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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission-tomography (PET) allows detection of cerebral metabolic alterations in neurological diseases vs. normal aging. We assess age- and sex-related brain metabolic changes in healthy subjects, exploring impact of activity normalization methods. METHODS: brain scans of Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine normative database (151 subjects, 67 Males, 84 Females, aged 20-84) were selected. Global mean, white matter, and pons activity were explored as normalization reference. We performed voxel-based and ROI analyses using SPM12 and IBM-SPSS software. RESULTS: SPM proved a negative correlation between age and brain glucose metabolism involving frontal lobes, anterior-cingulate and insular cortices bilaterally. Narrower clusters were detected in lateral parietal lobes, precuneus, temporal pole and medial areas bilaterally. Normalizing on pons activity, we found a more significant negative correlation and no positive one. ROIs analysis confirmed SPM results. Moreover, a significant age × sex interaction effect was revealed, with worse metabolic reduction in posterior-cingulate cortices in females than males, especially in post-menopausal age. CONCLUSIONS: this study demonstrated an age-related metabolic reduction in frontal lobes and in some parieto-temporal areas more evident in females. Results suggested pons as the most appropriate normalization reference. Knowledge of age- and sex-related cerebral metabolic changes is critical to correctly interpreting brain 18F-FDG PET imaging.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This multicentric study aimed to investigate the main prognostic factors associated with treatment response at 1 year after radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT) and the last disease status in pediatric patients affected by differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period 1990-2020, all consecutive patients ≤ 18 years from six different centers were retrospectively included. Patients were classified as low, intermediate, and high risk for persistence/recurrence. The response to RAIT was evaluated and scored 1 year later according to 2015 ATA guidelines. Moreover, at the last follow-up, the disease status was evaluated and dichotomized as no evidence of disease (NED) or persistent disease. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five patients (197 female, 88 male; mean age 14.4 years) were recruited. All, except nine, underwent near-total thyroidectomy followed by RAIT. One-year after first RAIT, 146/276 (53%) patients had excellent response, 37/276 (14%) indeterminate response, and 91/276 (33%) incomplete response. One-year after RAIT, children with excellent response had significantly lower stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) compared to not excellent group (median sTg 4.4 ng/ml vs 52.5 ng/ml, p < 0.001). ROC curve showed sTg higher than 27.2 ng/ml as the most accurate to predict 1-year treatment response. After a median follow-up of 133 months, NED was present in 241 cases (87%) while persistent disease in 35 (13%). At multivariate analysis, sTg and 1-year treatment response categories were both significantly associated with the last disease status (p value 0.023 and < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric DTC, sTg is significantly associated with 1-year treatment response and final outcome. However, 1-year response is the principal prognostic factor able to predict pediatric DTCs outcome.

3.
Neurocase ; 27(3): 319-322, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338587

RESUMO

We describe the first report on the genotype-phenotype patterns and [18F] fluoro-deoxygluycose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) findings in two disease-discordant monozygotic twins with Cri du Chat syndrome (CdcS) presenting deletion of 5p, 46, XY, del(5)(p14)/46, XY. One twin showed a severe phenotype; significant 18F-FDG PET hypometabolism (p=0.001) was revealed in the left and right hemispheres, thalamus, cerebellum, and midbrain, whereas hypermetabolism was detected in the left premotor cortex. The other twin presented a mild phenotype; significant hypometabolism was detected only in the right side (parahippoccampal gyrus and cerebellum). Further studies should investigate the causes of phenotypic discordance in twins with CdcS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Miado do Gato , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Cerebelo , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
4.
Clin Transl Imaging ; : 1-41, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277510

RESUMO

Aim: The diagnosis, severity and extent of a sterile inflammation or a septic infection could be challenging since there is not one single test able to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The clinical use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the assessment of inflammation and infection is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to achieve an Italian consensus document on [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as osteomyelitis (OM), prosthetic joint infections (PJI), infective endocarditis (IE), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CIEDI), systemic and cardiac sarcoidosis (SS/CS), diabetic foot (DF), fungal infections (FI), tuberculosis (TBC), fever and inflammation of unknown origin (FUO/IUO), pediatric infections (PI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), spine infections (SI), vascular graft infections (VGI), large vessel vasculitis (LVV), retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) and COVID-19 infections. Methods: In September 2020, the inflammatory and infectious diseases focus group (IIFG) of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) proposed to realize a procedural paper about the clinical applications of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases. The project was carried out thanks to the collaboration of 13 Italian nuclear medicine centers, with a consolidate experience in this field. With the endorsement of AIMN, IIFG contacted each center, and the pediatric diseases focus group (PDFC). IIFG provided for each team involved, a draft with essential information regarding the execution of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI scan (i.e., indications, patient preparation, standard or specific acquisition modalities, interpretation criteria, reporting methods, pitfalls and artifacts), by limiting the literature research to the last 20 years. Moreover, some clinical cases were required from each center, to underline the teaching points. Time for the collection of each report was from October to December 2020. Results: Overall, we summarized 291 scientific papers and guidelines published between 1998 and 2021. Papers were divided in several sub-topics and summarized in the following paragraphs: clinical indications, image interpretation criteria, future perspectivess and new trends (for each single disease), while patient preparation, image acquisition, possible pitfalls and reporting modalities were described afterwards. Moreover, a specific section was dedicated to pediatric and PET/MRI indications. A collection of images was described for each indication. Conclusions: Currently, [18F]FDG PET/CT in oncology is globally accepted and standardized in main diagnostic algorithms for neoplasms. In recent years, the ever-closer collaboration among different European associations has tried to overcome the absence of a standardization also in the field of inflammation and infections. The collaboration of several nuclear medicine centers with a long experience in this field, as well as among different AIMN focus groups represents a further attempt in this direction. We hope that this document will be the basis for a "common nuclear physicians' language" throughout all the country. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40336-021-00445-w.

5.
Curr Oncol ; 28(4): 2481-2495, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to provide a summary of the clinical indications and limitations of PET imaging with different radiotracers, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and other radiopharmaceuticals, in pediatric neuro-oncology, discussing both supratentorial and infratentorial tumors, based on recent literature (from 2010 to present). METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE database was carried out searching for articles on the use of PET in pediatric brain tumors. The search was updated until December 2020 and limited to original studies published in English after 1 January 2010. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET continues to be successfully employed in different settings in pediatric neuro-oncology, including diagnosis, grading and delineation of the target for stereotactic biopsy, estimation of prognosis, evaluation of recurrence, treatment planning and assessment of treatment response. Nevertheless, non-18F-FDG tracers, especially amino acid analogues seem to show a better performance in each clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: PET imaging adds important information in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric brain tumors. International or national multicentric studies are encouraged in order to collect larger amount of data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206116

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) represents the mainstay diagnostic procedure for suspected ovarian cancer (OC) recurrence. PET/CT can be integrated with contrast medium and in various diagnostic settings; however, the effective benefit of this procedure is still debated. We aimed to compare the diagnostic capabilities of low-dose and contrast-enhanced PET/CT (PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT) in patients with suspected ovarian cancer relapse. Materials and Methods: 122 OC patients underwent both PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT. Two groups of nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists scored the findings as positive or negative. Clinical/radiological follow-up was used as ground truth. Sensitivity, specificity, negative/positive predictive value, and accuracy were calculated at the patient and the lesion level. Results: A total of 455 and 474 lesions were identified at PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT, respectively. At the lesion level, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were not significantly different between PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT (98%, 93.3%, 97.4%, 94.9%, and 96.9% for PET/ldCT; 99%, 95.5%, 98.3%, 97%, and 98% for PET/ceCT, p = ns). At the patient level, no significant differences in these parameters were identified (e.g., p = 0.22 and p = 0.35 for accuracy, in the peritoneum and lymph nodes, respectively). Smaller peritoneal/lymph node lesions close to physiological FDG uptake sources were found in the cases of misidentification by PET/ldCT. PET/ceCT prompted a change in clinical management in four cases (3.2%) compared to PET/ldCT. Conclusions: PET/ceCT does not perform better than PET/ldCT but can occasionally clarify doubtful peritoneal findings on PET/ldCT. To avoid unnecessary dose to the patient, PET/ceCT should be excluded in selected cases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132671

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) plays an outstanding role in the diagnostic work-up of dementia. Amyloid PET imaging is a complementary imaging technique for the early detection of Alzheimer disease (AD). ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP), Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) and Presenilin-2 (PSEN2) are the 3 main causative genes responsible for autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD). This is the first report of 18F-Florbetapir amyloid imaging findings in a 35-year-old male patient with EOAD carrying the G378E mutation in PSEN1 gene. Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed remarkable cerebral atrophy with dilatation of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; furthermore, a 18F-Florbetapir PET/CT scan demonstrated also widespread remarkable accumulation of the amyloid tracer in the cerebral cortex, with reduction of the normal contrast between white and gray matter and flattening of the external cortical margins. Furthermore, PET/CT showed intense 18F-florbetapir uptake in the striatum and in the thalamus bilaterally. Our case supports the usefulness of amyloid PET imaging in the diagnostic work-up of EOAD.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e041252, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Assessment of response to therapy in paediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT has become a powerful tool for the discrimination of responders from non-responders. The addition of volumetric and texture analyses can be regarded as a valuable help for disease prognostication and biological characterisation. Based on these premises, the Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) has designed a prospective evaluation of volumetric and texture analysis in the Italian cohort of patients enrolled in the EuroNet-PHL-C2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The primary objective is to compare volumetric assessment in patiens with HL at baseline and during the course of therapy with standard visual and semiquantitative analyses. The secondary objective is to identify the impact of volumetric and texture analysis on bulky masses. The tertiary objective is to determine the additional value of multiparametric assessment in patients having a partial response on morphological imaging.The overall cohort of the study is expected to be round 400-500 patients, with approximately half presenting with bulky masses. All PET scans of the Italian cohort will be analysed for volumetric assessment, comprising metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis at baseline and during the course of therapy. A dedicated software will delineate semiautomatically contours using different threshold methods, and the impact of each segmentation techniques will be evaluated. Bulky will be defined on contiguous lymph node masses ≥200 mL on CT/MRI. All bulky masses will be outlined and analysed by the same software to provide textural features. Morphological assessment will be based on RECIL 2017 for response definition. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current study has been ethically approved (AIFA/SC/P/27087 approved 09/03/2018; EudraCT 2012-004053-88, EM-04). The results of the different analyses performed during and after study completion the will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media, print media and internet.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Doença de Hodgkin , Criança , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
9.
Eur Radiol ; 31(9): 7003-7011, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) in analysing brain [18F]DOPA PET/CT in order to identify patients with nigro-striatal neurodegeneration. We evaluated the robustness of the 3D CNN by testing it against a manual regional analysis of the striata by using a striatal-to-occipital ratio (SOR). METHODS: We analyzed patients who had undergone [18F]DOPA PET/CT from 2016 to 2018. Two examiners interpreted PET/CT images as positive or negative. Only patients with at least 2 years of follow-up and an ascertained neurological diagnosis were included. A 3D CNN was developed to evaluate [18F]DOPA PET/CT and refine the diagnosis of movement disorder. This system required training and testing, which were carried out on 2/3 and 1/3 of patients, respectively. A regional analysis was also conducted by drawing region of interest on T1-weighted 3D MRI scans, on which the [18F]DOPA PET images were first co-registered. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were enrolled: 43 presented nigro-striatal degeneration and 55 negative cases used as controls. After training on 69 patients, the diagnostic performance of the 3D CNN was then calculated in 29 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy were 100%, 89%, 100%, 85% and 93%, respectively. When we compared the 3D CNN results with the SOR analysis, we found that the two patients falsely classified as positive by the 3D CNN procedure showed SOR values ≤ 5th percentile of the negative cases' distribution. CONCLUSIONS: 3D CNNs are able to interpret [18F]DOPA PET/CT properly, revealing patients affected by Parkinson's disease. KEY POINTS: • [18F]DOPA PET/CT is a sensitive diagnostic tool to identify patients with nigro-striatal neurodegeneration. • A semiquantitative evaluation of the images allows a more confident interpretation of the PET findings. • 3D convolutional neural network allows an accurate interpretation of 18F-DOPA PET/CT images, revealing patients affected by Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Nucl Med Commun ; 42(8): 839-845, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741854

RESUMO

AIM: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging may play an important role in the restaging of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC),, nevertheless, a systematic review of literature was still missing in this setting. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on literature regarding the utility of 18F-FDG PET imaging in restaging patients with SCLC. METHODS: A literature search was performed to retrieve original studies using 18F-FDG PET or 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) in a minimum of 10 patients with SCLC at restaging. RESULTS: The selected literature (17 studies) was discussed in four sections: detection rate, impact on management, prediction of prognosis and evaluation of the response to therapy. According to the literature, PET imaging may result in discordance with conventional imaging, mainly contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and detect additional lesions in a certain proportion of cases, leading to upstaging or downstaging. A variable level of disagreement between PET and conventional imaging has been reported also in the evaluation of response to therapy. A positive PET study is associated with shorter survival, especially in the presence of distant metastases. According to some studies, semiquantitative parameters are also inversely associated with overall survival and progression-free survival. Although the retrieved articles proved the utility of 18F-FDG PET imaging in each clinical setting, literature is still limited. CONCLUSIONS: This review encourages the use of 18F-FDG PET imaging, especially in conjunction with ceCT in recurrent SCLC patients. Further level I evidence is needed to further assess the diagnostic and prognostic capability of 18F-FDG PET/ceCT findings in SCLC.

11.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(8): 2486-2499, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An appropriate healthy control dataset is mandatory to achieve good performance in voxel-wise analyses. We aimed at evaluating [18F]FDG PET brain datasets of healthy controls (HC), based on publicly available data, for the extraction of voxel-based brain metabolism maps at the single-subject level. METHODS: Selection of HC images was based on visual rating, after Cook's distance and jack-knife analyses, to exclude artefacts and/or outliers. The performance of these HC datasets (ADNI-HC and AIMN-HC) to extract hypometabolism patterns in single patients was tested in comparison with the standard reference HC dataset (HSR-HC) by means of Dice score analysis. We evaluated the performance and comparability of the different HC datasets in the assessment of single-subject SPM-based hypometabolism in three independent cohorts of patients, namely, ADD, bvFTD and DLB. RESULTS: Two-step Cook's distance analysis and the subsequent jack-knife analysis resulted in the selection of n = 125 subjects from the AIMN-HC dataset and n = 75 subjects from the ADNI-HC dataset. The average concordance between SPM hypometabolism t-maps in the three patient cohorts, as obtained with the new datasets and compared to the HSR-HC standard reference dataset, was 0.87 for the AIMN-HC dataset and 0.83 for the ADNI-HC dataset. Pattern expression analysis revealed high overall accuracy (> 80%) of the SPM t-map classification according to different statistical thresholds and sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: The applied procedures ensure validity of these HC datasets for the single-subject estimation of brain metabolism using voxel-wise comparisons. These well-selected HC datasets are ready-to-use in research and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos
12.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(3): 822-830, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955602

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The risk of relapse of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) and their indication for radioactive iodine therapy (RAI) are assessed according to ATA risk stratification system principally based on tumor-nodes-metastasis (TNM) staging. However, while establishing the indication for RAI may be a "dilemma," performing it can improve the risk stratification. We aimed to evaluate whether (1) the stratification of risk of recurrence differs when TNM is considered with or without peri-RAI findings and (2) the assessment of the risk of disease-specific mortality is improved by adding age and gender. METHODS: From our database, all DTC patients treated with thyroidectomy and RAI from 1992 to 2017 were included. Subjects with a follow-up shorter than 1 year and positive thyroid antibodies were excluded. Patients were classified into (1) a three-category ATA model based on TNM (basic model) and (2) a five-category model based on TNM plus peri-RAI findings, i.e., thyroglobulin and 131I whole-body scan (advanced model). Relapse was proven by histology and/or imaging. Differences in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. RESULTS: We enrolled 907 patients; of these, 4.4% died and 21% suffered recurrence. According to the basic model, there were 11.8% high-risk, 32.9% intermediate-risk, and 55.3% low-risk patients. According to the advanced model, 29.9% of patients were re-classified in a higher risk category and the five categories of this model displayed significantly different risks of relapse and death. The estimate of DFS was significantly higher in the advanced model than in the basic one (ΔC-index = + 6.8%, P < .001). By adding age and gender to the advanced model, the highest performance in predicting death was achieved (ΔC-index = + 5.1%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The peri-RAI findings are essential in order to carefully stratify the risk of DTC recurrence. Integrating these data with age and gender enables those cases at highest risk of death to be identified.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireoglobulina , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia
13.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 11881-11891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204317

RESUMO

To evaluate the contribution of 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET in association with conventional MRI in predicting treatment response and survival outcome of pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 19 children with newly diagnosed DIPGs who underwent 18F-DOPA PET/CT and conventional MRI within one week of each other at admission and subsequent MRI follow-up. Following co-registration and fusion of PET and MRI, 18F-DOPA uptake avidity and extent (PET tumor volume and uniformity) at admission, along with MRI indices including presence of ring contrast-enhancement, tumor volume at admission and at maximum response following first-line treatment, were evaluated and correlated with overall survival (OS). The association between 18F-DOPA uptake tumor volume at admission and MRI tumor volume following treatment was evaluated. Statistics included Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier OS curve and Cox analysis. Results: DIPGs with a 18F-DOPA uptake Tumor/Striatum (T/S) ratio >1 presented an OS ≤ 12 months and lower degree of tumor volume reduction following treatment (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, T/S (p = 0.001), ring enhancement (p = 0.01) and the degree of MRI tumor volume reduction (p = 0.01) independently correlated with OS. In all patients, areas of increased 18F-DOPA uptake overlapped with regions demonstrating more prominent residual components/lack of response following treatment. Conclusions: 18F-DOPA PET provides useful information for evaluating the metabolism of DIPGs. T/S ratio is an independent predictor of outcome. 18F-DOPA uptake extent delineates tumoral regions with a more aggressive biological behaviour, less sensitive to first line treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/terapia , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Biópsia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/diagnóstico , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/genética , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/mortalidade , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Ponte/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Vinorelbina/farmacologia , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico
14.
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 64(4): 382-392, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900177

RESUMO

Copper is an essential element that plays an important role in both cancer development and growth. Indeed, high levels of copper have been found in prostate cancer (PCa), and this finding have paved the way for the use of this element as a target for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Copper64 (64Cu) can be used alone, as 64CuCl2, and also as a precursor for the in-vitro radio-labelling of specific carriers for PET imaging in PCa, (e.g. associated to prostate-specific membrane antigen: PSMA). The use of 64Cu-PSMA can yield late acquisitions in which PET images are characterized by a higher target-to-background ratio. At the same time, the shorter positron range of 64Cu provides high spatial resolution, which leads to better detection of small lesions. In this context, the aim of this review was to systematically review studies evaluating the identification of PCa in humans by means of 64CuCl2 and other PET tracers radio-labelled with 64Cu.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Cobre/química , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Cobre/farmacologia , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Nucl Med Commun ; 41(12): 1275-1282, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897935

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate brain glucose metabolism by means of [18F]-fluoro-deoxygluycose (F-FDG) PET in a group of patients presenting dysautonomic syndrome after human papilloma virus (HPV) immunization. METHODS: Medical records of patients, referred to the 'Second Opinion Medical Consulting Network' Medical Centre (Modena, Italy) diagnosed with dysautonomic syndrome were searched. Inclusion criteria were presence in the medical history of adverse drug reactions following HPV vaccine; a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <25 and good quality of a F-FDG-PET brain scan performed within 12 months from the diagnosis of dysautonomic syndrome. F-FDG-PET images of patients (HPV-group) were compared to a control group, matched for age and sex, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). RESULTS: The F-FDG-PET study was available for five female patients. The SPM-group analysis revealed significant hypometabolism (P < 0.05 false discovery rate corrected) in the right superior and medial temporal gyrus (Brodmann areas 22, 21) and insula (Brodmann area 13). At a threshold of P < 0.001 (uncorrected), further hypometabolic regions were revealed in the right superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 42) and caudate head and in the left superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 22), frontal subcallosal gyrus (Brodmann area 47) and insula (Brodmann area 13). Relative hypermetabolism (P = 0.001) was revealed in the right premotor cortex (Brodmann area 6). CONCLUSION: This study revealed the possibility of altered brain glucose metabolism in subjects with dysautonomic syndrome post-immunization with HPV vaccine. These results could reinforce the hypothesis of a causal relationship between HPV vaccine, or some component included in the vaccine and the development of clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the metabolic correlates of lifetime sport practice in ALS through brain 18F-FDG-PET. METHODS: 131 patients completed a questionnaire about lifetime exposures, including physical activity related to sports, hobbies and occupations, and underwent brain 18F-FDG-PET. Exposure to sports was expressed as MET (Metabolic Equivalent of Task). We considered only regular practice (at least 2 h/week, for at least three months). We compared brain metabolism between two groups: subjects who did not report regular sport practice during life (N-group) and patients who did (Y-group). The resulting significant clusters were used in each group as seed regions in an interregional correlation analysis (IRCA) to evaluate the impact of lifetime sport practice on brain networks typically involved by the neurodegenerative process of ALS. Each group was compared to healthy controls (HC, n = 40). RESULTS: We found a significant, relative cerebellar hypermetabolism in the N-group compared to the Y-group. The metabolism of such cerebellar cluster resulted correlated to more significant and widespread metabolic changes in areas known to be affected by ALS (i.e. frontotemporal regions and corticospinal tracts) in the N-group as compared to the Y-group, despite the same level of disability as expressed by the ALS FRS-R. Such findings resulted independent of age, sex, site of onset (bulbar/spinal), presence/absence of C9ORF72 expansion, cognitive status and physical activity related to hobbies and occupations. When compared to HC, the N-group showed more widespread metabolic changes than the Y-group in cortical regions known to be relatively hypometabolic in ALS patients as compared to HC. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that patients of the N-group might cope better with the neurodegenerative process, since they show more widespread metabolic changes as compared to the Y-group, despite the same level of disability. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to corroborate this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos
17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486075

RESUMO

AIM: Beyond brain computed tomography (CT) scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) hold paramount importance in neuro-oncology. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the literature from 2015 to 2020, showing advantages or complementary information of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging to the anatomical and functional data offered by MRI in patients with glioma. METHODS: A comprehensive Pubmed/MEDLINE literature search was performed to retrieve original studies, with a minimum of 10 glioma patients, published from 2015 until the end of April 2020, on the use of 18F-FDG PET in conjunction with MRI. RESULTS: Twenty-two articles were selected. Combined use of the two modalities improves the accuracy in predicting prognosis, planning treatments, and evaluating recurrence. CONCLUSION: According to the recent literature, 18F-FDG PET provides different and complementary information to MRI and may enhance performance in the whole management of gliomas. Therefore, integrated PET/MRI may be particularly useful in gliomas, since it could provide accurate morphological and metabolic information in one-shoot examination and improve the diagnostic value compared to each of procedures.

18.
EJNMMI Res ; 10(1): 23, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201914

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to neuromuscular palsy and death. We propose a computational approach to [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT images to analyze the structure and metabolic pattern of skeletal muscle in ALS and its relationship with disease aggressiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computational 3D method was used to extract whole psoas muscle's volumes and average attenuation coefficient (AAC) from CT images obtained by FDG PET/CT performed in 62 ALS patients and healthy controls. Psoas average standardized uptake value (normalized on the liver, N-SUV) and its distribution heterogeneity (defined as N-SUV variation coefficient, VC-SUV) were also extracted. Spinal cord and brain motor cortex FDG uptake were also estimated. RESULTS: As previously described, FDG uptake was significantly higher in the spinal cord and lower in the brain motor cortex, in ALS compared to controls. While psoas AAC was similar in patients and controls, in ALS a significant reduction in psoas volume (3.6 ± 1.02 vs 4.12 ± 1.33 mL/kg; p < 0.01) and increase in psoas N-SUV (0.45 ± 0.19 vs 0.29 ± 0.09; p < 0.001) were observed. Higher heterogeneity of psoas FDG uptake was also documented in ALS (VC-SUV 8 ± 4%, vs 5 ± 2%, respectively, p < 0.001) and significantly predicted overall survival at Kaplan-Meier analysis. VC-SUV prognostic power was confirmed by univariate analysis, while the multivariate Cox regression model identified the spinal cord metabolic activation as the only independent prognostic biomarker. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest the existence of a common mechanism contributing to disease progression through the metabolic impairment of both second motor neuron and its effector.

19.
J Nucl Med ; 61(8): 1195-1199, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836684

RESUMO

Cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare genetic disease that is caused by a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p) and has a variable clinical spectrum. To our knowledge, no study in the literature has ever applied 18F-FDG PET/CT to investigate alterations in brain glucose metabolism in these subjects. The aims of this study were to detect differences in brain 18F-FDG metabolism in CDCS patients with different clinical presentations and identify possible brain metabolic phenotypes of this syndrome. Methods: Six patients (5 male and 1 female; age range, 10-27 y) with CDCS were assessed for the presence of cognitive and behavioral symptoms using a battery of neuropsychologic tests and then classified as having either a severe or a mild phenotype. The patients then underwent brain 18F-FDG PET/CT. The PET/CT findings were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Whether there was an association between different clinical phenotypes and 18F-FDG PET/CT findings was investigated. Results: Four patients had the severe phenotype, and 2 patients demonstrated the mild phenotype. SPM single-subject analysis, and a group analysis in comparison with the control cohort, revealed significant hypometabolism in the left temporal lobe (Brodmann areas [BAs] 20, 36, and 38), in the right frontal subcallosal gyrus (BA 34) and caudate body, and in the cerebellar tonsils (P < 0.001). Hypermetabolism (P = 0.001) was revealed in the right superior and precentral frontal gyrus (BA 6) in the patient group, compared with the control cohort. In SPM single-subject analysis, the hypermetabolic areas were detected only in patients with the severe phenotype. Conclusion: This study revealed different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in patients with the severe and mild phenotypes, compared with control subjects. In particular, abnormal hypermetabolism in the brain, as evaluated by18F-FDG PET/CT, seems to correlate with the severe CDCS phenotype.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Síndrome do Miado do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Miado do Gato/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Nucl Med ; 61(3): 367-374, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541036

RESUMO

Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic role of 18F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET/CT at the time of staging in children with neuroblastoma and to investigate its ability to assess treatment response. We also investigated the prognostic value of 18F-DOPA PET/CT at the same time points. Methods: We enrolled children with neuroblastoma at onset. Before and after induction chemotherapy, all patients underwent 18F-DOPA PET/CT and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning plus SPECT/CT. 18F-DOPA PET/CT results were compared with those of 123I-MIBG whole-body scanning (WBS). For each modality, patient-based analysis and lesion-based analysis were performed and sensitivity was calculated. We applied scoring systems to 123I-MIBG scanning and 18F-DOPA PET/CT (i.e.,123I-MIBG WBS score and whole-body metabolic burden [WBMB], respectively) and evaluated the association between these parameters, the principal neuroblastoma risk factors, and outcome. Results: We enrolled 16 high-risk and 2 intermediate-risk neuroblastoma patients. On patient-based analysis, sensitivity in detecting primary tumors, soft-tissue metastases, and bone or bone-marrow metastases was 83%, 50%, and 92%, respectively, for 123I-MIBG WBS versus 94%, 92%, and 100%, respectively, for 18F-DOPA PET/CT. On lesion-based analysis, the sensitivity of 18F-DOPA PET/CT in detecting soft-tissue and bone or bone-marrow metastases was 86% and 99%, respectively-significantly higher than that of 123I-MIBG WBS, at 41% and 93%, respectively. After therapy, on patient-based analysis, the sensitivity in detecting primary tumors, soft-tissue metastases, and bone or bone-marrow metastases was 72%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, for 123I-MIBG WBS versus 83%, 75% and 54%, respectively, for 18F-DOPA PET/CT. On lesion-based analysis, the sensitivity of 18F-DOPA PET/CT in detecting soft-tissue and bone or bone-marrow metastases was 77% and 86%, respectively-significantly higher than that of 123I-MIBG WBS, at 28% and 69%, respectively. During follow-up, 8 cases of disease progression and 5 deaths occurred. On multivariate analysis, only posttherapeutic 18F-DOPA WBMB (>7.5) was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusion: 18F-DOPA PET/CT is more sensitive than 123I-MIBG WBS in staging neuroblastoma patients and evaluating disease persistence after chemotherapy. In a time-to-event analysis, posttherapeutic 18F-DOPA WBMB remained the only risk factor associated with disease progression.


Assuntos
3-Iodobenzilguanidina , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Neuroblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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