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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972692

RESUMO

The nature and magnitude of placebo and nocebo responses to ADHD medications and the extent to which response to active medications and placebo are inter-correlated is unclear. To assess the magnitude of placebo and nocebo responses to ADHD and their association with active treatment response. We searched literature until June 26, 2019, for published/unpublished double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of ADHD medication. Authors were contacted for additional data. We assessed placebo effects on efficacy and nocebo effects on tolerability using random effects meta-analysis. We assessed the association of study design and patient features with placebo/nocebo response. We analysed 128 RCTs (10,578 children/adolescents and 9175 adults) and found significant and heterogenous placebo effects for all efficacy outcomes, with no publication bias. The placebo effect was greatest for clinician compared with other raters. We found nocebo effects on tolerability outcomes. Efficacy outcomes from most raters showed significant positive correlations between the baseline to endpoint placebo effects and the baseline to endpoint drug effects. Placebo and nocebo effects did not differ among drugs. Baseline severity and type of rating scale influenced the findings. Shared non-specific factors influence response to both placebo and active medication. Although ADHD medications are superior to placebo, and placebo treatment in clinical practice is not feasible, clinicians should attempt to incorporate factors associated with placebo effects into clinical care. Future studies should explore how such effects influence response to medication treatment. Upon publication, data will be available in Mendeley Data: PROSPERO (CRD42019130292).

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Structural MRI is the most frequently used method to investigate brain volume alterations in neuropsychiatric disease. Previous meta-analyses have typically focused on a single diagnosis, thereby precluding transdiagnostic comparisons. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include all structural MRI studies of adults that report brain volumes for participants from at least two of the following diagnostic groups: healthy controls, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, psychotic depression, clinical high risk for psychosis, schizotypal personality disorder, psychosis unspecified, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, emotionally unstable personality disorder, 22q11 deletion syndrome, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety and depression. Network meta-analysis will be used to synthesise eligible studies. The primary analysis will examine standardised mean difference in average volume, a secondary analysis will examine differences in variability of volumes. DISCUSSION: This network meta-analysis will provide a transdiagnostic integration of structural neuroimaging studies, providing researchers with a valuable summary of a large literature. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221143.

4.
Bipolar Disord ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Circadian rhythm disruption is commonly reported in patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium has been suggested to have effects on the circadian clock, the biological basis of the circadian rhythm. The objective of the current review was to review systematically the existing studies on the effect of lithium on circadian rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: We systematically searched the scientific literature up to September 2020 for experimental or observational studies which measured circadian rhythm in bipolar patients taking lithium (in comparison with placebo or other active treatments) and carried out a meta-analysis. Circadian rest-activity was our primary outcome, but we also collected data about sleep quality and chronotype (Morningness-Eveningness). The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018109790). RESULTS: Four observational studies (n = 668) and one experimental study (n = 29) were included. Results from the meta-analysis suggest a potential association between lithium and shifts towards morningness (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.05 to 0.90). One cohort study with 21 days of follow-up found that patients treated with lithium had significantly larger amplitude (0.68, 0.01 to 1.36) when compared to anticonvulsants. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the insufficient evidence to inform us about the effect of lithium on circadian rhythm. However, we found that chronotype can be a potential target for further exploration of biomarkers or biosignatures of lithium treatment in patients with bipolar disorder. Further studies with prospective and longitudinal study design, adopting actigraphy to monitor daily circadian rest-activity changes are needed.

7.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(5): 490-497, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595620

RESUMO

Importance: Antidepressants are commonly used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Antidepressant outcomes can vary based on individual differences; however, it is unclear whether specific factors determine this variability or whether it is at random. Objective: To investigate the assumption of systematic variability in symptomatic response to antidepressants and to assess whether variability is associated with MDD severity, antidepressant class, or study publication year. Data Sources: Data used were updated from a network meta-analysis of treatment with licensed antidepressants in adults with MDD. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Embase, LILACS database, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, and PsycInfo were searched from inception to March 21, 2019. Additional sources were international trial registries and sponsors, drug companies and regulatory agencies' websites, and reference lists of published articles. Data were analyzed between June 8, 2020, and June 13, 2020. Study Selection: Analysis was restricted to double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials with depression scores available at the study's end point. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Baseline means, number of participants, end point means and SDs of total depression scores, antidepressant type, and publication year were extracted. Main Outcomes and Measures: Log SDs (bln σ̂) were derived for treatment groups (ie, antidepressant and placebo). A random-slope mixed-effects model was conducted to estimate the difference in bln σ̂ between treatment groups while controlling for end point mean. Secondary models determined whether differences in variability between groups were associated with baseline MDD severity; antidepressant class (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other related drugs; serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors; noradrenergic agents; or other antidepressants); and publication year. Results: In the 91 eligible trials (18 965 participants), variability in response did not differ significantly between antidepressants and placebo (bln σ̂, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05; P = .19). This finding is consistent with a range of treatment effect SDs (up to 16.10), depending on the association between the antidepressant and placebo effects. Variability was not associated with baseline MDD severity or publication year. Responses to noradrenergic agents were 11% more variable than responses to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (bln σ̂, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Although this study cannot rule out the possibility of treatment effect heterogeneity, it does not provide empirical support for personalizing antidepressant treatment based solely on total depression scores. Future studies should explore whether individual symptom scores or biomarkers are associated with variability in response to antidepressants.

8.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e16, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent and profiles of heterogeneity in cognitive functioning among participants in clinical trials of antidementia medication are unknown. We aimed to quantify and identify profiles of heterogeneity of cognition in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Individual-level participant data were analyzed from five pivotal clinical trials of donepezil for Alzheimer's disease (N = 2,919). Based on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale total scores from baseline up to week 12, a latent class model was used to identify heterogeneous groups. A logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with group membership. Sensitivity analysis was conducted, restricted to the donepezil, and then the placebo arm. RESULTS: The latent class model identified three classes labeled as low scorers (i.e., least cognitive impairment; N = 1,666, 76.04%), improvers (N = 27, 1.23%), and high scorers (N = 498, 22.73%). Logistic modeling showed that donepezil compared to placebo was significantly (p < 0.05) positively associated with membership in the improvers class (OR = 6.88, 95% CI = 2.03, 42.95), and negatively with high scorers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.98). Sensitivity analysis restricted to the placebo, then donepezil arms replicated similar heterogeneity patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results inform clinicians regarding the extent of heterogeneity in cognitive functioning during treatment and contribute to trial design considerations.

11.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 962280220982643, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504274

RESUMO

Dose-response models express the effect of different dose or exposure levels on a specific outcome. In meta-analysis, where aggregated-level data is available, dose-response evidence is synthesized using either one-stage or two-stage models in a frequentist setting. We propose a hierarchical dose-response model implemented in a Bayesian framework. We develop our model assuming normal or binomial likelihood and accounting for exposures grouped in clusters. To allow maximum flexibility, the dose-response association is modelled using restricted cubic splines. We implement these models in R using JAGS and we compare our approach to the one-stage dose-response meta-analysis model in a simulation study. We found that the Bayesian dose-response model with binomial likelihood has lower bias than the Bayesian model with normal likelihood and the frequentist one-stage model when studies have small sample size. When the true underlying shape is log-log or half-sigmoid, the performance of all models depends on choosing an appropriate location for the knots. In all other examined situations, all models perform very well and give practically identical results. We also re-analyze the data from 60 randomized controlled trials (15,984 participants) examining the efficacy (response) of various doses of serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs. All models suggest that the dose-response curve increases between zero dose and 30-40 mg of fluoxetine-equivalent dose, and thereafter shows small decline. We draw the same conclusion when we take into account the fact that five different antidepressants have been studied in the included trials. We show that implementation of the hierarchical model in Bayesian framework has similar performance to, but overcomes some of the limitations of the frequentist approach and offers maximum flexibility to accommodate features of the data.

12.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 133: 14-23, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compares three major elements of evidence-based medicine (EBM) practices, namely evidence synthesis, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and real-world prescriptions in the United States, regarding antidepressant treatments of major depression over the past 3 decades. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted network meta-analyses (NMAs) of antidepressants every 5 years up to 2016 based on a comprehensive data set of double-blind randomized controlled trials. We identified CPGs and extracted their recommendations. We surveyed the prescriptions in the United States at 5-year intervals up to 2015. RESULTS: Most drugs recommended by CPGs presented favorable performance in efficacy and acceptability in NMAs. However, CPG recommendations were often in terms of drug classes rather than individual drugs, whereas NMAs suggested distinctive difference between drugs within the same class. The update intervals of all CPGs were longer than 5 years. All the antidepressants prescribed frequently in the United States were recommended by CPGs. However, changes in prescriptions did not correspond to alterations in CPGs or to apparent changes in the effects indicated by NMAs. Many factors including marketing efforts, regulations, or patient values may have played a role. CONCLUSION: Enhancements including accelerating CPG updates and monitoring the impact of marketing on prescriptions should be considered in future EBM implementation.

13.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867420973261, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recruitment to clinical research in the National Health Service remains challenging. One barrier is accessing patients to discuss research participation. Two general approaches are used in the United Kingdom to facilitate this: an 'opt-in' approach (when clinicians communicate research opportunities to patients) and an 'opt-out' approach (all patients have the right to be informed of relevant research opportunities). No evidence-based data are available, however, to inform the decision about which approach is preferable. This study aimed to collect information from 'opt-in' and 'opt-out' Trusts and identify which of the two approaches is optimal for ensuring National Health Service patients are given opportunities to discuss research participation. METHOD: This sequential mixed methods study comprised three phases: (1) an Appreciative Inquiry across UK Trusts, (2) online surveys and (3) focus groups with National Health Service staff and patients at a representative mental health Trust. RESULTS: The study was conducted between June and October 2019. Out of seven National Health Service Mental Health Trusts contacted (three 'opt-out' and four 'opt-in'), only four took part in phase 1 of the study and three of them were 'opt-out' Trusts. Benefits of an 'opt-out' approach included greater inclusivity of patients and the removal of research gatekeepers, while the involvement of research-active clinicians and established patient-clinician relationships were cited as important to 'opt-in' success. Phases 2 and 3 were conducted at a different Trust (Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust) which was using an 'opt-in' approach. Of 333 staff and member survey responders, 267 (80.2%) favoured moving to an 'opt-out' approach (phase 2). Nineteen staff and 16 patients and carers participated in focus groups (phase 3). Concern was raised by staff regarding the lack of time for clinical research, with clinical work taking precedence over research; patients were concerned about a lack of research activity; all considered research to be beneficial and were supportive of a move to 'opt-out'. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that 'opt-out' is more beneficial than 'opt-in', with the potential to vastly increase patient access to research opportunities and to enable greater equality of information provision for currently marginalised groups. This should ensure that healthcare research is more representative of the entire population, including those with a mental health diagnosis.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD013288, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosis is an illness characterised by the presence of hallucinations and delusions that can cause distress or a marked change in an individual's behaviour (e.g. social withdrawal, flat or blunted effect). A first episode of psychosis (FEP) is the first time someone experiences these symptoms that can occur at any age, but the condition is most common in late adolescence and early adulthood. This review is concerned with first episode psychosis (FEP) and the early stages of a psychosis, referred to throughout this review as 'recent-onset psychosis.' Specialised early intervention (SEI) teams are community mental health teams that specifically treat people who are experiencing, or have experienced a recent-onset psychosis. The purpose of SEI teams is to intensively treat people with psychosis early in the course of the illness with the goal of increasing the likelihood of recovery and reducing the need for longer-term mental health treatment. SEI teams provide a range of treatments including medication, psychotherapy, psychoeducation, and occupational, educational and employment support, augmented by assertive contact with the service user and small caseloads. Treatment is time limited, usually offered for two to three years, after which service users are either discharged to primary care or transferred to a standard adult community mental health team. A previous Cochrane Review of SEI found preliminary evidence that SEI may be superior to standard community mental health care (described as 'treatment as usual (TAU)' in this review) but these recommendations were based on data from only one trial. This review updates the evidence for the use of SEI services. OBJECTIVES: To compare specialised early intervention (SEI) teams to treatment as usual (TAU) for people with recent-onset psychosis. SEARCH METHODS: On 3 October 2018 and 22 October 2019, we searched Cochrane Schizophrenia's study-based register of trials, including registries of clinical trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SEI with TAU for people with recent-onset psychosis. We entered trials meeting these criteria and reporting useable data as included studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently inspected citations, selected studies, extracted data and appraised study quality. For binary outcomes we calculated the risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous outcomes we calculated the mean difference (MD) and their 95% CIs, or if assessment measures differed for the same construct, we calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs and one cluster-RCT with a total of 1145 participants. The mean age in the trials was between 23.1 years (RAISE) and 26.6 years (OPUS). The included participants were 405 females (35.4%) and 740 males (64.6%). All trials took place in community mental healthcare settings. Two trials reported on recovery from psychosis at the end of treatment, with evidence that SEI team care may result in more participants in recovery than TAU at the end of treatment (73% versus 52%; RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.97; 2 studies, 194 participants; low-certainty evidence). Three trials provided data on disengagement from services at the end of treatment, with fewer participants probably being disengaged from mental health services in SEI (8%) in comparison to TAU (15%) (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.79; 3 studies, 630 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was low-certainty evidence that SEI may result in fewer admissions to psychiatric hospital than TAU at the end of treatment (52% versus 57%; RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00; 4 studies, 1145 participants) and low-certainty evidence that SEI may result in fewer psychiatric hospital days (MD -27.00 days, 95% CI -53.68 to -0.32; 1 study, 547 participants). Two trials reported on general psychotic symptoms at the end of treatment, with no evidence of a difference between SEI and TAU, although this evidence is very uncertain (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -4.58 to 3.75; 2 studies, 304 participants; very low-certainty evidence). A different pattern was observed in assessment of general functioning with an end of trial difference that may favour SEI (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.66; 2 studies, 467 participants; low-certainty evidence). It was uncertain whether the use of SEI resulted in fewer deaths due to all-cause mortality at end of treatment (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.20; 3 studies, 741 participants; low-certainty evidence). There was low risk of bias for random sequence generation and allocation concealment in three of the four included trials; the remaining trial had unclear risk of bias. Due to the nature of the intervention, we considered all trials at high risk of bias for blinding of participants and personnel. Two trials had low risk of bias and two trials had high risk of bias for blinding of outcomes assessments. Three trials had low risk of bias for incomplete outcome data, while one trial had high risk of bias. Two trials had low risk of bias, one trial had high risk of bias, and one had unclear risk of bias for selective reporting. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that SEI may provide benefits to service users during treatment compared to TAU. These benefits probably include fewer disengagements from mental health services (moderate-certainty evidence), and may include small reductions in psychiatric hospitalisation (low-certainty evidence), and a small increase in global functioning (low-certainty evidence) and increased service satisfaction (moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence regarding the effect of SEI over TAU after treatment has ended is uncertain. Further evidence investigating the longer-term outcomes of SEI is needed. Furthermore, all the eligible trials included in this review were conducted in high-income countries, and it is unclear whether these findings would translate to low- and middle-income countries, where both the intervention and the comparison conditions may be different.

15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD013287, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosis is an illness characterised by the presence of hallucinations and delusions that can cause distress or a marked change in an individual's behaviour (e.g. social withdrawal, flat or blunted effect). A first episode of psychosis (FEP) is the first time someone experiences these symptoms that can occur at any age, but the condition is most common in late adolescence and early adulthood. This review is concerned with FEP and the early stages of a psychosis, referred to throughout this review as 'recent-onset psychosis.' Specialised early intervention (SEI) teams are community mental health teams that specifically treat people who are experiencing, or have experienced, a recent-onset psychosis. SEI teams provide a range of treatments including medication, psychotherapy, psychoeducation, educational and employment support, augmented by assertive contact with the service user and small caseloads. Treatment is time limited, usually offered for two to three years, after which service users are either discharged to primary care or transferred to a standard adult community mental health team. Evidence suggests that once SEI treatment ends, improvements may not be sustained, bringing uncertainty about the optimal duration of SEI to ensure the best long-term outcomes. Extending SEI has been proposed as a way of providing continued intensive treatment and continuity of care, of usually up to five years, in order to a) sustain the positive initial outcomes of SEI; and b) improve the long-term trajectory of the illness. OBJECTIVES: To compare extended SEI teams with treatment as usual (TAU) for people with recent-onset psychosis. To compare extended SEI teams with standard SEI teams followed by TAU (standard SEI + TAU) for people with recent-onset psychosis. SEARCH METHODS: On 3 October 2018 and 22 October 2019, we searched Cochrane Schizophrenia's study-based register of trials, including registries of clinical trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing extended SEI with TAU for people with recent-onset psychosis and all RCTs comparing extended SEI with standard SEI + TAU for people with recent-onset psychosis. We entered trials meeting these criteria and reporting usable data as included studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently inspected citations, selected studies, extracted data and appraised study quality. For binary outcomes we calculated the risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous outcomes we calculated the mean difference (MD) and their 95% CIs, or if assessment measures differed for the same construct, we calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs, with a total 780 participants, aged 16 to 35 years. All participants met the criteria for schizophrenia spectrum disorders or affective psychoses. No trials compared extended SEI with TAU. All three trials randomly allocated people approximately two years into standard SEI to either extended SEI or standard SEI + TAU. The certainty of evidence for outcomes varied from low to very low. Our primary outcomes were recovery and disengagement from mental health services. No trials reported on recovery, and we used remission as a proxy. Three trials reported on remission, with the point estimate suggesting a 13% increase in remission in favour of extended SEI, but this included wide confidence intervals (CIs) and a very uncertain estimate of no benefit (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.31; 3 trials, 780 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Two trials provided data on disengagement from services with evidence that extended SEI care may result in fewer disengagements from mental health treatment (15%) in comparison to standard SEI + TAU (34%) (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.75; 2 trials, 380 participants; low-certainty evidence). There may be no evidence of a difference in rates of psychiatric hospital admission (RR 1.55, 95% CI 0.68 to 3.52; 1 trial, 160 participants; low-certainty evidence), or the number of days spent in a psychiatric hospital (MD -2.70, 95% CI -8.30 to 2.90; 1 trial, 400 participants; low-certainty evidence). One trial found uncertain evidence regarding lower global psychotic symptoms in extended SEI in comparison to standard SEI + TAU (MD -1.90, 95% CI -3.28 to -0.52; 1 trial, 156 participants; very low-certainty evidence). It was uncertain whether the use of extended SEI over standard SEI + TAU resulted in fewer deaths due to all-cause mortality, as so few deaths were recorded in trials (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.64; 3 trials, 780 participants; low-certainty evidence). Very uncertain evidence suggests that using extended SEI instead of standard SEI + TAU may not improve global functioning (SMD 0.23, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.76; 2 trials, 560 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was low risk of bias in all three trials for random sequence generation, allocation concealment and other biases. All three trials had high risk of bias for blinding of participants and personnel due to the nature of the intervention. For the risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessments and incomplete outcome data there was at least one trial with high or unclear risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There may be preliminary evidence of benefit from extending SEI team care for treating people experiencing psychosis, with fewer people disengaging from mental health services. Evidence regarding other outcomes was uncertain. The certainty of evidence for the measured outcomes was low or very low. Further, suitably powered studies that use a consistent approach to outcome selection are needed, but with only one further ongoing trial, there is unlikely to be any definitive conclusion for the effectiveness of extended SEI for at least the next few years.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) are widely used rating scales to assess cognition in Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To understand the correspondence between these rating scales, we aimed to examine the linkage of MMSE with the ADAS-Cog and SIB total and change scores. METHODS: We used individual-level data on participants with Alzheimer's disease (n=2925) from five pivotal clinical trials of donepezil. Data were collected at baseline and scheduled visits for up to 6 months. We used equipercentile linking to identify the correspondence between simultaneous measurements of MMSE with ADAS-Cog, and SIB total and change ratings. FINDINGS: Spearman's correlation coefficients were of strong magnitude between the MMSE total score and the ADAS-Cog (rs from -0.82 to -0.87; p<0.05) and SIB total scores (rs from 0.70 to 0.75; p<0.05). Weaker correlations between the change scores were observed between the MMSE change score and the ADAS-Cog (week 1: r=-0.11, p=0.18; rs thereafter: -0.28 to -0.45; p<0.05) and SIB change scores (rs from 0.31 to 0.44; p<0.05). Linking suggested that the MMSE total scores were sensitive to moderate and severe cognitive impairment levels. Despite weak to moderate correlations for the change scores, moderate change levels linked well, indicating ceiling and floor effects. CONCLUSIONS: The current results can be used in meta-analyses, data harmonisation and may contribute to increasing statistical power when pooling data from multiple sources. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The current study results help clinicians to understand these cognitive rating scale scores.

17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(11): 982-990, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have shown both protective and adverse associations with neuropsychiatric outcomes. We aimed to examine the possible associations between statins and suicidality, depression, anxiety, and seizures. METHODS: Using Swedish national registers, we linked data on dispensed statin prescriptions with data on unplanned (emergency) hospital visits or specialised outpatient care for four neuropsychiatric outcomes: suicidal behaviour (including deaths from suicide), depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and seizures. We included all individuals in the registries who were dispensed statins and who were aged 15 years or older between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2013. We applied a within-individual design using stratified Cox proportional hazards regression to compare the incidence of the defined outcomes during periods on statins and periods off statins within each individual, thus adjusting for time-invariant confounders. Non-specific effects of treatment were tested by investigating these outcomes in relation to thiazide diuretic use and antihistamine use in the same cohort. FINDINGS: The statin-users cohort comprised 1 149 384 individuals, of whom 1 015 949 (88·4%) were aged 50 years or older, 625 616 (54·4%) were male, and 523 768 (45·6%) were female. The study period consisted of 2 053 310 non-treatment periods and 2 997 545 treatment periods, and 957 216 (83·3%) individuals had a medication status change (from on statins to off statins, or vice versa). Suicide outcomes were found in 6372 (0·6%) individuals, depressive disorders in 23 745 (2·1%), anxiety disorders in 30 100 (2·6%), and seizures in 28 844 (2·5%). There were no clear associations between periods of statin treatment and suicidal behaviour or deaths from suicide (hazard ratio 0·99 [95% CI 0·90-1·08]), anxiety disorders (0·99 [0·95-1·02]), or seizures (1·00 [0·97-1·04]). Statins were associated with reduced hazards of depressive disorders (0·91 [0·87-0·94]), which remained after adjustment for concurrent antidepressant use (0·91 [0·88-0·94]). Hazard ratios for depressive disorders were 0·61 (0·38-1·00; n=14 718) with thiazide diuretic use and 0·84 (0·67-1·06; n=23 715) with antihistamine use. INTERPRETATION: Statin use is not associated with suicidality, anxiety disorders, or seizures. Whether the observed association between statin use and reduced diagnoses of clinical depression is confounded by non-specific benefits related to being prescribed medication needs further research. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Swedish Research Council, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Professorship, NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Karolinska Institutet.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052390

RESUMO

Importance: Several psychotherapy protocols have been evaluated as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for patients with bipolar disorder, but little is known about their comparative effectiveness. Objective: To use systematic review and network meta-analysis to compare the association of using manualized psychotherapies and therapy components with reducing recurrences and stabilizing symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Data Sources: Major bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews) and trial registries were searched from inception to June 1, 2019, for randomized clinical trials of psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Study Selection: Of 3255 abstracts, 39 randomized clinical trials were identified that compared pharmacotherapy plus manualized psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral therapy, family or conjoint therapy, interpersonal therapy, or psychoeducational therapy) with pharmacotherapy plus a control intervention (eg, supportive therapy or treatment as usual) for patients with bipolar disorder. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Binary outcomes (recurrence and study retention) were compared across treatments using odds ratios (ORs). For depression or mania severity scores, data were pooled and compared across treatments using standardized mean differences (SMDs) (Hedges-adjusted g using weighted pooled SDs). In component network meta-analyses, the incremental effectiveness of 13 specific therapy components was examined. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was illness recurrence. Secondary outcomes were depressive and manic symptoms at 12 months and acceptability of treatment (study retention). Results: A total of 39 randomized clinical trials with 3863 participants (2247 of 3693 [60.8%] with data on sex were female; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [8.2] years) were identified. Across 20 two-group trials that provided usable information, manualized treatments were associated with lower recurrence rates than control treatments (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43-0.74). Psychoeducation with guided practice of illness management skills in a family or group format was associated with reducing recurrences vs the same strategies in an individual format (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.94). Cognitive behavioral therapy (SMD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.01) and, with less certainty, family or conjoint therapy (SMD, -0.46; 95% CI, -1.01 to 0.08) and interpersonal therapy (SMD, -0.46; 95% CI, -1.07 to 0.15) were associated with stabilizing depressive symptoms compared with treatment as usual. Higher study retention was associated with family or conjoint therapy (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.82) and brief psychoeducation (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85) compared with standard psychoeducation. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that outpatients with bipolar disorder may benefit from skills-based psychosocial interventions combined with pharmacotherapy. Conclusions are tempered by heterogeneity in populations, treatment duration, and follow-up.

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