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1.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575982

RESUMO

This work describes a colorimetric signaling approach for competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) enabling sensitive and semiquantitative direct visual result readout in the form of "text", demonstrated on the example of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) detection. The distinctive feature of the developed text-displaying LFIA (TD-LFIA) is the test zone system consisting of a combination of two types of inkjet-deposited capture molecules referred to as "mask antigen" and "text antibody", allowing for sensitive turn-on signaling as opposed to the inverse response of conventional competitive LFIAs. The user operation is limited to sample application, followed by direct reading of assay results written in text after approximately 10 min. TD-LFIAs enabled the visual detection of 8-OHdG at concentrations down to 3 ng/mL, which is a 2-3 orders of magnitude lower visual detection limit than that achieved with the corresponding conventional design and is comparable to the existing LFIAs relying on external signal readout equipment. Highly reproducible observer-independent assay performance was confirmed, and the result interpretation is not influenced by sample color and readout timing. Making use of customizable threshold settings for text appearance, a device for semiquantitative assays was developed and successfully applied to the detection of 8-OHdG at four concentration levels (trace, low, medium, and high) in 54 human urine samples within the clinically relevant concentration range. The sensitive and intuitive signaling method of the developed system offers great potential for an alternative competitive LFIA platform suitable for real-world point-of-care testing applications.

2.
Analyst ; 145(13): 4457-4466, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378683

RESUMO

This work presents the development and application of a novel analytical approach for the determination of acid and base concentrations by titration using a microfluidic thread-based analytical device (µTAD). This approach proved to be a simple to fabricate and to use, high precision, and cost-efficient means of acid-base quantification. The µTAD was fabricated by immobilizing the untreated cotton threads onto a wood frame, followed by pre-coating with an indicator (20 µL) and a primary standard solution (3 µL), and was tested using real samples including drug, food, and household products where 3 µL of each sample was dropped onto the center of a thread. Afterward, the distance of color change on the thread, easily observed and measured using the naked eye and a ruler, was used for analysis. The analysis using the µTAD, completed within 2 minutes and validated by the conventional titration, showed high accuracy and precision (RSD < 12.9%), good linearity ranges and low limit of quantification. The fabricated µTAD also remained stable for an extended period of time (>2 weeks under various storage conditions).

3.
ACS Sens ; 5(6): 1786-1794, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441095

RESUMO

Antibodies are important biomarkers in clinical diagnostics in addition to being increasingly used for therapeutic purposes. Although numerous methods for their detection and quantification exist, they predominantly require benchtop instruments operated by specialists. To enable the detection of antibodies at point-of-care (POC), the development of simple and rapid assay methods independent of laboratory equipment is of high relevance. In this study, we demonstrate microfluidic thread-based analytical devices (µTADs) as a new platform for antibody detection by means of bioluminescence resonance energy-transfer (BRET) switching sensor proteins. The devices consist of vertically assembled layers including a blood separation membrane and a plastic film with a sewn-in cotton thread, onto which the BRET sensor proteins together with the substrate furimazine have been predeposited. In contrast to intensity-based signaling, the BRET mechanism enables time-independent, ratiometric readout of bioluminescence signals with a digital camera in a darkroom or a smartphone camera with a 3D-printed lens adapter. The device design allows spatially separated deposition of multiple bioluminescent proteins on a single sewn thread, enabling quantification of multiple antibodies in 5 µL of whole blood within 5 min. The bioluminescence response is independent of the applied sample volume within the range of 5-15 µL. Therefore, µTADs in combination with BRET-based sensor proteins represent user-friendly analytical tools for POC quantification of antibodies without any laboratory equipment in a finger prick (5 µL) of whole blood.

4.
ACS Sens ; 5(5): 1314-1324, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323526

RESUMO

The pyrophosphate ion (P2O74-, PPi) plays a critical role in various biological processes and acts as an essential indicator for physiological mechanism investigations and disease control monitoring. However, most of the currently available approaches for PPi species detection for practical usage still lack appropriate indicator generation, straightforward detection requirements, and operation convenience. In this study, a highly sensitive and selective PPi detection approach via the use of nanozymatic carbon dots (CDs) is introduced. This strategy eliminates the common need for metal ions in the detection process, where a direct indicator-PPi interaction is adopted to provide straightforward signal reports, and importantly, through a green indicator preparation. The preparation of this nanozymatic CDs' indicator utilizes an aqueous solution refluxing, employing galactose and histidine as the precursor materials. The mild conditions of the solution refluxing produce fluorescent CDs exhibiting peroxidase-mimic properties, which can catalyze the o-phenylenediamine oxidation under the presence of H2O2. The introduction of PPi species, interestingly, inhibits this process very efficiently, the extent of which can be colorimetrically monitored by the generated yellow product 2,3-diaminophenazine. Spectroscopic results point to CD surface functional groups' selective binding toward PPi species, which severely interferes with the electron transfer process in the enzymatic catalysis. Relying on this CD peroxidase-mimetic property inhibition, sensitive and selective recognition of PPi reaches a detection limit of 4.29 nM, enabling practical usage in complex matrixes. Owing to the superior compatibility and high stability of nanozymatic CDs, they can also be inkjet-printed on paper-based devices to create a portable and convenient platform for PPi detection. Both the solution and the paper-device-based selective recognitions confirm this unique and robust metal-free inhibitive PPi detection, which is supported by a convenient green preparation of nanozymatic CDs.

5.
ACS Sens ; 5(4): 1110-1118, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186370

RESUMO

This paper introduces the concept of "Drawing-PADs" (Drawing paper-based microfluidic analytical devices) allowing to intuitively evaluate the urinary albumin (Alb) index, a clinically important parameter used for the early detection of renal deficiencies related to diabetes, among others. To enable regular monitoring of the Alb index, a simple examination method suitable for self-diagnosis is highly desirable. The Drawing-PADs rely on the simultaneous naked eye detection of Alb and creatinine (Cre) on a single device according to the distance-based microfluidic PAD (µPAD) approach. The Alb index is visualized by simply drawing a straight line connecting the top of two color-changed assay channel sections (Alb and Cre channels), followed by visually confirming the position of the intercept of the drawn straight line. The semiquantitative Alb index evaluation performed with Drawing-PADs does not require any equipment such as a camera, software, or a color reference chart. The obtained results are independent of the sample volume and are not influenced by changes in the absolute Alb and Cre concentrations caused by urine excretion variations, making spot urine assays possible. Classification of Alb index values according to clinically relevant criteria (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria) is readily achieved within 15 min and has been validated for 15 human urine samples including diabetic patients and healthy volunteers.

6.
Anal Chem ; 92(7): 4749-4754, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174103

RESUMO

Distance-based readout is one of the most user-friendly and simple colorimetric signaling methods widely applied for paper-based analytical devices (PADs). This work presents the integration of distance readout PADs into a centrifugal platform enabling affordable, rapid, and sample volume-independent colorimetric assays. Centrifugally assisted distance-based PADs (CD-PADs) eliminate the requirement to use micropipets for sample introduction and reduce the overall time for distance-based assays. All device fabrication steps were performed through computer-controlled print, cut, and laminate (PCL) techniques oriented toward mass production. The inexpensive centrifugal platform was built on a recycled DVD player combined with an open source microcomputer (Arduino). Assay protocols, including rotational velocity and rotation time, were optimized to obtain a maximum dynamic range and reproducible results for sample volume metering (coefficient of variation 3.62%). A colorimetric Ni2+ assay chosen to demonstrate measurements on CD-PADs allowed the detection of nickel ions (Ni2+) with naked-eye interpretation within 1.5 min and a limit of detection (LOD) of 44.1 ng of Ni2+, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest value reported for a distance-based Ni2+ assay.

7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1101: 1-8, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029100

RESUMO

Although microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) get a lot of attention in the scientific literature, they rarely reach the level of commercialization. One possible reason for this is a lack of application of machine learning techniques supporting the design, optimization and fabrication of such devices. This work demonstrates the potential of two chemometric techniques including design of experiments (DoE) and digital image processing to support the production of µPADs. On the example of a simple colorimetric assay for isoniazid relying on the protonation equilibrium of methyl orange, the experimental conditions were optimized using a D-optimal design (DO) and the impact of multiple factors on the µPAD response was investigated. In addition, this work demonstrates the impact of automatic image processing on accelerating color value analysis and on minimizing errors caused by manual detection area selection. The employed algorithm is based on morphological recognition and allows the analysis of RGB (red, green, and blue) values in a repeatable way. In our belief, DoE and digital image processing methodologies are keys to overcome some of the remaining weaknesses in µPAD development to facilitate their future market entry.

8.
Anal Chem ; 92(6): 4235-4243, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971368

RESUMO

Firefly bioluminescence is broadly applied as a noninvasive imaging modality in the biomedical research field. One limitation in firefly bioluminescence imaging is the limited variety of luciferins emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) region (650-900 nm), where tissue penetration is high. Herein, we describe a series of structure-inherent NIR emitting firefly luciferin analogues, NIRLucs, designed through a ring fusion strategy. This strategy resulted in pH-independent structure-inherent NIR emission with a native firefly luciferase, which was theoretically supported by quantum chemical calculations of the oxidized form of each luciferin. When applied to cells, NIRLucs displayed dose-independent improved NIR emission even at low concentrations where the native d-luciferin substrate does not emit. Additionally, excellent blood retention and brighter photon flux (7-fold overall, 16-fold in the NIR spectral range) than in the case of d-luciferin have been observed with one of the NIRLucs in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. We believe that these synthetic luciferins provide a solution to the longstanding limitation in the variety of NIR emitting luciferins and pave the way to the further development of NIR bioluminescence imaging platforms.

9.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 966-974, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724392

RESUMO

The magnesium ion (Mg2+) is an essential cation to maintain proper cellular activities. To visualize the dynamics and functions of Mg2+, there is a great need for the development of Mg2+-selective fluorescent probes. However, conventional Mg2+ fluorescent probes are falling behind in low selectivity and poor fluorescence color variation. In this report, to make available a distinct color window for multi-color imaging, we designed and synthesized highly Mg2+-selective and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, the KMG-500 series consisting of a charged ß-diketone as a selective binding site for Mg2+ and a Si-rhodamine residue as the NIR fluorophore, which showed photoinduced electron transfer (PeT)-type OFF-ON response to the concentration of Mg2+. Two types of KMG-500 series probes, tetramethyl substituted Si-rhodamine KMG-501 and tetraethyl substituted Si-rhodamine KMG-502, were synthesized for the evaluation of cell permeability. For intracellular application, the membrane-permeable acetoxymethyl derivative KMG-501 (KMG-501AM) was synthesized and allowed to stably stain cultured rat hippocampal neurons during imaging of intracellular Mg2+. On the other hand, KMG-502 was cell membrane permeable without AM modification, preventing the probe from staying inside cells during imaging. KMG-501 distributed mainly in the cytoplasm and partially localized in lysosomes and mitochondria in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Mg2+ increase in response to the FCCP uncoupler inducing depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential was detected in the KMG-501 stained neurons. For the first time, KMG-501 succeeded in imaging intracellular Mg2+ dynamics with NIR fluorescence. Moreover, it allows one to simultaneously visualize changes in Mg2+ and ATP concentration and also mitochondrial inner membrane potential and their interactions. This probe is expected to be a strong tool for multi-color imaging of intracellular Mg2+.

10.
SLAS Technol ; 25(1): 47-57, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658890

RESUMO

Lactoferrin is an abundant glycoprotein in human body fluids and is known as a biomarker for various diseases. Therefore, point-of-care testing (POCT) for lactoferrin is of interest. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have gained a lot of attention as next-generation POCT device candidates, due to their inexpensiveness, operational simplicity, and being safely disposable. This work presents a colorimetric sensing approach for quantitative lactoferrin analysis. The detection mechanism takes advantage of the high affinity of lactoferrin to ferric ions (Fe3+). Lactoferrin is able to displace an indicator from a colorimetric 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP)-Fe3+ complex, resulting in a color change. A 5-Br-PADAP-Fe3+ complex was encapsulated into water-dispersible poly(styrene-block-vinylpyrrolidone) particles, whose physical entrapment in the cellulosic fiber network results in the immobilization of the complex to the paper matrix. The complex-encapsulating particles showed a color change response in accordance with lactoferrin concentration. Both color intensity-based paper well plates and distance readout-based µPADs are demonstrated. Color intensity-based devices allowed quantitative analysis of lactoferrin concentrations with a limit of detection of 110 µg/mL, using a smartphone and a color readout app. On the other hand, distance readout-based µPADs showed changes of the length of colored sections in accordance with lactoferrin concentration. In summary, we successfully developed both colorimetric intensity-based paper wells and distance-based µPADs for lactoferrin detection. This work demonstrates a user-friendly colorimetric analysis platform for lactoferrin without requiring lab equipment and expensive antibodies.

11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(14): 3489-3497, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773228

RESUMO

A challenge for paper-based cation sensors relying on classical carrier-based ion-selective optodes (ISOs) is their pH-cross response caused by the use of H+-sensitive chromoionophores as optical signal transducers. This work demonstrates fully pH-independent fluorescence-based calcium detection with a paper-based plasticizer-free ISO. To achieve a pH-independent assay, a solvatochromic dye (SD) instead of a traditional H+-sensitive chromoionophore has been applied to the paper-based ISO by means of inkjet printing technology. The detection principle depends on an ionophore-driven phase-transfer ion-exchange reaction between target cations and the positively charged SD, which no longer involves H+ in the optical signal transduction process. The developed paper-based ISOs with the SD resulted in Ca2+ concentration-dependent response curves not affected by the sample pH (pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0). The dynamic range obtained for Ca2+ detection was from 10-5 to 1 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 19.3 µmol L-1. Additionally, excellent selectivity derived from the used ionophore has been confirmed. As a simple practical application, the determination of Ca2+ in mineral water has been achieved without the pH-buffering process required for conventional cation-exchange ISOs.

12.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 73(11): 944, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753077
13.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(31): 4771-4777, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389963

RESUMO

We developed a biomineral-inspired hybrid material composed of CaCO3 and an organic polymer as a column packing material for HPLC. This material combines a hierarchical mesoporous structure and the functionality of the polymer. The surface of monodispersed mesoporous CaCO3 microspheres was modified with poly(maleic acid-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAcO) comprising hydrophobic alkyl chains and anionic carboxylate groups. PMAcO adsorbed onto the surface of CaCO3 through electrostatic interaction between Ca2+ sites and carboxylate groups, resulting in an octadecene coated microsphere interface. These microspheres were applied as a HPLC column and exhibited reversed-phase retention behavior in the separation of alkylbenzenes. This column showed high alkaline mobile phase resistance compared with the conventionally applied ODS column packing material. Quantitative analysis of the basic antidepressants clomipramine and imipramine spiked into whole blood was achieved with an alkaline mobile phase, demonstrating the potential of the biomineral-inspired material as a HPLC stationary phase for practical applications in routine analyses of basic drugs requiring alkaline mobile phases.

14.
Anal Chem ; 91(15): 9546-9553, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291724

RESUMO

There is a high demand for sensitive biothiol probes targeting cysteine, glutathione, and homocysteine. These biothiols are known as playing essential roles to maintain homeostasis and work as indicators of many diseases. This work presents a bioluminescent probe (named AMCM) to detect biothiols in live mammalian cells and in vivo with a limit of detection of 0.11 µM for cysteine in solution and high selectivity for biothiols, making it suitable for real-time biothiol detection in biological systems. Upon application to live cells, AMCM showed low cytotoxicity and sensitively reported bioluminescence in response to changes of biothiol levels. Furthermore, a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer system consisting of AMCM combined with the near-infrared fluorescent protein iRFP713 was applied to in vivo imaging, with emitted tissue-permeable luminescence in living mice. In summary, this work demonstrates that AMCM is of high practical value for the detection of biothiols in living cells and for deep tissue imaging in living animals.

15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2027: 101-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309476

RESUMO

Arrays of gas sensors are of high interest for "electronic nose" applications. Here, we describe the fabrication of a colorimetric single-use gas sensor array made of paper allowing the discrimination of volatile primary amines based on their polarity. For this purpose, polymeric nanoparticles with different polarities containing an amine-sensitive chromogenic dye are deposited onto paper substrates by means of inkjet printing. Data processing is conducted by red-green-blue (RGB) color extraction, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) or agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) analysis. The application to the discrimination of two cheese samples is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Aminas/análise , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Nariz Eletrônico , Gases/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aminas/química , Queijo/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Cor , Colorimetria/métodos , Corantes/química , Modelos Químicos , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Impressão , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
16.
Theranostics ; 9(9): 2646-2661, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131059

RESUMO

Background: Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is one of the most widely used optical platforms in molecular imaging, but it suffers from severe tissue attenuation and autoluminescence in vivo. Methods: Here, we developed a novel BLI platform on the basis of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) for achieving a ~300 nm blue-to-near infrared shift of the emission (NIR-BRET) by synthesizing an array of 18 novel coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives, named "Bottle Blue (BBlue)" and a unique iRFP-linked RLuc8.6-535SG fusion protein as a probe. Results: The best NIR-BRET was achieved by tuning the emission peaks of the CTZ derivatives to a Soret band of the iRFP. In mammalian cells, BBlue2.3, one of the CTZ derivatives, emits light that is ~50-fold brighter than DBlueC when combined with RLuc8.6-535SG, which shows stable BL kinetics. When we used a caged version of BBLue2.3, it showed a BL half decay time of over 60 minutes while maintaining the higher signal sensitivity. This NIR BL is sufficiently brighter to be used for imaging live mammalian cells at single cell level, and also for imaging metastases in deep tissues in live mice without generating considerable autoluminescence. A single-chain probe developed based on this BLI platform allowed us to sensitively image ligand antagonist-specific activation of estrogen receptor in the NIR region. Conclusion: This unique optical platform provides the brightest NIR BLI template that can be used for imaging a diverse group of cellular events in living subjects including protein‒protein interactions and cancer metastasis.

17.
ACS Comb Sci ; 21(6): 473-481, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034200

RESUMO

Retinoic acid (RA) is a key metabolite necessary for embryonic development and differentiation in vertebrates. We demonstrate the utility of genetically encoded, ligand-activatable single-chain bioluminescence probes for detecting RAs from different biological sources. We examined 13 different molecular designs to identify an efficient single-chain probe that can quantify RA with significant sensitivity. The optimal probe consisted of four components: the N- and C-terminal fragments of artificial luciferase variant-16 (ALuc16), the ligand binding domain of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα LBD), and an LXXLL interaction motif. This probe showed a 5.2-fold greater bioluminescence intensity in response to RA when compared to the vehicle control in live mammalian cells. The probe was highly selective to all-trans-RA (at-RA), and highly sensitive in determining at-RA levels in cells derived from tumor xenografts created using MDA-MB-231 cells engineered to stably express the probe. We also detected RA levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Using this probe, the detection limit for at-RA was ∼10-9.5 M, with a linear range of two orders. We present a highly useful technique to quantitatively image endogenous at-RA levels in live mammalian cells expressing novel single-chain bioluminescence probes.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Tretinoína/análise , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Imagem Óptica , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/química , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Tretinoína/metabolismo
18.
Chembiochem ; 20(15): 1919-1923, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957352

RESUMO

A coelenterazine (CTZ) analogue emitting near-infrared (NIR) bioluminescence was synthesized for through-bond energy transfer (TBET)-based imaging modalities. The analogue, named Cy5-CTZ, was prepared by conjugating cyanine-5 (Cy5) dye to CTZ through an acetylene linker. This novel derivative is intrinsically fluorescent and emits NIR-shifted luminescence upon reacting with an appropriate luciferase, the Renilla luciferase. This Cy5-CTZ substrate is optically stable in physiological samples and rapidly permeabilize through the plasma membrane into the cytosolic compartment of live cells.

19.
Analyst ; 144(8): 2746-2754, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869086

RESUMO

This work describes the development of a microfluidic analytical device prepared on a transparent OHP film substrate, named the microfluidic transparent film-based analytical device (µTFAD). Printing technologies including wax printing for microchannel patterning and inkjet printing for chemical assay component deposition have been employed for the µTFAD fabrication. The fully printed µTFAD allowed gravity-assisted pump-free transportation of the sample liquid (50 µL) and an absorbance measurement-based iron ion (Fe2+) assay using nitroso-PSAP as the colorimetric reagent within a wax-patterned microfluidic structure. By measuring absorbance values at the Fe2+-nitroso-PSAP complex-specific wavelength (756 nm), a response curve with a linear range of 0-200 µM was obtained. The limit of detection (1.18 µM) obtained with the proposed µTFADs was comparable to the results achieved with a conventional 96-well microplate assay (0.92 µM) and lower than that in the case of digital colour analysis-assisted filter paper spot tests (7.71 µM) or the absorbance analysis of refractive index-matched translucent filter paper spots (37.2 µM). In addition, highly selective Fe2+ detection has been achieved in the presence of potentially interfering metal ions (Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+) without the use of any masking reagents, owing to the selection of the target complex-specific wavelength in the absorbance measurement on µTFADs.

20.
ACS Sens ; 4(3): 670-677, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702271

RESUMO

A distance-based analysis of potassium ion (K+) is introduced that is performed on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) coupled to an ion-selective capillary sensor. The concept is based on two sequential steps, the selective replacement of analyte ion with an ionic dye, and the detection of this dye in a distance-based readout on paper. To achieve the first step, the capillary sensor holds a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane film layer plasticized by dioctyl sebacate (DOS) that contains the potassium ionophore valinomycin, a lipophilic cation-exchanger and the ionic indicator Thioflavin T (ThT) on its inner wall. Upon introduction of the sample, K+ in the aqueous sample solution is quantitatively extracted into the film membrane and replaced with ThT. To convert the ion exchange signal into a distance-based analysis, this solution was dropped onto the inlet area of a µPAD to flow the ThT along a channel defined by wax printing, resulting in the electrostatic binding of ThT to the cellulose carboxylic groups. The initial amount of K+ determines the amount of ThT in the aqueous solution after ion-exchange, and consequently the distance of ThT-colored area reflects the sample K+ concentration. The ion exchange reaction was operated in a so-called "exhaustive sensing mode" and gave a distinct response in a narrow range of K+ concentration (1-6 mM) that cannot be achieved by the classical optode sensing mode. The absence of hydrogen ions from the equilibrium competition of the capillary sensor contributed to a complete pH-independence, unlike conventional optodes that contain a pH sensitive indicator. A very high selectivity for K+ over Na+ and Ca2+ has been confirmed in separate solutions and mixed solutions tests. K+ measurements in pooled serum samples at concentrations between 2 and 6 mM are successfully demonstrated on a temperature controlled support.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Corantes/química , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Papel , Potássio/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Potássio/sangue , Potássio/química
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