the X chromosome in affected females, providing further evidence of a specific contribution of the protein to the epigenetic control of this chromosome, and a paradigm of an X chromosome-specific episignature that classifies syndromic traits. We conclude that SPEN is required for multiple developmental processes and SPEN haploinsufficiency is a major contributor to a disorder associated with deletions centromeric to the previously established 1p36 critical regions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 115-133, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308444

RESUMO

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a member of a small family of multifunctional cell surface-anchored glycoproteins functioning as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors. Here we report that bi-allelic inactivating variants in SCUBE3 have pleiotropic consequences on development and cause a previously unrecognized syndromic disorder. Eighteen affected individuals from nine unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype characterized by reduced growth, skeletal features, distinctive craniofacial appearance, and dental anomalies. In vitro functional validation studies demonstrated a variable impact of disease-causing variants on transcript processing, protein secretion and function, and their dysregulating effect on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that SCUBE3 acts as a BMP2/BMP4 co-receptor, recruits the BMP receptor complexes into raft microdomains, and positively modulates signaling possibly by augmenting the specific interactions between BMPs and BMP type I receptors. Scube3-/- mice showed craniofacial and dental defects, reduced body size, and defective endochondral bone growth due to impaired BMP-mediated chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, recapitulating the human disorder. Our findings identify a human disease caused by defective function of a member of the SCUBE family, and link SCUBE3 to processes controlling growth, morphogenesis, and bone and teeth development through modulation of BMP signaling.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Brain Pathol ; : e12934, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378126

RESUMO

We report on a case of EWSR1-PATZ1 rearranged brain tumor occurring in a 17 month-old child, originally interpreted as an infantile glioblastoma. Our case shows important analogies with the 2 previously reported cases, including the intraventricular location, the histologic appearance (pushing borders, oligodendrocyte-like morphology, rich vascular network) and the glioneural immunophenotype, supporting the role of these features as relevant clues to the diagnosis. On the other hand, our case displays unique characteristics, i.e. the onset in an infant, the presence of a focal high-grade component and the leptomeningeal dissemination, pointing to the importance of considering this entity in the differential diagnosis of an infantile glial/glioneural tumor.

4.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Tousled-like kinases 1 and 2 (TLK1 and TLK2) are involved in many fundamental processes, including DNA replication, cell cycle checkpoint recovery and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in TLK2 were recently associated with 'Mental Retardation Autosomal Dominant 57' (MRD57, MIM# 618050), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by a highly variable phenotype, including mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, behavioural abnormalities, facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly, epilepsy and skeletal anomalies. METHODS: We re-evaluate whole exome sequencing and array-CGH data from a large cohort of patients affected by neurodevelopmental disorders. Using spatial proteomics (BioID) and single-cell gel electrophoresis, we investigated the proximity interaction landscape of TLK2 and analysed the effects of p.(Asp551Gly) and a previously reported missense variant (c.1850C>T; p.(Ser617Leu)) on TLK2 interactions, localisation and activity. RESULTS: We identified three new unrelated MRD57 families. Two were sporadic and caused by a missense change (c.1652A>G; p.(Asp551Gly)) or a 39 kb deletion encompassing TLK2, and one was familial with three affected siblings who inherited a nonsense change from an affected mother (c.1423G>T; p.(Glu475Ter)). The clinical phenotypes were consistent with those of previously reported cases. The tested mutations strongly impaired TLK2 kinase activity. Proximal interactions between TLK2 and other factors implicated in neurological disorders, including CHD7, CHD8, BRD4 and NACC1, were identified. Finally, we demonstrated a more relaxed chromatin state in lymphoblastoid cells harbouring the p.(Asp551Gly) variant compared with control cells, conferring susceptibility to DNA damage. CONCLUSION: Our study identified novel TLK2 pathogenic variants, confirming and further expanding the MRD57-related phenotype. The molecular characterisation of missense variants increases our knowledge about TLK2 function and provides new insights into its role in neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1062-1077, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217309

RESUMO

Dysfunction of the endolysosomal system is often associated with neurodegenerative disease because postmitotic neurons are particularly reliant on the elimination of intracellular aggregates. Adequate function of endosomes and lysosomes requires finely tuned luminal ion homeostasis and transmembrane ion fluxes. Endolysosomal CLC Cl-/H+ exchangers function as electric shunts for proton pumping and in luminal Cl- accumulation. We now report three unrelated children with severe neurodegenerative disease, who carry the same de novo c.1658A>G (p.Tyr553Cys) mutation in CLCN6, encoding the late endosomal Cl-/H+-exchanger ClC-6. Whereas Clcn6-/- mice have only mild neuronal lysosomal storage abnormalities, the affected individuals displayed severe developmental delay with pronounced generalized hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and variable neurodegeneration and diffusion restriction in cerebral peduncles, midbrain, and/or brainstem in MRI scans. The p.Tyr553Cys amino acid substitution strongly slowed ClC-6 gating and increased current amplitudes, particularly at the acidic pH of late endosomes. Transfection of ClC-6Tyr553Cys, but not ClC-6WT, generated giant LAMP1-positive vacuoles that were poorly acidified. Their generation strictly required ClC-6 ion transport, as shown by transport-deficient double mutants, and depended on Cl-/H+ exchange, as revealed by combination with the uncoupling p.Glu200Ala substitution. Transfection of either ClC-6Tyr553Cys/Glu200Ala or ClC-6Glu200Ala generated slightly enlarged vesicles, suggesting that p.Glu200Ala, previously associated with infantile spasms and microcephaly, is also pathogenic. Bafilomycin treatment abrogated vacuole generation, indicating that H+-driven Cl- accumulation osmotically drives vesicle enlargement. Our work establishes mutations in CLCN6 associated with neurological diseases, whose spectrum of clinical features depends on the differential impact of the allele on ClC-6 function.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1129-1148, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186545

RESUMO

The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) are essential for multiple membrane modeling and membrane-independent cellular processes. Here we describe six unrelated individuals with de novo missense variants affecting the ATPase domain of VPS4A, a critical enzyme regulating ESCRT function. Probands had structural brain abnormalities, severe neurodevelopmental delay, cataracts, growth impairment, and anemia. In cultured cells, overexpression of VPS4A mutants caused enlarged endosomal vacuoles resembling those induced by expression of known dominant-negative ATPase-defective forms of VPS4A. Proband-derived fibroblasts had enlarged endosomal structures with abnormal accumulation of the ESCRT protein IST1 on the limiting membrane. VPS4A function was also required for normal endosomal morphology and IST1 localization in iPSC-derived human neurons. Mutations affected other ESCRT-dependent cellular processes, including regulation of centrosome number, primary cilium morphology, nuclear membrane morphology, chromosome segregation, mitotic spindle formation, and cell cycle progression. We thus characterize a distinct multisystem disorder caused by mutations affecting VPS4A and demonstrate that its normal function is required for multiple human developmental and cellular processes.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(11): 1602-1614, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681121

RESUMO

In December 2019, an initial cluster of interstitial bilateral pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China. A human-to-human transmission was assumed and a previously unrecognized entity, termed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) due to a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was described. The infection has rapidly spread out all over the world and Italy has been the first European country experiencing the endemic wave with unexpected clinical severity in comparison with Asian countries. It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as host receptor and host proteases for cell surface binding and internalization. Thus, a predisposing genetic background can give reason for interindividual disease susceptibility and/or severity. Taking advantage of the Network of Italian Genomes (NIG), here we mined whole-exome sequencing data of 6930 Italian control individuals from five different centers looking for ACE2 variants. A number of variants with a potential impact on protein stability were identified. Among these, three more common missense changes, p.(Asn720Asp), p.(Lys26Arg), and p.(Gly211Arg) were predicted to interfere with protein structure and stabilization. Rare variants likely interfering with the internalization process, namely p.(Leu351Val) and p.(Pro389His), predicted to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding, were also observed. Comparison of ACE2 WES data between a cohort of 131 patients and 258 controls allowed identifying a statistically significant (P value < 0.029) higher allelic variability in controls compared with patients. These findings suggest that a predisposing genetic background may contribute to the observed interindividual clinical variability associated with COVID-19, allowing an evidence-based risk assessment leading to personalized preventive measures and therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/química , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 108: 107097, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402703

RESUMO

Seizure threshold 2 (SZT2) gene mutations have been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). Following a literature review, we collected 22 patients and identified the main clinical features related to SZT2 variants that are epilepsy with onset within the first years of life, intellectual disability (ID), macrocephaly with dysmorphic facial features, corpus callosum (CC) shape abnormalities, and cortical migration disorders. Moreover, we identified the c.7825T>G homozygous missense variant in SZT2 in two female siblings presenting with focal seizures, mild-moderate ID, behavioral disturbances, and facial dysmorphisms. Interictal Electroencephalogram (EEG) and ictal EEG were both informative and revealed, respectively, temporal bilateral asynchronous slow and epileptiform abnormalities and a focal onset in both of them. Neuroimaging study revealed a thick and abnormally shaped CC. Seizure threshold 2 has been identified as a component of the KICSTOR complex, a newly recognized protein complex involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. mTOR signaling dysregulation represents common pathogenetic mechanisms that can explain the presence of both epileptogenesis and ID. Even if few cases had been reported, a new clinical phenotype is emerging, and recent hypothesis of hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling might also open to targeted treatments, challenging an early diagnosis as of paramount importance.

10.
Haematologica ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381575

RESUMO

The prognosis of many patients with chemotherapy-refractory or multiply relapsed CD30+ non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) still remains poor, and novel therapeutic approaches are warranted to address this unmet clinical need. In light of this consideration, we designed and pre-clinically validated a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) construct characterized by a novel anti-CD30 single-chain variable-fragment cassette, linked to CD3ζ by the signaling domains of two costimulatory molecules, namely either CD28.4-1BB or CD28.OX40. We found that CAR.CD30 T-cells exhibit remarkable cytolytic activity in vitro against HL and NHL cell lines, with sustained proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, even after multiple and sequential lymphoma cell challenges. CAR.CD30 T-cells also demonstrated anti-lymphoma activity in two in vivo xenograft immune-deficient mouse models of metastatic HL and NHL. We observed that administration of CAR.CD30 T-cells, incorporating the CD28.OX40 costimulatory domains and manufactured in the presence of IL7 and IL15, were associated with the best overall survival in the treated mice, along with the establishment of a long-term immunological memory, able to protect mice from further tumor re-challenge. Our data indicate that, in the context of in vivo systemic metastatic xenograft mouse models, the costimulatory machinery of CD28.OX40 is crucial for improving persistence, in vivo expansion and proliferation of CAR.CD30 T-cells upon tumor encounter. CD28.OX40 costimulatory combination is ultimately responsible for the antitumor efficacy of the approach, paving the way to translate this therapeutic strategy in patients with CD30+ HL and NHL.

11.
Clin Genet ; 98(2): 172-178, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415735

RESUMO

UBE2A deficiency, that is, intellectual disability (ID) Nascimento type (MIM 300860), is an X-linked syndrome characterized by developmental delay, moderate to severe ID, seizures, dysmorphisms, skin anomalies, and urogenital malformations. Forty affected subjects have been reported thus far, with 31 cases having intragenic UBE2A variants. Here, we report on additional eight affected subjects from seven unrelated families who were found to be hemizygous for previously unreported UBE2A missense variants (p.Glu62Lys, p.Arg95Cys, p.Thr99Ala, and p.Arg135Trp) or small in-frame deletions (p.Val81_Ala83del, and p.Asp101del). A wide phenotypic spectrum was documented in these subjects, ranging from moderate ID associated with mild dysmorphisms to severe features including congenital heart defects (CHD), severe cognitive impairment, and pineal gland tumors. Four variants affected residues (Glu62, Arg95, Thr99 and Asp101) that contribute to stabilizing the structure of the E3 binding domain. The three-residue in-frame deletion, p.Val81_Ala83del, resulted from aberrant processing of the transcript. This variant and p.Arg135Trp mapped to regions of the protein located far from the E3 binding region, and caused variably accelerated protein degradation. By reviewing available clinical information, we revise the clinical and molecular profile of the disorder and document genotype-phenotype correlations. Pineal gland cysts/tumors, CHD and hypogammaglobulinemia emerge as recurrent features.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(4): 484-495, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220290

RESUMO

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are critical for embryogenesis, neurogenesis, and cell signaling. Variants in several genes participating in GPI biosynthesis and processing lead to decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) and cause inherited GPI deficiency disorders (IGDs). In this report, we describe 12 individuals from nine unrelated families with 10 different bi-allelic PIGK variants. PIGK encodes a component of the GPI transamidase complex, which attaches the GPI anchor to proteins. Clinical features found in most individuals include global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, hypotonia, cerebellar ataxia, cerebellar atrophy, and facial dysmorphisms. The majority of the individuals have epilepsy. Two individuals have slightly decreased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, while eight do not. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and fibroblasts from affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-APs. The overexpression of wild-type (WT) PIGK in fibroblasts rescued the levels of cell surface GPI-APs. In a knockout cell line, transfection with WT PIGK also rescued the GPI-AP levels, but transfection with the two tested mutant variants did not. Our study not only expands the clinical and known genetic spectrum of IGDs, but it also expands the genetic differential diagnosis for cerebellar atrophy. Given the fact that cerebellar atrophy is seen in other IGDs, flow cytometry for GPI-APs should be considered in the work-ups of individuals presenting this feature.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Linhagem , Síndrome
13.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 72: 75-79, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular cause(s) underlying a severe form of infantile-onset parkinsonism and characterize functionally the identified variants. METHODS: A trio-based whole exome sequencing (WES) approach was used to identify the candidate variants underlying the disorder. In silico modeling, and in vitro and in vivo studies were performed to explore the impact of these variants on protein function and relevant cellular processes. RESULTS: WES analysis identified biallelic variants in WARS2, encoding the mitochondrial tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase (mtTrpRS), a gene whose mutations have recently been associated with multiple neurological phenotypes, including childhood-onset, levodopa-responsive or unresponsive parkinsonism in a few patients. A substantial reduction of mtTrpRS levels in mitochondria and reduced OXPHOS function was demonstrated, supporting their pathogenicity. Based on the infantile-onset and severity of the phenotype, additional variants were considered as possible genetic modifiers. Functional assessment of a selected panel of candidates pointed to a de novo missense mutation in CHRNA6, encoding the α6 subunit of neuronal nicotinic receptors, which are involved in the cholinergic modulation of dopamine release in the striatum, as a second event likely contributing to the phenotype. In silico, in vitro (Xenopus oocytes and GH4C1 cells) and in vivo (C. elegans) analyses demonstrated the disruptive effects of the mutation on acetylcholine receptor structure and function. CONCLUSION: Our findings consolidate the association between biallelic WARS2 mutations and movement disorders, and suggest CHRNA6 as a genetic modifier of the phenotype.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155762

RESUMO

Undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas are a group of diagnostically challenging tumors in the pediatric population. Molecular techniques are instrumental for the categorization and differential diagnosis of these tumors. A subgroup of recently identified soft tissue sarcomas with undifferentiated round cell morphology was characterized by Capicua transcriptional receptor (CIC) rearrangements. Recently, an array-based DNA methylation analysis of undifferentiated tumors with small blue round cell histology was shown to provide a highly robust and reproducible approach for precisely classifying this diagnostically challenging group of tumors. We describe the case of an undifferentiated sarcoma of the abdominal wall in a 12-year-old girl. The patient presented with a voluminous mass of the abdominal wall, and multiple micro-nodules in the right lung. The tumor was unclassifiable with current immunohistochemical and molecular approaches. However, DNA methylation profiling allowed us to classify this neoplasia as small blue round cell tumor with CIC alterations. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by complete surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. After 22 months, the patient is disease-free and in good clinical condition. To put our experience in context, we conducted a literature review, analyzing current knowledge and state-of-the-art diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of CIC rearranged sarcomas. Our findings further support the use of DNA methylation profiling as an important tool to improve diagnosis of non-Ewing small round cell tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Mutação , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sarcoma de Células Pequenas/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/terapia , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Sarcoma de Células Pequenas/terapia
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 120, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Clinical hallmarks include hypotonia, ataxia, facial dysmorphism, abnormal eye movement, irregular breathing pattern cognitive impairment and, the molar tooth sign is the pathognomonic midbrain-hindbrain malformation on magnetic resonance imaging. The disorder is predominantly caused by biallelic mutations in more than 30 genes encoding proteins with a pivotal role in morphology and function of the primary cilium. Oligogenic inheritance or occurrence of genetic modifiers has been suggested to contribute to the variability of the clinical phenotype. We report on a family with peculiar clinical spectrum Joubert syndrome molecularly and clinically dissecting a complex phenotype, in which hypogonadism, pituitary malformation and growth hormone deficiency occur as major features. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7 year-old male was enrolled in a dedicated "Undiagnosed Patients Program" for a peculiar form of Joubert syndrome complicated by iris and retinochoroidal coloboma, hypogonadism pituitary malformation, and growth hormone deficiency. The molecular basis of the complex phenotype was investigated by whole exome sequencing. The concomitant occurrence of homozygosity for mutations in KIF7 and KIAA0556 was identified, and the assessment of major clinical features associated with mutations in these two genes provided evidence that these two independent events represent the cause underlying the complexity of the present clinical phenotype. CONCLUSION: Beside the clinical variability of Joubert syndrome, co-occurrence of mutations in ciliopathy-associated genes may contribute to increase the clinical complexity of the trait.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 356-370, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109418

RESUMO

Genetic syndromes frequently present with overlapping clinical features and inconclusive or ambiguous genetic findings which can confound accurate diagnosis and clinical management. An expanding number of genetic syndromes have been shown to have unique genomic DNA methylation patterns (called "episignatures"). Peripheral blood episignatures can be used for diagnostic testing as well as for the interpretation of ambiguous genetic test results. We present here an approach to episignature mapping in 42 genetic syndromes, which has allowed the identification of 34 robust disease-specific episignatures. We examine emerging patterns of overlap, as well as similarities and hierarchical relationships across these episignatures, to highlight their key features as they are related to genetic heterogeneity, dosage effect, unaffected carrier status, and incomplete penetrance. We demonstrate the necessity of multiclass modeling for accurate genetic variant classification and show how disease classification using a single episignature at a time can sometimes lead to classification errors in closely related episignatures. We demonstrate the utility of this tool in resolving ambiguous clinical cases and identification of previously undiagnosed cases through mass screening of a large cohort of subjects with developmental delays and congenital anomalies. This study more than doubles the number of published syndromes with DNA methylation episignatures and, most significantly, opens new avenues for accurate diagnosis and clinical assessment in individuals affected by these disorders.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos de Coortes , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Síndrome
17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 7, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously associated HIST1H1E mutations causing Rahman syndrome with a specific genome-wide methylation pattern. RESULTS: Methylome analysis from peripheral blood samples of six affected subjects led us to identify a specific hypomethylated profile. This "episignature" was enriched for genes involved in neuronal system development and function. A computational classifier yielded full sensitivity and specificity in detecting subjects with Rahman syndrome. Applying this model to a cohort of undiagnosed probands allowed us to reach diagnosis in one subject. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate an epigenetic signature in subjects with Rahman syndrome that can be used to reach molecular diagnosis.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 583, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996670

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and among the subtypes, Group 3 MB has the worst outcome. Here, we perform an in vivo, patient-specific screen leading to the identification of Otx2 and c-MYC as strong Group 3 MB inducers. We validated our findings in human cerebellar organoids where Otx2/c-MYC give rise to MB-like organoids harboring a DNA methylation signature that clusters with human Group 3 tumors. Furthermore, we show that SMARCA4 is able to reduce Otx2/c-MYC tumorigenic activity in vivo and in human cerebellar organoids while SMARCA4 T910M, a mutant form found in human MB patients, inhibits the wild-type protein function. Finally, treatment with Tazemetostat, a EZH2-specific inhibitor, reduces Otx2/c-MYC tumorigenesis in ex vivo culture and human cerebellar organoids. In conclusion, human cerebellar organoids can be efficiently used to understand the role of genes found altered in cancer patients and represent a reliable tool for developing personalized therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Benzamidas/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Piridonas/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Pediatr Neurol ; 104: 40-45, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are clinically heterogeneous conditions with a variable age of onset and a diverse molecular basis. The hypothesis-free approach of genomic sequencing has led to the discovery of new genes implicated in these disorders and the identification of unexpected genotype-phenotype correlations. Although a recurrent heterozygous mutation (p.Arg1715His) in CACNA1G is known to cause adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia 42 (SCA42*616795), gain-of-function mutations in this gene have recently been identified by whole exome sequencing (WES) in four children with cerebellar atrophy and ataxia, psychomotor delay, and other variable features. METHODS: We describe four children from unrelated families with cerebellar anomalies on magnetic resonance imaging (atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis), hypertonia, psychomotor and speech delay, severe intellectual disability, ophthalmologic features and peculiar dysmorphic traits. All patients underwent a trio-based WES analysis. Clinical records were used to characterize the clinical profile of this newly recognized disorder. RESULTS: Two previously reported de novo disease-causing mutations in CACNA1G (c.2881G>A, p.Ala961Thr and c.4591A>G, p.Met1531Val) were identified in these patients, providing further evidence of the specific impact of these variants. All four patients exhibit distinctive dysmorphic and ectodermal features which overlap those of the previously reported patients, allowing us to define the major features characterizing this homogeneous neurodevelopmental syndromic disorder associated with upregulated CACNA1G function. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the specific association between a narrow spectrum of missense mutations in CACNA1G and a novel syndrome with infantile-onset cerebellar ataxiaand provide a dysmorphologic delineation of this novel neurodevelopmental trait.

20.
J Exp Med ; 216(12): 2778-2799, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601675

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo CDC42 mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. CDC42 mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Fenótipo , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/química
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