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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057991

RESUMO

An enlarged left atrial volume index (LAVI) at rest mirrors increased LA pressure and/or impairment of LA function. A cardiovascular stress may acutely modify left atrial volume (LAV) within minutes. Aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of LAV-stress echocardiography (SE) Out of 514 subjects referred to 10 quality-controlled labs, LAV-SE was completed in 490 (359 male, age 67 ± 12 years) with suspected or known chronic coronary syndromes (n = 462) or asymptomatic controls (n = 28). The utilized stress was exercise in 177, vasodilator in 167, dobutamine in 146. LAV was measured with the biplane disk summation method. SE was performed with the ABCDE protocol. The intra-observer and inter-observer LAV variability were 5% and 8%, respectively. ∆-LAVI changes (stress-rest) were negatively correlated with resting LAVI (r = - 0.271, p < 0.001) and heart rate reserve (r = -.239, p < 0.001). LAV-dilators were defined as those with stress-rest increase ≥ 6.8 ml/m2, a cutoff derived from a calculated reference change value above the biological, analytical and observer variability of LAVI. LAV dilation occurred in 56 patients (11%), more frequently with exercise (16%) and dipyridamole (13%) compared to dobutamine (4%, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, B-lines ≥ 2 (OR: 2.586, 95% CI = 1.1293-5.169, p = 0.007) and abnormal contractile reserve (OR: 2.207, 95% CI = 1.111-4.386, p = 0.024) were associated with LAV dilation. In conclusion, LAV-SE is feasible with high success rate and low variability in patients with chronic coronary syndromes. LAV dilation is more likely with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and pulmonary congestion.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065315

RESUMO

The management of patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be difficult due to the need for dedicated in-hospital pathways, protective measures for healthcare professionals and isolated beds of intensive care, particularly in areas overwhelmed by wide viral spread. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a variety of cardiovascular complications have been reported. An integrated diagnostic algorithm in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with suspected cardiac involvement (laboratory findings of myocardial injury and electrocardiographic changes) may help to avoid unnecessary examinations and minimize the risk of operator infection. Due to its mobility and bedside feasibility, echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique in this clinical setting. It quickly provides information on ventricular functions, pulmonary hypertension, valve disease and pericardial effusion. In case of ST-segment elevation (STE), urgent coronary angiography should be performed. Cardiac ultrasound helps distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial disease and may detect pericardial disease. Transmural ischemic electrocardiographic changes, with or without early elevated troponin levels or echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, will determine the need for early invasive coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) through its multiple applications (chest CT; CT pulmonary angiography and coronary CT angiography; late iodine enhancement CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance might be helpful in reinforcing or redirecting diagnostic hypothesis emerged by other clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. The current pandemic makes it challenging to perform serial invasive and non-invasive diagnostic testing in COVID-19 patients and high serum troponin level. Nevertheless, thoughtful and systematic use of an appropriate multimodality imaging strategy is clinically relevant to detect cardiac injury and distinguish myocardial infarction from, myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome and pulmonary embolism.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949219

RESUMO

An 86-year-old man affected by severe aortic stenosis (AS) was referred to our institution owing to decompensated heart failure. Three months before, the patient was scheduled for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), which was postponed owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Owing to COVID-19 suspicion, he underwent nasopharyngeal swab and was temporarily isolated. However, the rapid deterioration of clinical and haemodynamic conditions prompted us to perform balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) as bridge to TAVI. The patient's haemodynamics improved; and the next day, the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19 was negative. At Day 5, he underwent TAVI procedure. Subsequent clinical course was uneventful. During COVID-19 pandemic, the deferral of TAVI procedure should be assessed on a case-by-case basis to avoid delay in patients at high risk for adverse events. BAV may be an option when TAVI is temporarily contraindicated such as in AS patients suspected for COVID-19.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856703

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a complex and still poorly recognized heart disease with a wide spectrum of possible clinical presentations. Despite its reversibility, it is associated with serious adverse in-hospital events and high complication rates during follow-up. Multimodality imaging is helpful for establishing the diagnosis, guiding therapy, and stratifying prognosis of TTS patients in both the acute and post-acute phase. Echocardiography plays a key role, particularly in the acute care setting, allowing for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and the identification of the typical apical-midventricular ballooning pattern, as well as the circumferential pattern of wall motion abnormalities. It is also useful in the early detection of complications (i.e. LV outflow tract obstruction, mitral regurgitation, right ventricular involvement, LV thrombi, and pericardial effusion) and monitoring of systolic function recovery. Left ventriculography allows the evaluation of LV function and morphology, identifying the typical TTS patterns when echocardiography is not available or wall motion abnormalities cannot be properly assessed with ultrasound. Cardiac magnetic resonance provides a more comprehensive depiction of cardiac morphology and function and tissue characterization and offers additional value to other imaging modalities for differential diagnosis (myocardial infarction and myocarditis). Coronary computed tomography angiography has a substantial role in the diagnostic workup of patients with acute chest pain and a doubtful TTS diagnosis to rule out other medical conditions. It can be considered as a non-invasive appropriate alternative to coronary angiography in several clinical scenarios. Although the role of nuclear imaging in TTS has not yet been well established, the combination of perfusion and metabolic imaging may provide useful information on myocardial function in both the acute and post-acute phase.

6.
Echocardiography ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation and contractile reserve (CR) in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) at rest and during exercise, and their correlation with functional capacity. BACKGROUND: The natural history of chronic AR is characterized by a prolonged silent phase before onset of symptoms and overt LV dysfunction. Assessment of LV systolic function and contractile reserve has an important role in the decision-making of AR asymptomatic patients. METHODS: Standard echo, lung ultrasound, and LV 2D speckle tracking strain were performed at rest and during exercise in asymptomatic patients with severe AR and in age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. RESULTS: 115 AR patients (male sex 58.2%; 52.3 ± 18.3 years) and 55 controls were enrolled. Baseline LV ejection fraction was comparable between the groups. Resting LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and myocardial work efficiency (MWE) were significantly reduced in AR (GLS-15.8 ± 2.8 vs -21.4 ± 4.4; P < .001). Patients with AR and CR- showed reduced resting LV GLS and MWE and increased B-lines. MWE was closely related to peak effort watts, VO2 , LV E/e', and B-lines, at a multivariable analysis. Both GLS and MWE were strong independent predictors of CR. A resting LV GLS cutoff of -12% differentiated CR+ and CR- (78% sensitivity and 84% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: The lower resting values of LV GLS and MWE in severe AR asymptomatic patients suggest an early subclinical myocardial damage that seems to be closely associated with lower exercise capacity, greater pulmonary congestion, and blunted LV contractile reserve during stress.

7.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(10): 1223-1233, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography (WASE) study was conducted to describe echocardiographic normal values in adults and to compare races and nationalities using a uniform acquisition and measurement protocol. This report focuses on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. METHODS: WASE is an international, cross-sectional study. Participants were enrolled with equal distribution according to age and gender. Echocardiograms were analyzed in a core laboratory based on the latest American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines. Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed by E, E/A, e' velocities, E/e', left atrial volume index (LAVI), and tricuspid regurgitation velocity. Determination of LV diastolic function was made using the algorithm proposed by the guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 2,008 subjects from 15 countries were enrolled. The majority were of white or Asian race (42.8%, 41.8%, respectively). E and E/e' were higher in female patients, while LAVI was similar in both genders. Consistent increase in E/e' and decrease in E/A, E, and e' were found as age increased. The upper limit of normal for LAVI was higher in WASE compared with the guidelines. The lower limits of normal for e' were smaller in elder groups than those in the guidelines, while the upper limits of normal for E/e' were below the guideline values. These findings suggest that the cutoff value for LAVI should be shifted upward and age-specific cutoff values for e' should be considered. In WASE, <93.6% of patients were classified as normal LV diastolic function using the guidelines' algorithm, and the proportion increased to 97.4% when applying the revised cutoff values for LAVI obtained in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Guideline-recommended normal values for e' velocities and LAVI should be reconsidered. The algorithm for the determination of LV diastolic function proposed by the guidelines is useful, but adjustments to LAVI could further improve it.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke volume response during stress is a major determinant of functional status in heart failure and can be measured by two-dimensional (2-D) volumetric stress echocardiography (SE). The present study hypothesis is that SE may identify mechanisms underlying the change in stroke volume by measuring preload reserve through end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR) with systolic blood pressure and end-systolic volume (ESV). METHODS: We enrolled 4,735 patients (age 63.6 ± 11.3 yrs, 2800 male) referred to SE for known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF) in 21 SE laboratories in 8 countries. In addition to regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA), force was measured at rest and peak stress as the ratio of systolic blood pressure by cuff sphygmomanometer/ESV by 2D with Simpson's or linear method. Abnormal values of LVCR (peak/rest) based on force were ≤1.10 for dipyridamole (n=1,992 patients) and adenosine (n=18); ≤2.0 for exercise (n=2,087) or dobutamine (n=638). RESULTS: Force-based LVCR was obtained in all 4,735 pts. Lack of stroke volume increase during stress was due to either abnormal LVCR and/or blunted preload reserve, and 57 % of patients with abnormal LVCR nevertheless showed increase in stroke volume. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric SE is highly feasible with all stresses, and more frequently impaired in presence of ischemic RWMA, absence of viability and reduced coronary flow velocity reserve. It identifies an altered stroke volume response due to reduced preload and/or contractile reserve.

9.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(10): 2085-2095, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the functional and prognostic correlates of B-lines during stress echocardiography (SE). BACKGROUND: B-profile detected by lung ultrasound (LUS) is a sign of pulmonary congestion during SE. METHODS: The authors prospectively performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and LUS in 2,145 patients referred for exercise (n = 1,012), vasodilator (n = 1,054), or dobutamine (n = 79) SE in 11 certified centers. B-lines were evaluated in a 4-site simplified scan (each site scored from 0: A-lines to 10: white lung for coalescing B-lines). During stress the following were also analyzed: stress-induced new regional wall motion abnormalities in 2 contiguous segments; reduced left ventricular contractile reserve (peak/rest based on force, ≤2.0 for exercise and dobutamine, ≤1.1 for vasodilators); and abnormal coronary flow velocity reserve ≤2.0, assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler sampling in left anterior descending coronary artery and abnormal heart rate reserve (peak/rest heart rate) ≤1.80 for exercise and dobutamine (≤1.22 for vasodilators). All patients completed follow-up. RESULTS: According to B-lines at peak stress patients were divided into 4 different groups: group I, absence of stress B-lines (score: 0 to 1; n = 1,389; 64.7%); group II, mild B-lines (score: 2 to 4; n = 428; 20%); group III, moderate B-lines (score: 5 to 9; n = 209; 9.7%) and group IV, severe B-lines (score: ≥10; n = 119; 5.4%). During median follow-up of 15.2 months (interquartile range: 12 to 20 months) there were 38 deaths and 28 nonfatal myocardial infarctions in 64 patients. At multivariable analysis, severe stress B-lines (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.544; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.466 to 8.687; p = 0.006), abnormal heart rate reserve (HR: 2.276; 95% CI: 1.215 to 4.262; p = 0.010), abnormal coronary flow velocity reserve (HR: 2.178; 95% CI: 1.059 to 4.479; p = 0.034), and age (HR: 1.031; 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.062; p = 0.037) were independent predictors of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Severe stress B-lines predict death and nonfatal myocardial infarction. (Stress Echo 2020-The International Stress Echo Study [SE2020]; NCT03049995).

10.
Eur Heart J ; 41(34): 3255-3268, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484517

RESUMO

AIMS: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.

11.
Heart Fail Clin ; 16(3): 331-346, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503756

RESUMO

Cardiovascular emergencies represent life-threatening conditions requiring a high index of clinical suspicion. In an emergency scenario, a simple stepwise biomarker/imaging diagnostic algorithm may help prompt diagnosis and timely treatment along with related improved outcomes. This article describes several clinical cases of cardiovascular emergencies, such as coronary stent thrombosis-restenosis, takotsubo syndrome, acute myocarditis, massive pulmonary embolism, type A acute aortic dissection, cardiac tamponade, and endocarditis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Emergências/classificação , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Humanos
12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(16): 1869-1877, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups. RESULTS: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6665, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313194

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan (S/V) on clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters and outcomes in a real-world population with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This was a prospective observational study enrolling patients with HFrEF undergoing treatment with S/V. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiac death and HF rehospitalization at 12 months follow-up; secondary outcomes were all-cause death, cardiac death and the occurrence of rehospitalization for worsening HF. The clinical outcome was compared with a retrospective cohort of 90 HFrEF patients treated with standard medical therapy. The study included 90 patients (66.1 ± 11.7 years) treated with S/V. The adjusted regression analysis showed a significantly lower risk for the primary outcome (HR:0.31; 95%CI, 0.11-0.83; p = 0.019) and for HF rehospitalization (HR:0.27; 95%CI, 0.08-0.94; p = 0.039) in S/V patients as compared to the control group. A significant improvement in NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end systolic volume and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was observed up to 6 months. S/V did not affect negatively renal function and was associated with a significantly lower dose of furosemide dose prescribed at 6- and 12-month follow-up. In this study, S/V reduced the risk of HF rehospitalization and cardiac death at 1 year in patients with HFrEF. S/V improved NYHA class, echocardiographic parameters and need of furosemide, and preserved renal function.

14.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(1): 34-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960833

RESUMO

The complexity of cardiovascular diseases has led to an extensive use of technological instruments and the development of multimodality imaging. This extensive use of different cardiovascular imaging tests in the same patient has increased costs and waiting times.The concept of appropriateness has changed over time. Appropriateness criteria address the need for specific cardiovascular imaging tests in well-defined clinical scenarios, and define the kind of cardiovascular imaging that is appropriated for each clinical scenario in different stages of the disease. The concept of appropriateness criteria has replaced the old idea of appropriate use criteria and reflects the increasing effort of the international Scientific Societies to create and review in a critical way the management of diagnostic tests used by clinicians.The aim of this Italian consensus document is to address the use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of the major cardiovascular clinical scenarios, taking into consideration not only the international guidelines and scientific documents already published, but also the reality of Italian laws as well as the various professional profiles involved in patient management and availability of technological diagnostic instruments.

16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 306-310, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898420

RESUMO

The treatment of cardiogenic shock in patients with Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is challenging because it depends on the mechanisms leading to the haemodynamic instability. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman admitted for TTS complicated by cardiogenic shock. The early echocardiographic identification of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) prompted us to implant an Impella CP assist device as a bridge-to-recovery therapy. After device positioning, the haemodynamic status improved and LVOTO and severe MR disappeared. Because of the persistence of severe hypotension, the mechanical circulatory support was continued in intensive care unit and stopped only 5 days later, when intraventricular gradient spontaneously dropped. The patient was discharged after 1 week in stable conditions. Our case suggests that Impella circulating support may be a useful bridge-to-recovery therapeutic option in selected patients with cardiogenic shock due to TTS complicated by LVOTO and severe MR.

17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(1): 279-287, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction, which can contribute to intraventricular thrombus and embolism. Still, prevalence and clinical impact of thrombus formation and embolic events on outcome of TTS patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Additionally, factors associated with thrombus formation or embolism, as well as predictors for mortality, were identified. Approach and Results: TTS patients enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry at 28 centers in Australia, Europe, and the United States were dichotomized according to the occurrence/absence of intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Patients with intraventricular thrombus or embolism were defined as the ThrombEmb group. Of 1676 TTS patients, 56 (3.3%) patients developed intraventricular thrombus and/or embolism following TTS diagnosis (median time interval, 2.0 days [range, 0-38 days]). Patients in the ThrombEmb group had a different clinical profile including lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher prevalence of the apical type, elevated levels of troponin and inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of vascular disease. In a Firth bias-reduced penalized-likelihood logistic regression model apical type, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, previous vascular disease, and a white blood cell count on admission >10×103 cells/µL emerged as independent predictors for thrombus formation or embolism. CONCLUSIONS: Intraventricular thrombus or embolism occur in 3.3% of patients in the acute phase of TTS. A simple risk score including clinical parameters associated with intraventricular thrombus formation or embolism identifies patients at increased risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.


Assuntos
Embolia/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Eletrocardiografia , Embolia/diagnóstico , Embolia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Incidência , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ventriculografia com Radionuclídeos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830264

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin-K oral antagonists (NOACs) versus vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and indirectly compare NOACs in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE, Cochrane, ISI Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for randomized or adjusted observational studies comparing NOACs versus VKAs for stroke prevention in AF patients≥75 years. The primary efficacy and safety outcomes of this meta-analysis were the composite of stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleedings, respectively. Other secondary outcomes were also analyzed.The analysis included 22 studies enrolling 440,281 AF patients≥75 years. The risk of SSE was significantly lower with NOACs versus VKAs (HR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.70-0.89), whereas no differences were found for major bleedings (HR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.85-1.05). NOACs reduced the risk of intracranial bleeding (HR, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.38-0.58), hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.61; 95%CI, 0.48-0.79) and fatal bleeding (HR, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.30-0.72) but increased gastrointestinal bleedings (HR, 1.46; 95%CI, 1.30-1.65), compared to VKAs.The adjusted indirect comparison showed no significant differences in term of SSE between NOAC agents. Conversely, the risk of major bleeding was higher for rivaroxaban versus apixaban (HR, 1.69; 95%CI, 1.39-2.08) and edoxaban (HR, 1.37; 95%CI, 1.14-1.67), and for dabigatran versus apixaban (HR, 1.47; 95%CI, 1.18-1.85). CONCLUSION: In elderly patients with AF, NOACs are associated to a lower risk of SSE, intracranial bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke and fatal bleeding than VKAs, but increase gastrointestinal bleedings. In this analysis, the safety profile of individual NOAC agents was significantly different.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223710, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with Infective Endocarditis (IE). METHODS AND RESULTS: 375 patients with diagnosis of IE referred to our Hospital between 1994-2017 were retrospectively included; diabetes was reported in 129 (34.4%). Diabetic patients were older than non-diabetic (66±1 vs. 57±2 years, p<0.001) and showed a higher prevalence of comorbidities such as hypertension (75 vs. 54%, p<0.001), coronary artery disease (30 vs. 12%, p<0.001) and history of heart failure (HF; 24 vs. 13%, p = 0.021). Echocardiography showed a higher incidence of paravalvular complications (82 vs. 64%, p<0.001) and a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; 52±11 vs. 55±10%, p = 0.001) in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients. In-hospital mortality was higher in diabetic patients (83 vs. 74%; p = 0.030). At logistic regression, history of HF (OR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.87-5.29, p<0.001) resulted an independent predictor of in-hospital death. At long-term follow-up [median 24(7-84) months], the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly lower survival free from all-cause death in the group with diabetes (Log-rank<0.001). At the propensity score adjusted Cox multivariable analysis, DM (HR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.18-2.6, p = 0.005), age (HR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.02-1.05, p<0.001), intravenous drug users (HR = 5.42, 95%CI: 2.55-11.51, p<0.001) and low LVEF (HR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96-0.99, p = 0.013) were independently associated to a higher mortality. CONCLUSION: In patients with IE, DM is associated to a higher prevalence of anatomic complications and a more impaired LVEF. Diabetic patients show a significantly lower survival both in hospital and during follow-up compared to the non-diabetic ones.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Endocardite/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
J Cardiovasc Echogr ; 29(3): 111-118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728301

RESUMO

Background: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Nevertheless, assessment of regional RV deformation is yet not performed. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of moderate and severe AS on global and regional RV function by a multisegmental approach using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods: In 50 patients (Group I - AS [n = 25] and Group II - normal controls [n = 25]), additional echocardiographic views of the RV were prospectively performed. The TDI sample volume was placed in the basal myocardial region of the anterior (RV-anterior), inferior (RV-inferior), and free RV wall (RV-free wall) to assess the following parameters: S'RV, E'RV, and A'RV waves; IVCTRV; IVRTRV; and myocardial performance index (MPIRV). Results: In AS patients, left ventricular (LV) mass index, left atrial (LA) volume index, and LV end-diastolic pressure were significantly increased. Moreover, AS patients had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and lower values for PV AccT (P < 0.0001), but TAPSE was not different between the two groups (P = 0.062). In AS patients, IVRTRV-anterior, IVRTRV-inferior, and IVRTRV-free wall and MPIRV were statistically increased (P < 0.0001). A significant correlation between IVRTRV (evaluated at all three regions) and the parameters including sPAP, PV AccT, and ELV/e'LV ratio was observed in AS. A strong correlation was observed between IVRTRV-free wall/inferior and AS severity by evaluation of velocities, gradient, and aortic valve area (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The present study reports a correlation between the severity of AS and the increase of IVRTRV and MPIRV. Thus, a distinct analysis of RV performance is important for echocardiographic evaluation of patients with AS.

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