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1.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 12: 219-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190949

RESUMO

Purpose: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased by 700% in Western countries over the last 30 years. Although clinical guidelines call for endoscopic surveillance for EAC among high-risk populations, fewer than 5% of new EAC patients are under surveillance at the time of diagnosis. We studied the accuracy of combined cytopathology and MUC2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) for screening of Intestinal Metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and EAC, using specimens collected from the EsophaCap swallowable encapsulated cytology sponge from Canada and United States. Patients and methods: By comparing the EsophaCap cytological diagnosis with concurrent endoscopic biopsies performed on the same patients in 28 cases, we first built up the cytology diagnostic categories and criteria. Based on these criteria, 136 cases were evaluated by both cytology and MUC2 IHC with blinded to patient biopsy diagnosis. Results: We first set up categories and criteria for cytological diagnosis of EscophaCap samples. Based on these, we divided our evaluated cytological samples into two groups: non-IM group and IM or dysplasia or adenocarcinoma group. Using the biopsy as our gold standard to screen IM, dysplasia and EAC by combined cytology and MUC2 IHC, the sensitivity and specificity were 68% and 91%, respectively, which is in the range of clinically useful cytological screening tests such as the cervical Pap smear. Conclusions: Combined EsophaCap cytology and MUC2 IHC could be a good screening test for IM and Beyond.

2.
Endoscopy ; 50(1): 8-13, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Both endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are used to treat Barrett's esophagus (BE) complicated by dysplasia and intramucosal cancer. However, focal areas of BE can remain after otherwise successful application of these techniques. We report the results of hot avulsion using a hot biopsy forceps to resect these residual focal areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study from a prospective database in a tertiary reference center from August 2013 to May 2015. All included patients had undergone hot avulsion for eradication of residual focal areas of BE that were ≤ 1 cm and not suspicious for dysplasia, following at least one previous endoscopic treatment for dysplasia or intramucosal cancer. RESULTS: 35 patients harboring 124 residual areas of 1 - 7 mm were treated with hot avulsion. After a mean follow-up of 17.4 months, all patients achieved complete eradication of residual focal BE. One of the patients required a second hot avulsion treatment. Hot avulsion provided samples in all cases but limited the assessment of dysplasia (cautery artifact) in 20.2 % of them. The only complication was bleeding in two patients, which was easily stopped by soft coagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Hot avulsion appears to be effective and safe in removing focal BE ≤ 1 cm at its greatest length remaining after endoscopic treatment for dysplasia or early cancer. Further studies are required before this technique can be considered the standard of care.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esôfago de Barrett/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Esofagoscopia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Endosc Int Open ; 5(8): E775-E783, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Accurate endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) remains a major clinical challenge. The current standard is to take multiple biopsies under endoscopic image guidance, but this leaves the majority of the tissue unsampled, leading to significant risk of missing dysplasia. Furthermore, determining whether there is submucosal invasion is essential for proper staging. Hence, there is a clinical need for a rapid in vivo wide-field imaging method to identify dysplasia in BE, with the capability of imaging beyond the mucosal layer. We conducted an ex vivo feasibility study using photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in patients undergoing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for known dysplasia. The objective was to characterize the esophageal microvascular pattern, with the long-term goal of performing in vivo endoscopic PAI for dysplasia detection and therapeutic guidance. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  EMR tissues were mounted luminal side up. The tissues were scanned over a field of view of 14 mm (width) by 15 mm (depth) at 680, 750, and 850 nm (40 MHz acoustic central frequency). Ultrasound and photoacoustic images were simultaneously acquired. Tissues were then sliced and fixed in formalin for histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin staining. A total of 13 EMR specimens from eight patients were included in the analysis, which consisted of co-registration of the photoacoustic images with corresponding pathologist-classified histological images. We conducted mean difference test of the total hemoglobin distribution between tissue classes. RESULTS: Dysplastic and nondysplastic BE can be distinguished from squamous tissue in 84 % of region-of-interest comparisons (42/50). However, the ability of intrinsic PAI to distinguish dysplasia from NDBE, which is the clinically important challenge, was only about 33 % (10/30). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the technical feasibility of this approach. Based on our ex vivo data, changes in total hemoglobin content from intrinsic PAI (i. e. without exogenous contrast) can differentiate BE from squamous esophageal mucosa. However, most likely intrinsic PAI is unable to differentiate dysplastic from nondysplastic BE with adequate sensitivity for clinical translation.

4.
Endosc Int Open ; 5(1): E5-E10, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337478

RESUMO

Background and study aims Single-incision needle-knife (SINK) biopsy is a diagnostic method for acquiring tissue samples for subepithelial lesions (SELs). A single linear incision is made in the overlying mucosa and tissue samples are obtained by passing conventional biopsy forceps through the opening and deep into the lesion. The aim of this study was to describe the efficacy and safety of this technique. Patients and methods Consecutive patients who underwent SINK biopsy for an upper gastrointestinal SEL between October 2013 and September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Forty-nine patients underwent 50 SINK biopsies. Sufficient sampling for a definite pathologic diagnosis was obtained in 42 (86 %) cases, with 91 % (40/44) having sufficient sample to perform immunohistochemistry when deemed clinically relevant. Of the 26 patients with prior non-diagnostic biopsies or FNA, a specific diagnosis was obtained in 85 % (22/26). There were no significant adverse events. Conclusions SINK biopsy is a safe and feasible strategy for obtaining a definitive tissue diagnosis with immunohistochemistry for SELs.

6.
Clin Endosc ; 47(1): 47-54, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24570883

RESUMO

Advanced esophageal adenocarcinomas arising from Barrett esophagus (BE) are tumors with an increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The aim of endoscopic surveillance of BE is to detect dysplasia, particularly high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancers that can subsequently be treated endoscopically before progression to invasive cancer with lymph node metastases. Current surveillance practice standards require the collection of random 4-quadrant biopsy specimens over every 1 to 2 cm of BE (Seattle protocol) to detect dysplasia with the assistance of white light endoscopy, in addition to performing targeted biopsies of recognizable lesions. This approach is labor-intensive but should currently be considered state of the art. Chromoendoscopy, virtual chromoendoscopy (e.g., narrow band imaging), and confocal laser endomicroscopy, in addition to high-definition standard endoscopy, might increase the diagnostic yield for the detection of dysplastic lesions. Until these modalities have been demonstrated to enhance efficiency or cost effectiveness, the standard protocol will remain careful examination using conventional off the shelf high-resolution endoscopes, combined with as longer inspection time which is associated with increased detection of dysplasia.

7.
Clin Endosc ; 47(1): 55-64, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24570884

RESUMO

Barrett esophagus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage with a 5-year survival rate of 15%. Most of these patients present de novo and are not part of a surveillance program. Endoscopic screening with improvement in recognition of early lesions may change this pattern. In the past, patients diagnosed with dysplasia and mucosal cancer were best managed by esophagectomy. Endoscopic techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation have resulted in high curative rates and a shift away from esophagectomy. This pathway is supported by the literature review of esophagectomies performed for mucosal disease, as well as pathologists' interpretation of endoscopic mucosal specimens, which document the low risk of lymph node metastasis. The role of endoscopic therapy for superficial submucosal disease continues to be a challenge.

8.
J Biophotonics ; 7(5): 304-11, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23125097

RESUMO

We evaluated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy implemented as a small field-of-view technique for discrimination of dysplasia from metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus as an adjuvant to autofluorescence endoscopy. Using linear discriminant analysis on 2579 spectra measured in 54 patients identified an optimum a 4-wavelength classifier (at 485, 513, 598 and 629 nm). Sensitivity and specificity for a test data set were 0.67 and 0.85, respectively. Spectroscopic results show that this technique could be implemented in wide-field imaging mode to improve the accuracy of existing endoscopy techniques for finding early pre-malignant lesions in Barrett's esophagus. Results show that the discrimination occurs likely due to redistribution of blood content in the tissue sensed by the optical probing with the wavelength-dependent sampling depth.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Análise Espectral , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Metaplasia/diagnóstico
9.
Lasers Surg Med ; 42(3): 224-31, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20333739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In autofluorescence endoscopy, the difference in the fluorescence of intrinsic fluorophores is imaged to help visualize pre-malignant lesions, as in the system evaluated here. In this, blue light is used for excitation and the green autofluorescence is normalized by the red diffuse reflectance and presented using a false color scale. The present study was designed to quantify the degree of fluorescence photobleaching induced by the excitation light during use in the colon, since significant photobleaching could lead to false interpretation of the images, particularly false-positive lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Measurements were made ex vivo and in vivo, both using the endoscopic imaging system and a separate fiberoptic spectroscopy probe in externalized rat jejunum and in patients undergoing routine colonoscopy, using exposures typical of autofluorescence endoscopic examination. RESULTS: Photobleaching could be potentially caused at blue light exposure. However, at light intensities and exposure times that are typically used in clinical practice, the average photobleaching (% loss of peak fluorescence intensity) was <1% and <6% in the rat and human tissues, respectively. Nevertheless, the range was large: from -17% to +18% in rats and -33% to +43% in patients, where negative values denote an apparent increase in fluorescence. Both the large positive and negative deviations are believed in part to be due to a measurement artifact caused by uncontrollable tissue motility. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that, using exposures typically encountered in clinical practice, there is minimal photobleaching during fluorescence endoscopy at exposure such as are used in the Onco-LIFE and comparable systems. The small changes in fluorescence intensity and spectral shift that do occur are not likely to be detectable by eye, and so should not impact significantly on the diagnostic accuracy of the technique.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotodegradação , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 21(12): 1347-50, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19730385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucosal angiodysplasias, either inherited or acquired, can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, sometimes refractory to treatment. From earlier case reports, thalidomide has been described to possess some benefits in this disease, but its benefits and risks nevertheless remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study assesses the efficacy, safety, and side-effect of thalidomide in the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from angiodysplasias. METHODS: Patients with chronic angiodysplasia bleeding and requiring ongoing transfusion were eligible for this open nonrandomized study. Thalidomide was started with 50 mg/day and then increased incrementally by 50 mg every week up to 200 mg/day, if tolerated, and continued for 6 months. Adverse events, hemoglobin, blood chemistry, and blood transfusion were monitored during the treatment and for 6-months posttreatment. RESULTS: Seven patients were recruited in this study. Four patients discontinued thalidomide within 3-8 weeks, because of fatigue (two patients), peripheral neuropathy (one patient), and skin rash (one patient). All side-effects resolved when thalidomide was discontinued. These four patients required the same volume of blood transfusions per month as pre-study. In contrast, the three patients who continued 100-200 mg/day of thalidomide for 6 months did not require any transfusions during the 6 months of medication. During 6-months posttreatment of these three patients, one maintained response without any transfusion for 2 months, then required 1 U of blood every 4 weeks, one patient required 2 U of blood every 3-4 weeks, and one patient died from diabetes complications. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide should be considered as a therapeutic option in patients who are resistant to conventional therapy, but it has a high discontinuation rate because of its side-effects.


Assuntos
Angiodisplasia/complicações , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue , Doença Crônica , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 68(5): 895-902, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18640673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an uncommon but clinically significant cause of chronic GI bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of cryotherapy for endoscopic treatment of GAVE. DESIGN: Patients received 3 sessions of endoscopic cryotherapy at 3-week to 6-week intervals and had a follow-up endoscopy 4 weeks thereafter. They were followed prospectively in terms of clinical and endoscopic response. SETTING: Tertiary-care center, between October 2004 and April 2006. PATIENTS: The patients were 43 to 89 years of age, with a diagnosis of GAVE and documented iron deficiency anemia. Eight patients had a history of overt GI bleeding. Eight patients (67%) had previously been treated with argon plasma coagulation (APC) (median 6 sessions, range 1-10 sessions) and failed to respond or had a recurrence. RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled. Six patients (50%) had a complete response, and 6 patients had a partial response. The mean number of units of blood transfused in the period of 3 months before cryotherapy and during the period of follow-up of 3 months was 4.6 and 1.7 units, respectively. An increased mean Hb level, from 9.9 to 11.3 g/dL, was noted. The average duration of the cryotherapy was 5 minutes (range 1-15 minutes). In 32 of 36 cryotherapy treatment sessions performed (89%), it was technically possible to treat more than 90% of GAVE lesions. There were no immediate cryotherapy-related complications, and none of the patients required admission after the procedure. LIMITATIONS: A pilot study from a single center. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic cryotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for GAVE. It appears to be effective, even for GAVE refractory to APC therapy. Optimal cryogen, delivery device, and treatment protocols are yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Ectasia Vascular Gástrica Antral/terapia , Gastroscopia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Feminino , Ectasia Vascular Gástrica Antral/complicações , Ectasia Vascular Gástrica Antral/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Can J Gastroenterol ; 22(5): 491-5, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18478135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the relative accuracy of capsule endoscopy (CE) versus double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). CE is less invasive, but DBE more directly examines the small bowel, and allows tissue sampling plus therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the yield and outcome of DBE following CE in patients with obscure GIB. METHODS: After DBE became readily available at the Centre for Therapeutic Endoscopy and Endoscopic Oncology (St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario), all patients with obscure GIB seen from December 2002 to June 2007 were evaluated identically, first with CE, then with DBE (some with further interventions). Findings, adverse outcomes and interventions are reported. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (25 women) with a mean (range) age of 64.1 years (34 to 83 years) are reported. Eight patients underwent DBE twice, for a total of 59 DBEs. Fourteen patients had overt GIB and the median (range) number of red blood cell unit transfusions was 10 (0 to 100). The positive findings for each type of lesion were compared in these 51 patients: angiodysplasia (CE 64.7% and DBE 61%, P=0.3), ulcers (CE 19.6% and DBE 18.6%, P=0.5), bleeding lesions (CE 43.1% and DBE 15.3%, P=0.0004) and mass (CE 10.2% and DBE 8.5%, P=0.5). DBE provided the advantage of therapeutic intervention: argon plasma coagulation (33 of 59 DBEs), clipping (two of 59), both argon plasma coagulation and clipping (three of 59), polypectomy (two of 59), tattooing (52 of 59) and biopsies (11 of 59). DBE detected lesions not seen by CE in 21 patients; lesions were treated in 18 patients. However, CE detected 31 lesions not seen by DBE. No major complications occurred with either examination. CONCLUSION: Overall detection rates for both techniques are similar. Each technique detected lesions not seen by the other. These data suggest that CE and DBE are complementary and that both evaluate obscure GIB more fully than either modality alone.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Enteropatias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 30(6): 405-13, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18156956

RESUMO

Purposeful reflection is consistent with adult learning theory. It is known to lead to a deeper understanding of issues and to develop judgment and skill. Required by law to ensure members' competence in their professional practice, the College of Nurses of Ontario recommends and has developed a tool for evaluating reflective practice. The tool focuses on key attributes said to be demonstrated by competent practitioners, including critical thinking (CT) and job knowledge. This study aimed to determine whether nurses engage in reflective practice and whether they perceive that it enhances their CT ability. Surveys were sent to 60 gastroenterology nurses at a large teaching hospital; 34 surveys were anonymously returned. All respondents engaged in reflective practice, and 24 reported using the college's tool. Nineteen respondents strongly agreed that their nursing practice had improved as a result. Critical thinking is difficult to assess because of a lack of clear-cut performance criteria. Improvement of CT was difficult to evaluate from the responses, even though all respondents participated in reflective practice. Both CT and reflective practice need to be better defined in order to examine and explain their relationship.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Autoavaliação , Especialidades de Enfermagem , Pensamento , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ontário
14.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 61(7): 879-90, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15933695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanding the current endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with Doppler capability may augment this novel high-resolution cross-sectional imaging technique with functional blood flow information. The aim of this feasibility study was to assess the clinical feasibility of an endoscopic Doppler OCT (EDOCT) system in the human GI tract. METHODS: During routine endoscopy, 22 patients were imaged by using a prototype EDOCT system, which provided color-Doppler and velocity-variance images of mucosal and submucosal blood flow at one frame per second, simultaneously with high-spatial-resolution (10-25 mum) images of tissue microstructure. The images were acquired from normal GI tract and pathologic tissues. OBSERVATIONS: Subsurface microstructure and microcirculation images of normal and pathologic GI tissues, including Barrett's esophagus, esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, gastric lymphoma, and duodenal adenocarcinoma, were obtained from 72 individual sites in vivo. Differences in vessel diameter, distribution, density, and blood-flow velocity were observed among the GI tissue pathologies imaged. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of EDOCT imaging in the human GI tract during routine endoscopy procedures. EDOCT may detect the different microcirculation patterns exhibited by normal and diseased tissues, which may be useful for diagnostic imaging and treatment monitoring.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Duodenais/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Esôfago/anatomia & histologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/anatomia & histologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Gastropatias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Telangiectasia/diagnóstico
16.
Can J Gastroenterol ; 18(9): 559-65, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15457295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is increasingly being used in the investigation of obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, but some studies have found that many of the bleeding lesions recognized by this technique are within the reach of conventional endoscopy. METHODS: The results of CE performed in the authors' centre in a 12 month period for obscure GI bleeding were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 46 patients with obscure GI bleeding, CE found a definite or probable cause in 19 (41%) and a possible cause in another 10 (22%), with an overall diagnostic yield of 63%. One of these lesions was found to be within reach of conventional gastroscopy, two were within reach of push enteroscopy, four were within reach of colonoscopy and one was within reach of retrograde enteroscopy through a stoma. The percentage of patients with a bleeding source within reach of routine endoscopy but missed during pre-CE endoscopy was significantly higher for those patients having endoscopy only in the community (30% [eight of 27]) versus in the authors' centre (0% [zero of 19]). CONCLUSIONS: CE was valuable for diagnosing bleeding lesions not only within the small bowel, but also in the stomach and colon. However, "second-look" endoscopy may be considered before ordering CE for obscure GI bleeding when local expertise is available.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiodisplasia/diagnóstico , Doenças do Ceco/diagnóstico , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 60(1): 129-35, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15229446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy is being used increasingly to investigate GI bleeding of obscure origin and disorders of the small bowel. METHODS: Four cases of small-bowel varices of various etiologies diagnosed by capsule endoscopy are described: a bleeding small-bowel varix because of hepatic portal hypertension, oozing small-bowel anastomotic or adhesion-related varices, small-bowel varices secondary to mesenteric vein thrombosis, and "idiopathic intestinal varices." OBSERVATIONS: Over a 12-month period, small-bowel varices were found in 4 of 46 patients (8.7%) who underwent capsule endoscopy for GI bleeding. Fresh blood adjacent to the varices was documented in 3 patients. The small-bowel varices had serpiginous or nodular shapes, with or without a bluish coloration. The variceal mucosa appeared mosaic-like, shining, or normal compared with surrounding mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Capsule endoscopy is invaluable for the diagnosis of small-bowel varices. It is highly sensitive for detection of fresh blood in the small bowel. Clinical suspicion, capsule endoscopy image recognition, and alertness during capsule endoscopy interpretation are keys to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Varizes/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 58(4): 591-8, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14520301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterized by mucocutaneous telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations. Knowledge is limited concerning the development hemodynamics of mucocutaneous telangiectases. Doppler optical coherence tomography can demonstrate microvascular blood flow at flow rates as low as 20 microm/second, which is up to approximately 100 times more sensitive than Doppler US. The aims of this study were to collect in vivo Doppler optical coherence tomography images of mucocutaneous telangiectases and normal surrounding mucosa and skin, and to gain experience for an in vivo GI endoscopic study. It was hypothesized that visibly normal areas may have occult telangiectases and that mucocutaneous telangiectases that have bled may have a higher rate of blood flow than mucocutaneous telangiectases with no history of bleeding. METHODS: Twelve patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and mucocutaneous telangiectases were studied. Two to 3 visible mucocutaneous telangiectases on the digits, lips, and tongue were imaged with Doppler optical coherence tomography, along with visually normal surrounding areas at each site. The Doppler optical coherence tomography images were obtained in 0.5 second by using 1310 nm light. RESULTS: A total of 67 mucocutaneous telangiectases from the 12 patients were imaged (38 digit, 16 lip, 13 tongue). Blood flow was demonstrated within every mucocutaneous telangiectasis imaged. Doppler optical coherence tomography did not identify any abnormal vasculature within visually normal areas. Mucocutaneous telangiectases with a history of bleeding (n = 18) were situated closer to the surface, compared with mucocutaneous telangiectases with no bleeding history (n = 49), but there was no difference in the Doppler flow appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Visually normal areas in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia did not appear to have abnormal vasculature. Mucocutaneous telangiectases with a history of bleeding were more superficial but were otherwise similar to mucocutaneous telangiectases with no bleeding history.


Assuntos
Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto , Efeito Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/fisiopatologia
19.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 58(4): 598-602, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14520302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wireless capsule endoscopy is being used increasingly to investigate GI bleeding of obscure etiology and other small bowel abnormalities. Currently, there is no standard for capsule endoscopy image interpretation and classification METHODS: This report describes an abnormality, termed "regional transit abnormality," noted during a review of capsule endoscopic images. Capsule regional transit abnormality simply refers to delayed capsule transit within a segment of small bowel, with or without visualization of a mucosal abnormality. The slowed transit usually is accompanied by mucosal collapse, sometimes with the appearance of the capsule pressing or impacting upon the mucosa. Regional transit abnormality usually persists more than 15 minutes CONCLUSIONS: Capsule regional transit abnormality is considered to be a "red flag" sign that indicates a likelihood of some underlying small bowel pathology.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/complicações , Neoplasias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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