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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117003, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links ambient air pollution with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, an association that is methodologically challenging to investigate. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution with SARS-CoV-2 infection measured through antibody response, level of antibody response among those infected, and COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We contacted 9,605 adult participants from a population-based cohort study in Catalonia between June and November 2020; most participants were between 40 and 65 years of age. We drew blood samples from 4,103 participants and measured immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies against five viral target antigens to establish infection to the virus and levels of antibody response among those infected. We defined COVID-19 disease using self-reported hospital admission, prior positive diagnostic test, or more than three self-reported COVID-19 symptoms after contact with a COVID-19 case. We estimated prepandemic (2018-2019) exposure to fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) at the residential address using hybrid land-use regression models. We calculated log-binomial risk ratios (RRs), adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Among those tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 743 (18.1%) were seropositive. Air pollution levels were not statistically significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: Adjusted RRs per interquartile range were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.18) for NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.14) for PM2.5, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.09) for BC, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) for O3. Among infected participants, exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 were positively associated with IgG levels for all viral target antigens. Among all participants, 481 (5.0%) had COVID-19 disease. Air pollution levels were associated with COVID-19 disease: adjusted RRs=1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.29) for NO2 and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) for PM2.5. Exposure to O3 was associated with a slightly decreased risk (RR=0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03). Associations of air pollution with COVID-19 disease were more pronounced for severe COVID-19, with RRs=1.26 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.79) for NO2 and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.16) for PM2.5. DISCUSSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 disease and level of antibody response among infected but not with SARS-CoV-2 infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9726.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Formação de Anticorpos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 151, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence to suggest that long term exposure to air pollution could be associated with decreased levels of fertility, although there is controversy as to how short term exposure may compromise fertility in IVF patients and what windows of exposure during the IVF process patients could be most vulnerable. METHODS: This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the impact of acute exposure that air pollution have on reproductive outcomes in different moments of the IVF process. Women undergoing IVF living in Barcelona were recruited. Individual air pollution exposures were modelled at their home address 15 and 3 days before embryo transfer (15D and 3D, respectively), the same day of transfer (D0), and 7 days after (D7). The pollutants modelled were: PM2.5 [particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm], PMcoarse (PM between 2.5 and 10µm), PM10 (PM≤10 µm), PM2.5 abs, and NO2 and NOx. Outcomes were analyzed using multi-level regression models, with adjustment for co-pollutants and confouding factors. Two sensitivity analyses were performed. First, the model was adjusted for subacute exposure (received 15 days before ET). The second analysis was based on the first transfer performed on each patient aiming to exclude patients who failed previous transfers. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-four women were recruited, contributing with data for 486 embryo transfers. Acute and subacute exposure to PMs showed a tendency in increasing miscarriage rate and reducing clinical pregnancy rate, although results were not statistically significant. The first sensitivity analysis, showed a significant risk of miscarriage for PM2.5 exposure on 3D after adjusting for subacute exposure, and an increased risk of achieving no pregnancy for PM2.5, PMcoarse and PM10 on 3D. The second sensitivity analysis showed a significant risk of miscarriage for PM2.5 exposure on 3D, and a significant risk of achieving no pregnancy for PM2.5, PMcoarse and PM10 particularly on 3D. No association was observed for nitrogen dioxides on reproductive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to particulate matter has a negative impact on reproductive outcomes in IVF patients. Subacute exposure seems to increase the harmful effect of the acute exposure on miscarriage and pregnancy rates. Nitrogen dioxides do not modify significantly the reproductive success.

4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(10): e718-e730, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural outdoor environments including green spaces play an important role in preserving population health and wellbeing in cities, but the number of deaths that could be prevented by increasing green space in European cities is not known. We aimed to estimate the number of natural-cause deaths among adult residents that could be prevented in cities in 31 European countries, if the WHO recommendation for universal access to green space was achieved. METHODS: In this health impact assessment study we focused on adult residents (aged ≥20 years; n=169 134 322) in 978 cities and 49 greater cities, in 31 European countries. We used two green space proxies: normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), and percentage of green area (%GA). The exposure was estimated at a fine grid-cell level (250 m × 250 m) and the preventable mortality burden for 2015 was estimated at the local city-level. FINDINGS: For 2015 we found that meeting the WHO recommendation of access to green space could prevent 42 968 (95% CI 32 296-64 177) deaths annually using the NDVI proxy (ie, 20% [95% CI 15-30] of deaths per 100 000 inhabitants-year), which represents 2·3% (95% CI 1·7-3·4) of the total natural-cause mortality and 245 (95% CI 184-366) years of life lost per 100 000 inhabitants-year. For the %GA proxy 17 947 (95%CI 0-35 747) deaths could be prevented annually. For %GA the number of attributable deaths were half of that of the NDVI and results were non-significant due to the exposure response function considered. The distribution of NDVI and %GA varied between cities and was not equally distributed within cities. Among European capitals, Athens, Brussels, Budapest, Copenhagen, and Riga showed some of the highest mortality burdens due to the lack of green space. The main source of uncertainty for our results was the choice of the age-structures of the population for the NDVI analysis, and exposure-response function for the %GA analysis. INTERPRETATION: A large number of premature deaths in European cities could be prevented by increasing exposure to green space, while contributing to sustainable, liveable and healthy cities. FUNDING: GoGreenRoutes, Internal ISGlobal fund, and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

5.
Environ Int ; 157: 106864, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air quality contributes to incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) although the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unclear. This study was aimed to examine the association between air pollution and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers and amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition. Participants and methods The sample included 156 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 57 years (61 at biomarkers assessment) with increased risk of AD from the ALFA + Study. We examined CSF levels of Aß42, Aß40, p-Tau, t-Tau, neurofilament light (NfL) and cerebral amyloid load (Centiloid). A Land Use Regression model from 2009 was used to estimate residential exposure to air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2,) and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5 abs, PM10). This model was considered a surrogate of long-term exposure until time of data collection in 2013-2014. Participants have resided in the same residence for at least the previous 3 years. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants and biomarkers. The effect modification by CSF Aß status and APOE-ε4 carriership was also assessed. RESULTS: A consistent pattern of results indicated that greater exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance was associated with higher levels of brain Aß deposition, while greater exposure to PM10 and PM2.5was associated with higher levels of CSF NfL. Most associations were driven by individuals that were Aß-positive. Although APOE-ε4 status did not significantly modify these associations, the effect of air pollutants exposure on CSF NfL levels was stronger in APOE-ε4 carriers. CONCLUSION: In a population of cognitively unimpaired adults with increased risk of AD, long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with higher levels in biomarkers of AD pathology. While further research is granted to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such associations, our results reinforce the role of air pollution as an environmental risk factor for AD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença de Alzheimer , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Proteínas tau
6.
Data Brief ; 37: 107269, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409138

RESUMO

Dataset from a large-scale air quality citizen science campaign is presented (xAire, 725 measurements, see Ref. [1]). A broad partnership with 1650 citizens from communities around 18 primary schools across Barcelona (Spain) provided the capacity to obtain unprecedented high-resolution NO2 levels which had in turn the capacity to provide an updated asthma Health Impact Assessment. Nitrogen dioxide levels being obtained in a 4-week period during February and March 2018 with Palmes' diffusion samplers are herein provided. Dataset includes NO2 levels from outdoor locations n=671, playgrounds n=31, and inside school buildings (mostly classrooms) n=23. Data was calibrated and annualized with concentration levels from automatic reference stations. It is shown that NO2 levels vary considerably with at some cases very high levels. Strong differences might also however be explained by the fact that ambient air pollution is reduced exponentially with distance from an emission source like traffic meaning that two samplers located about 100 m away can measure a tenfold difference concentration level.

7.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258378

RESUMO

Introduction: Urban environmental exposures might contribute to the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to identify structural brain imaging correlates of urban environmental exposures in cognitively unimpaired individuals at increased risk of AD. Methods: Two hundred twelve participants with brain scans and residing in Barcelona, Spain, were included. Land use regression models were used to estimate residential exposure to air pollutants. The daily average noise level was obtained from noise maps. Residential green exposure indicators were also generated. A cerebral 3D-T1 was acquired to obtain information on brain morphology. Voxel-based morphometry statistical analyses were conducted to determine the areas of the brain in which regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were associated with environmental exposures. Results: Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was associated with lower GM volume in the precuneus and greater WM volume in the splenium of the corpus callosum and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, exposure to fine particulate matter was associated with greater GM in cerebellum and WM in the splenium of corpus callosum, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum cingulate gyrus. Noise was positively associated with WM volume in the body of the corpus callosum. Exposure to greenness was associated with greater GM volume in the middle frontal, precentral, and the temporal pole. Discussion: In cognitively unimpaired adults with increased risk of AD, exposure to air pollution, noise, and green areas are associated with GM and WM volumes of specific brain areas known to be affected in AD, thus potentially conferring a higher vulnerability to the disease.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147750, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082196

RESUMO

We present outcomes from a large-scale air quality citizen science campaign (xAire, 725 measurements) to demonstrate its positive contribution in the interplay between advances in exposure assessment and developments in policy or collective action. A broad partnership with 1,650 people from communities around 18 primary schools across Barcelona provided the capacity to obtain unprecedented high-resolution NO2 levels and an updated asthma Health Impact Assessment. It is shown that NO2 levels vary considerably with at some cases very high levels. More than a 1,000 new cases of childhood asthma could be prevented each year by lowering NO2 levels. Representativity of site selection and the minimal number of samplers for land use regression modelling are considered. Enhancement of community knowledge and attitudes towards collective response were observed and identified as key drivers for successful large-scale monitoring campaigns. The results encourage strengthening collaboration with local communities when exploring environmental health issues.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ciência do Cidadão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8903, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903601

RESUMO

Living near, recreating in, and feeling psychologically connected to, the natural world are all associated with better mental health, but many exposure-related questions remain. Using data from an 18-country survey (n = 16,307) we explored associations between multiple measures of mental health (positive well-being, mental distress, depression/anxiety medication use) and: (a) exposures (residential/recreational visits) to different natural settings (green/inland-blue/coastal-blue spaces); and (b) nature connectedness, across season and country. People who lived in greener/coastal neighbourhoods reported higher positive well-being, but this association largely disappeared when recreational visits were controlled for. Frequency of recreational visits to green, inland-blue, and coastal-blue spaces in the last 4 weeks were all positively associated with positive well-being and negatively associated with mental distress. Associations with green space visits were relatively consistent across seasons and countries but associations with blue space visits showed greater heterogeneity. Nature connectedness was also positively associated with positive well-being and negatively associated with mental distress and was, along with green space visits, associated with a lower likelihood of using medication for depression. By contrast inland-blue space visits were associated with a greater likelihood of using anxiety medication. Results highlight the benefits of multi-exposure, multi-response, multi-country studies in exploring complexity in nature-health associations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/história , Depressão/história , Saúde Mental/história , Parques Recreativos/história , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(5): 1124-1132, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution may play a role in childhood obesity development, but evidence is scarce, and the modifying role of socioeconomic status (SES) is unclear. We aimed to examine the association between exposure to air pollution during early childhood and subsequent risk of developing overweight and obesity, and to evaluate whether SES is a modifier of this association. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 416,955 children identified as normal weight between 2-5 years old and registered in an electronic primary healthcare record between 2006 and 2016 in Catalonia (Spain). Children were followed-up until they developed overweight or obesity, reached 15 years of age, died, transferred out, or end of study period (31/12/2018). Overweight and obesity were defined following the WHO reference obtained from height and weight measures. We estimated annual residential census levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), <2.5 µm (PM2.5), and 2.5-10 µm (PMcoarse) at study entry. We estimated the risk of developing overweight and obesity per interquartile range increase in air pollution exposure with Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 142,590 (34.2%) children developed overweight or obesity. Increased exposure to NO2, PM10, and PMcoarse was associated with a 2-3% increased risk of developing overweight and obesity (hazard ratio [HR] per 21.8 µg/m3 NO2 = 1.03 [95% CI: 1.02-1.04]; HR per 6.4 µg/m3 PM10 = 1.02 [95% CI: 1.02-1.03]; HR per 4.6 µg/m3 PMcoarse = 1.02, [95% CI: 1.01-1.02]). For all air pollutants, associations were stronger among children living in most compared to least deprived areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early life exposure to air pollution may be associated with a small increase in the risk of developing overweight and obesity in childhood, and that this association may be exacerbated in the most deprived areas. Even these small associations are of potential global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and the long-term health consequences of childhood obesity are clear.

11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(3): e121-e134, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a major environmental cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cities are generally hotspots for air pollution and disease. However, the exact extent of the health effects of air pollution at the city level is still largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the proportion of annual preventable deaths due to air pollution in almost 1000 cities in Europe. METHODS: We did a quantitative health impact assessment for the year 2015 to estimate the effect of air pollution exposure (PM2·5 and NO2) on natural-cause mortality for adult residents (aged ≥20 years) in 969 cities and 47 greater cities in Europe. We retrieved the cities and greater cities from the Urban Audit 2018 dataset and did the analysis at a 250 m grid cell level for 2015 data based on the global human settlement layer residential population. We estimated the annual premature mortality burden preventable if the WHO recommended values (ie, 10 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2) were achieved and if air pollution concentrations were reduced to the lowest values measured in 2015 in European cities (ie, 3·7 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 3·5 µg/m3 for NO2). We clustered and ranked the cities on the basis of population and age-standardised mortality burden associated with air pollution exposure. In addition, we did several uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our estimates. FINDINGS: Compliance with WHO air pollution guidelines could prevent 51 213 (95% CI 34 036-68 682) deaths per year for PM2·5 exposure and 900 (0-2476) deaths per year for NO2 exposure. The reduction of air pollution to the lowest measured concentrations could prevent 124 729 (83 332-166 535) deaths per year for PM2·5 exposure and 79 435 (0-215 165) deaths per year for NO2 exposure. A great variability in the preventable mortality burden was observed by city, ranging from 0 to 202 deaths per 100 000 population for PM2·5 and from 0 to 73 deaths for NO2 per 100 000 population when the lowest measured concentrations were considered. The highest PM2·5 mortality burden was estimated for cities in the Po Valley (northern Italy), Poland, and Czech Republic. The highest NO2 mortality burden was estimated for large cities and capital cities in western and southern Europe. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were particularly sensitive to the choice of the exposure response function, but less so to the choice of baseline mortality values and exposure assessment method. INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of premature deaths in European cities could be avoided annually by lowering air pollution concentrations, particularly below WHO guidelines. The mortality burden varied considerably between European cities, indicating where policy actions are more urgently needed to reduce air pollution and achieve sustainable, liveable, and healthy communities. Current guidelines should be revised and air pollution concentrations should be reduced further to achieve greater protection of health in cities. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Internal ISGlobal fund.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Prematura , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Europa (Continente) , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115266, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745901

RESUMO

Urban environments are characterized by multiple exposures that may influence body mass index (BMI) growth in early life. Previous studies are few, with inconsistent results and no evaluation of simultaneous exposures. Thus, this study aimed to assess the associations between exposure to air pollution, green spaces and built environment characteristics, and BMI growth trajectories from 0 to 5 years. This longitudinal study used data from an electronic primary care health record database in Catalonia (Spain), including 79,992 children born between January 01, 2011 and December 31, 2012 in urban areas and followed until 5 years of age. Height and weight were measured frequently during childhood and BMI (kg/m2) was calculated. Urban exposures were estimated at census tract level and included: air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) and <2.5 µm (PM2.5)), green spaces (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and % green space) and built environment (population density, street connectivity, land use mix, walkability index). Individual BMI trajectories were estimated using linear spline multilevel models with several knot points. In single exposure models, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and population density were associated with small increases in BMI growth (e.g. ß per IQR PM10 increase = 0.023 kg/m2, 95%CI: 0.013, 0.033), and NDVI, % of green spaces and land use mix with small reductions in BMI growth (e.g. ß per IQR % green spaces increase = -0.015 kg/m2, 95%CI: -0.026, -0.005). These associations were strongest during the first two months of life. In multiple exposure models, most associations were attenuated, with only those for PM10 and land use mix remaining statistically significant. This large longitudinal study suggests that early life exposure to air pollution, green space and built environment characteristics may be associated with small changes in BMI growth trajectories during the first years of life, and that it is important to account for multiple exposures in urban settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ambiente Construído , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Espanha
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764502

RESUMO

Exposure to greenspace has been related to improved mental health, but the available evidence is limited and findings are heterogeneous across different areas. We aimed to evaluate the associations between residential exposure to greenspace and specific psychopathological and psychosomatic symptoms related to mental health among mothers from a Spanish birth cohort. Our study was based on data from 1171 women participating in two follow-ups of a population-based cohort in Valencia, Sabadell, and Gipuzkoa (2004-2012). For each participant, residential surrounding greenspace was estimated as the average of the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) across different buffers around the residential address at the time of delivery and at the 4-year follow-up. The Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) was applied to characterize mental health at the 4-year follow-up. We developed mixed-effects logistic regression models controlled for relevant covariates to evaluate the associations. Higher residential surrounding greenspace was associated with a lower risk of somatization and anxiety symptoms. For General Severity Index (GSI), obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism symptoms, we generally observed protective associations, but none attained statistical significance. Findings from this study suggested a potential positive impactof greenspace on mental health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Environ Res ; 191: 110032, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green areas has been associated with several health benefits; however, the available evidence on such benefits for hypertension is still limited. This study aimed to investigate and compare the association between residential exposure to greenspace and hypertension in Barcelona, Spain and Brussels, Belgium. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2016 Barcelona Health Interview Survey (HIS) (n = 3400) and the 2013 Belgian HIS (n = 2335). Both surveys were harmonized in terms of outcomes, confounders and exposure assessment. Residential exposure to greenspace was characterized as 1) surrounding greenspace (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index 2 (MSAVI2)) across buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m; 2) surrounding green space across 300 m and 500 m buffers; and 3) Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Our outcome was self-reported hypertension. We developed logistic regression models to evaluate the city-specific association between each greenspace measure and hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: One interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential distance to the nearest green space was associated with higher risk of hypertension in Barcelona [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.29 (IQR: 262.2)], but not in Brussels [OR: 0.95; 95%CI 0.77-1.17 (IQR: 215.2)]. Stratified analyses suggested stronger associations in older participants (≥65 years) for both cities. Findings for residential surrounding green space and greenspace were not conclusive. However, in Brussels, we found protective associations in older participants for both residential surrounding greenspace metrics [NDVI 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.81 (IQR: 0.21) and MSAVI2 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.83 (IQR: 0.18)]. We did not find any indication for the modification of our evaluated associations by sex and education level. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that living closer to greenspace could be associated with lower risk of hypertension, particularly in older age. Future research is needed to replicate our findings in other settings and shed light on potential underlying mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Int ; 138: 105546, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air quality might contribute to incidence of dementia-related disorders, including Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of urban environmental exposures (including exposure to air pollution, noise and green space) on cognitive performance and brain structure of cognitively unimpaired individuals at risk for AD. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The ALFA (ALzheimer and FAmilies) study is a prospective cohort of middle-age, cognitively unimpaired subjects, many of them offspring of AD patients. Cognitive performance was measured by the administration of episodic memory and executive function tests (N = 958). Structural brain imaging was performed in a subsample of participants to obtain morphological information of brain areas, specially focused on cortical thickness, known to be affected by AD (N = 228). Land Use Regression models were used to estimate residential exposure to air pollutants. The daily average noise level at the street nearest to each participant's residential address was obtained from noise maps. For each participant residential green exposure indicators, such as surrounding greenness or amount of green, were generated. General linear models were conducted to assess the association between environmental exposures, cognitive performance and brain structure in a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between urban environmental exposures and the cognitive composite (p > 0.1). Higher exposure to air pollutants, but not noise, was associated with lower cortical thickness in brain regions known to be affected by AD, especially NO2 (ß = -16.4; p = 0.05) and PM10 (ß = -5.34; p = 0.05). On the other hand, increasing greenness indicators was associated with greater thickness in these same areas (ß = 0.08; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In cognitively unimpaired adults with increased risk for AD, increased exposure to air pollution was suggested to be associated with greater global atrophy and reduced volume and thickness in specific brain areas known to be affected in AD, thus suggesting a potential link between environmental exposures and cerebral vulnerability to AD. Although more research in the field is needed, air pollution reduction is crucial for decreasing the burden of age-related disorders.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença de Alzheimer , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Environ Int ; 138: 105619, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between outdoor air pollutants exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy, and growth and cardio-metabolic risk at four years of age, and evaluated the mediating role of birth weight. METHODS: We included mother-child pairs (N = 1,724) from the Spanish INMA birth cohort established in 2003-2008. First trimester of pregnancy nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particles (PM2.5) exposure levels were estimated. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipids were measured at four years of age. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories from birth to four years were identified. RESULTS: Increased PM2.5 exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with decreased z-scores of weight (zWeight) and BMI (zBMI) (zWeight change per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 exposure = -0.12; 95% CI: -0.23, -0.01; zBMI change = -0.12; 95% CI: -0.23, -0.01). Higher NO2 and PM2.5 exposure was associated to a reduced risk of being in a trajectory with accelerated BMI gain, compared to children with the average trajectory. Birth weight partially mediated the association between PM2.5 and zWeight and zBMI. PM2.5 and NO2 were not associated with the other cardio-metabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive study of many growth and cardio-metabolic risk related outcomes suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy may be associated with delays in physical growth in the early years after birth. These findings imply that pregnancy exposure to air pollutants has a lasting effect on growth after birth and require follow-up at later child ages.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
17.
Environ Int ; 134: 105132, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Car-dependent city planning has resulted in high levels of environmental pollution, sedentary lifestyles and increased vulnerability to the effects of climate change. The Barcelona Superblock model is an innovative urban and transport planning strategy that aims to reclaim public space for people, reduce motorized transport, promote sustainable mobility and active lifestyles, provide urban greening and mitigate effects of climate change. We estimated the health impacts of implementing this urban model across Barcelona. METHODS: We carried out a quantitative health impact assessment (HIA) study for Barcelona residents ≥20 years (N = 1,301,827) on the projected Superblock area level (N = 503), following the comparative risk assessment methodology. We 1) estimated expected changes in (a) transport-related physical activity (PA), (b) air pollution (NO2), (c) road traffic noise, (d) green space, and (e) reduction of the urban heat island (UHI) effect through heat reductions; 2) scaled available risk estimates; and 3) calculated attributable health impact fractions. Estimated endpoints were preventable premature mortality, changes in life expectancy and economic impacts. RESULTS: We estimated that 667 premature deaths (95% CI: 235-1,098) could be prevented annually through implementing the 503 Superblocks. The greatest number of preventable deaths could be attributed to reductions in NO2 (291, 95% PI: 0-838), followed by noise (163, 95% CI: 83-246), heat (117, 95% CI: 101-137), and green space development (60, 95% CI: 0-119). Increased PA for an estimated 65,000 persons shifting car/motorcycle trips to public and active transport resulted in 36 preventable deaths (95% CI: 26-50). The Superblocks were estimated to result in an average increase in life expectancy for the Barcelona adult population of almost 200 days (95% CI: 99-297), and result in an annual economic impact of 1.7 billion EUR (95% CI: 0.6-2.8). DISCUSSION: The Barcelona Superblocks were estimated to help reduce harmful environmental exposures (i.e. air pollution, noise, and heat) while simultaneously increase PA levels and access to green space, and thereby provide substantial health benefits. For an equitable distribution of health benefits, the Superblocks should be implemented consistently across the entire city. Similar health benefits are expected for other cities that face similar challenges of environmental pollution, climate change vulnerability and low PA levels, by adopting the Barcelona Superblock model.


Assuntos
Saúde da População Urbana , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Temperatura Alta
18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 45-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence on green spaces and obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of access to green spaces and surrounding greenness with obesity in Spain. METHODS: We enrolled 2354 individuals 20-85 years from urban areas of seven provinces of Spain between 2008-13. Subjects were randomly selected population controls of the MCC-Spain case-control study. We geocoded current residences and defined exposures in a buffer of 300 m around them: i) access to green space, identified using Urban Atlas, and ii) levels of surrounding greenness, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We examined excess weight/obesity as binary outcomes based on body mass index and waist-hip ratio. We examined effect modification by genetic factors, sex and individual socio-economic status and mediation by physical activity and concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. To assess potential effect modification by genetic factors, we used a polygenic risk score based on obesity polymorphisms detected in genome-wide association studies. We used logistic mixed-effects models with a random effect for catchment area adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Access to green space was associated with a reduced risk of excess weight/obesity after adjusting for confounders [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.63, 1.07), p-value = 0.143; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.45, 1.01), p-value = 0.057]. In the stratified analysis, this association was only observed in women. Associations between surrounding greenness and excess weight/obesity were null or modest based on a 1 IQR increase in NDVI [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.88, 1.11), p-value = 0.875; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), p-value = 0.186]. The observed associations were not mediated by physical activity or air pollution. DISCUSSION: Access to green space may be associated with decreased risk of excess weight/obesity among women in Spain. Mechanisms explaining this association remain unclear.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Planejamento Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Int ; 134: 105173, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of studies on beneficial effects of the natural outdoor environment (NOE) on health, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relations between amount, quality, use and experience of the NOE; and physical activity, social contacts and mental well-being. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on GIS-derived measures of residential surrounding greenness (NDVI), NOE within 300 m, and audit data on quality of the streetscape were combined with questionnaire data from 3947 adults in four European cities. These included time spent in NOE (use); and perceived greenness, and satisfaction with and importance given to the NOE (experience). Physical activity, social contacts and mental health were selected as key outcome indicators. Descriptive and multilevel analyses were conducted both on pooled data and for individual cities. RESULTS: More minutes spent in the NOE were associated with more minutes of physical activity, a higher frequency of social contacts with neighbors, and better mental well-being. Perceived greenness, satisfaction with and importance of the NOE, were other strong predictors of the outcomes, while GIS measures of NOE and streetscape quality were not. We found clear differences between the four cities. CONCLUSIONS: Use and experience of the natural outdoor environment are important predictors for beneficial effects of the natural outdoor environment and health. Future research should focus more on these aspects to further increase our understanding of these mechanisms, and needs to take the local context into account.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Fenótipo , Características de Residência
20.
Environ Res ; 178: 108734, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Air pollution (AP) may affect neurodevelopment, but studies about the effects of AP on the growing human brain are still scarce. We aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to AP on lateral ventricles (LV) and corpus callosum (CC) volumes in children and to determine whether the induced brain changes are associated with behavioral problems. METHODS: Among the children recruited through a set of representative schools of the city of Barcelona, (Spain) in the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE) study, 186 typically developing participants aged 8-12 years underwent brain MRI on the same 1.5 T MR unit over a 1.5-year period (October 2012-April 2014). Brain volumes were derived from structural MRI scans using automated tissue segmentation. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the criteria of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder DSM-IV list. Prenatal fine particle (PM2.5) levels were retrospectively estimated at the mothers' residential addresses during pregnancy with land use regression (LUR) models. To determine whether brain structures might be affected by prenatal PM2.5 exposure, linear regression models were run and adjusted for age, sex, intracranial volume (ICV), maternal education, home socioeconomic vulnerability index, birthweight and mothers' smoking status during pregnancy. To test for associations between brain changes and behavioral outcomes, negative binomial regressions were performed and adjusted for age, sex, ICV. RESULTS: Prenatal PM2.5 levels ranged from 11.8 to 39.5 µg/m3 during the third trimester of pregnancy. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 level (7 µg/m3) was significantly linked to a decrease in the body CC volume (mm3) (ß = -53.7, 95%CI [-92.0, -15.5] corresponding to a 5% decrease of the mean body CC volume) independently of ICV, age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic vulnerability index at home, birthweight and mothers' smoking status during the third trimester of pregnancy. A 50 mm3 decrease in the body CC was associated with a significant higher hyperactivity subscore (Rate Ratio (RR) = 1.09, 95%CI [1.01, 1.17) independently of age, sex and ICV. The statistical significance of these results did not survive to False Discovery Rate correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 may be associated with CC volume decrease in children. The consequences might be an increase in behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Caloso/fisiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
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