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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 14(1): 44-49, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes


No disponible

2.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441318

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the refractive change and incidence of myopia, as well as their risk factors, among Chinese rural children aged 6-17 years. METHODS: Children who completed the baseline vision examination of the Handan Offspring Myopia Study were re-examined, including both cycloplegic and non-cyloplegic autorefraction, with a mean follow-up time of 42.4±1.47 months. RESULTS: A total of 601 children (68.5%) who completed both baseline and the follow-up examinations were enrolled. The cumulative refractive change and axial length change were -0.53±1.03 diopter and 0.39±0.46 mm (-0.15 diopter/year and 0.11 mm/year), respectively. A hundred and five out of the 469 non-myopic children at baseline become myopic at the follow-up, yielding a cumulative myopia incidence of 22.4% (95% CI: 18.6% to 26.2%), or annual myopia incidence of 6.3%. After adjustment, younger age (ß=0.08, p<0.001), more myopic baseline refraction (ß=0.31, p<0.001), larger difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction (ß=-0.20, p=0.007) and more myopic paternal refraction (ß=0.09, p=0.007) were found to be associated with more rapid myopic refractive change. More myopic baseline refraction (relative risk (RR), 95% CI: 0.19, 0.13-0.28, p<0.001) and more myopic paternal refraction (RR, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.84-1.00, p=0.039) were also associated with myopia incidence. CONCLUSION: Relatively low myopic refractive change and myopia incidence were found in this study cohort. Children's refraction and paternal refraction were associated with both myopic refractive change and myopia incidence. Such information will be helpful for further comparisons in other rural versus urban areas of China, and other countries.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277717
5.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2793-2799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293880

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the impact of eye exercises of acupoints on myopic progression among Chinese urban students. Methods: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) was a three-year cohort study, with 386 students (aged 6-17 years) enrolled at baseline. These students were invited to be reexamined in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013. The student's cycloplegic refraction at each visit and the parental non-cycloplegic refraction at baseline were performed. Students were also required to complete the eye exercise of acupoints questionnaire and the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS). Results: At the final follow-up, 226 students (57.2%) with complete refraction and eye exercises questionnaire data were enrolled in the present study. In the multivariate analysis, only students who performed the eye exercises twice or more per day had less myopic refractive change (ß=0.32, p=0.04), as compared to those who performed the eye exercises less than twice per day. No significant association was found between the CISS score and the refractive change for items in the eye exercises questionnaire. Conclusion: In this study cohort, the Chinese eye exercises of acupoints had a modest effect on reducing myopic progression among Chinese urban students aged 6 to 17 years. The precise mechanism remains unclear, especially in the absence of a control group.

6.
Concussion ; 5(4): CNC80, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204492
8.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970102

RESUMO

Importance: Concussion diagnosis remains clinical, without objective diagnostic tests available for adolescents. Known deficits in visual accommodation and autonomic function after concussion make the pupillary light reflex (PLR) a promising target as an objective physiological biomarker for concussion. Objective: To determine the potential utility of PLR metrics as physiological biomarkers for concussion. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort of adolescent athletes between ages 12 and 18 years recruited between August 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018. The study took place at a specialty concussion program and private suburban high school and included healthy control individuals (n = 134) and athletes with a diagnosis of sport-related concussion (SRC) (n = 98). Analysis was completed June 30, 2020. Exposures: Sports-related concussion and pupillometry assessments. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pupillary light reflex metrics (maximum and minimum pupillary diameter, peak and average constriction/dilation velocity, percentage constriction, and time to 75% pupillary redilation [T75]). Results: Pupillary light reflex metrics of 134 healthy control individuals and 98 athletes with concussion were obtained a median of 12.0 days following injury (interquartile range [IQR], 5.0-18.0 days). Eight of 9 metrics were significantly greater among athletes with concussion after Bonferroni correction (maximum pupil diameter: 4.83 mm vs 4.01 mm; difference, 0.82; 99.44% CI, 0.53-1.11; minimum pupil diameter: 2.96 mm vs 2.63 mm; difference, 0.33; 99.4% CI, 0.18-0.48; percentage constriction: 38.23% vs 33.66%; difference, 4.57; 99.4% CI, 2.60-6.55; average constriction velocity: 3.08 mm/s vs 2.50 mm/s; difference, 0.58; 99.4% CI, 0.36-0.81; peak constriction velocity: 4.88 mm/s vs 3.91 mm/s; difference, 0.97; 99.4% CI, 0.63-1.31; average dilation velocity, 1.32 mm/s vs 1.22 mm/s; difference, 0.10; 99.4% CI, 0.00-0.20; peak dilation velocity: 1.83 mm/s vs 1.64 mm/s; difference, 0.19; 99.4% CI, 0.07-0.32; and T75: 1.81 seconds vs 1.51 seconds; difference, 0.30; 0.10-0.51). In exploratory analyses, sex-based differences were observed, with girls with concussion exhibiting longer T75 (1.96 seconds vs 1.63 seconds; difference, 0.33; 99.4% CI, 0.02-0.65). Among healthy control individuals, diminished PLR metrics (eg, smaller maximum pupil size 3.81 mm vs 4.22 mm; difference, -0.41; 99.4% CI, -0.77 to 0.05) were observed after exercise. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that enhancement of PLR metrics characterize acute adolescent concussion, while exercise produced smaller pupil sizes and overall slowing of PLR metrics, presumably associated with fatigue. Quantifiable measures of the PLR may serve in the future as objective physiologic biomarkers for concussion in the adolescent athlete.

9.
J Optom ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes.

10.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 1607064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885881

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the axial length difference (ALD) and the estimated generational axial length shift (ALS) from parents to their children and its risk factors in urban and rural China. Methods: Participants were enrolled from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) and the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Ocular biometry was performed in both parents and their children. ALD was defined as the difference between the children's axial length and the corresponding parental axial length. Generational ALS was estimated according to a binominal prediction model at 18 years of age. Results: 237 and 380 urban and rural Chinese children (6-17 years) and their parents from the BMPS and HOMS, respectively, were enrolled. Children's axial length was estimated to be closest to the parental axial length at 11 and 9 years of age in the urban and rural areas, respectively; the estimated generational ALS would be 1.53 and 0.57 mm, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that older children (urban ß = 0.26, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.11, p < 0.001) and males had larger ALD (urban ß = 0.55, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.52, p < 0.001) in both areas. Furthermore, urban children with more educated parents (fathers: ß = -0.30, p=0.002; mothers: ß = -0.29, p=0.004) and more outdoor activity (ß = -0.23, p=0.006) had a less ALD. Conclusions: The urban generational axial length shift was estimated to be approximately 1 mm longer than that of the rural area. These results suggest different environmental effects on the ocular development in these two populations of Chinese children.

11.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 12(1): 64-68, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178514

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of esophoria at near in concussed patients in a neuro-optometric private practice setting. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed involving a chart review in a neuro-optometric, private practice setting of consecutive patients with a medical diagnosis of concussion from January 1st 2016 to December 31st 2016. A total of 71 patients were included in the analysis. All received a comprehensive vision examination, with a near vision emphasis. The near horizontal phoria was assessed with the cover test and the von Graefe test. Results: Approximately 30% of the patients with a medically based diagnosis of concussion exhibited esophoria at near, with good agreement (95%) between the two tests. Mean esophoria was 5.2 (SD=2.8) prism diopters (pd), with a range from 2pd to 14pd of esophoria. Convergence excess was diagnosed in 23%. Discussion: Near esophoria was found in nearly one-third of this practice-based sample of concussed patients. Thus, it was more common than typically believed to be the case. Two proposed oculomotor-based mechanisms related to these symptomatic esophoric patients included phoria decompensation and excessive accommodative vergence


Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de la endoforia de cerca en pacientes con conmoción, en un centro privado de neuro-optometría. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo, en un centro privado de neuro-optometría, con revisión de las historias de pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico médico de conmoción desde el 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2016. Se incluyó en el análisis a un total de 71 pacientes. A todos ellos se les realizó un examen ocular amplio, enfatizando la visión de cerca. La foria horizontal de cerca se valoró mediante el cover test y la prueba de von Graefe. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 30% de los pacientes con diagnóstico médico de conmoción mostraron endoforia de cerca, con buena concordancia (95%) entre las dos pruebas. La endoforia media fue de 5,2 (SD = 2,8) dioptrías prismáticas (pd),con un rango de 2 pd a 14 pd de endoforia. El exceso de convergencia se diagnóstico en el 23%. Discusión: Se encontró endoforia de cerca en cerca del 25% de la muestra de pacientes con conmoción. Por tanto, esta condición clínica resultó ser más común de lo que se creía. Dos mecanismos propuestos basados en el sistema oculomotor con relación a estos pacientes endofóricos sintomáticos incluyeron descompensación de foria y exceso de vergencia acomodativa


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Esotropia/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/complicações , Esotropia/etiologia , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
12.
J Optom ; 12(1): 64-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of esophoria at near in concussed patients in a neuro-optometric private practice setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed involving a chart review in a neuro-optometric, private practice setting of consecutive patients with a medical diagnosis of concussion from January 1st 2016 to December 31st 2016. A total of 71 patients were included in the analysis. All received a comprehensive vision examination, with a near vision emphasis. The near horizontal phoria was assessed with the cover test and the von Graefe test. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of the patients with a medically based diagnosis of concussion exhibited esophoria at near, with good agreement (95%) between the two tests. Mean esophoria was 5.2 (SD=2.8) prism diopters (pd), with a range from 2pd to 14pd of esophoria. Convergence excess was diagnosed in 23%. DISCUSSION: Near esophoria was found in nearly one-third of this practice-based sample of concussed patients. Thus, it was more common than typically believed to be the case. Two proposed oculomotor-based mechanisms related to these symptomatic esophoric patients included phoria decompensation and excessive accommodative vergence.


Assuntos
Esotropia/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Esotropia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 11(2): 93-102, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-172722

RESUMO

Purpose: There have been several studies investigating static, baseline pupil diameter in visually-normal individuals across refractive error. However, none have assessed the dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR). In the present study, both static and dynamic pupillary parameters of the PLR were assessed in both the visually-normal (VN) and the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations and compared as a function of refractive error. Methods: The VN population comprised 40 adults (22-56 years of age), while the mTBI population comprised 32 adults (21-60 years of age) over a range of refractive errors (-9.00 D to +1.25 D). Seven pupillary parameters (baseline static diameter, latency, amplitude, and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) were assessed and compared under four white light stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, and bright step). The Neuroptics, infrared, DP-2000 binocular pupillometer (30 Hz sampling rate; 0.05 mm resolution) was used in the monocular (right eye) stimulation mode. Results: For the majority of pupillary parameters and stimulus conditions, a Gaussian distribution best fit the data, with the apex centered in the low myopic range (-2.3 to -4.9D). Responsivity was reduced to either side of the apex. Conclusions: Over a range of dynamic and static pupillary parameters, the PLR was influenced by refractive error in both populations. In cases of high refractive error, the PLR parameters may need to be compensated for this factor for proper categorization and diagnosis


Objetivo: Existen diversos estudios que han investigado el diámetro pupilar estático y basal en individuos con visión normal en todo el espectro de errores refractivos. Sin embargo, ninguno de ellos ha evaluado el reflejo dinámico pupilar a la luz (RPL). En el presente estudio, se evaluaron tanto los parámetros pupilares estáticos como los dinámicos en poblaciones con visión normal (VN) y en las afectadas de lesiones cerebrales traumáticas leves (mTBI), comparándolos en función del error refractivo. Métodos: La población VN incluyó a 40 adultos (de 22 a 56 años de edad), mientras que el grupo de mTBI incluyó a 32 adultos (de 21 a 60 años de edad) para un rango de errores refractivos (de -9D a + 1,25D). Se valoraron siete parámetros pupilares (diámetro estático basal, latencia, amplitud, constricción máxima y media, y velocidades de dilatación), comparándose bajo cuatro situaciones de estímulo con luz blanca (pulso tenue, punto tenue, pulso brillante, y punto brillante). Se utilizó el pupilómetro binocular con infrarrojos DP-200 de Neuroptics (30 Hz de muestreo; 0,05 mm de resolución) en el modo de estimulación monocular (ojo derecho). Resultados: Para la mayoría de los parámetros pupilares y situaciones de estímulo, los datos se ajustaron a una distribución gausiana, centrándose el ápex en el rango miópico bajo (-2,3 to -4,9D). La respuesta se redujo a ambos extremos del ápex. Conclusiones: Para un rango de parámetros pupilares dinámicos y estáticos, el RPL se vio influenciado por el error refractivo en ambas poblaciones. En casos de error refractivo elevado, los parámetros de RPL pueden necesitar compensarse por este factor, para su debida categorización y diagnóstico


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Erros de Refração/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Distúrbios Pupilares/etiologia , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Miose/fisiopatologia
14.
J Optom ; 11(2): 93-102, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28262507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There have been several studies investigating static, baseline pupil diameter in visually-normal individuals across refractive error. However, none have assessed the dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR). In the present study, both static and dynamic pupillary parameters of the PLR were assessed in both the visually-normal (VN) and the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations and compared as a function of refractive error. METHODS: The VN population comprised 40 adults (22-56 years of age), while the mTBI population comprised 32 adults (21-60 years of age) over a range of refractive errors (-9.00D to +1.25D). Seven pupillary parameters (baseline static diameter, latency, amplitude, and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) were assessed and compared under four white-light stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, and bright step). The Neuroptics, infrared, DP-2000 binocular pupillometer (30Hz sampling rate; 0.05mm resolution) was used in the monocular (right eye) stimulation mode. RESULTS: For the majority of pupillary parameters and stimulus conditions, a Gaussian distribution best fit the data, with the apex centered in the low myopic range (-2.3 to -4.9D). Responsivity was reduced to either side of the apex. CONCLUSIONS: Over a range of dynamic and static pupillary parameters, the PLR was influenced by refractive error in both populations. In cases of high refractive error, the PLR parameters may need to be compensated for this factor for proper categorization and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Luz , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 17(1): 203, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The near work and outdoor activity are the most important environmental risk factors for myopia. However, data from Chinese rural children are relatively rare and remain controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of both near work and outdoor activities with refractive error in rural children in China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 572 (65.1%) of 878 children (6-18 years of age) were included from the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Information from the parents on these children, as well as the parent's non-cycloplegic refraction, were obtained from the database of the Handan Eye Study conducted in the years 2006-2007. A comprehensive vision examination, including cycloplegic refraction, and a related questionnaire, were assessed on all children. RESULTS: The overall time spent on near work and outdoor activity in the children was 4.8 ± 1.6 and 2.9 ± 1.4 h per day, respectively. Myopic children spent more time on near work (5.0 ± 1.7 h vs.4.7 ± 1.6 h, p = 0.049), while no significant difference was found in outdoor activity hours (2.8 ± 1.3 h vs. 3.0 ± 1.4 h, p = 0.38), as compared to non-myopic children. In the multiple logistic analysis, in general, no association between near work and myopia was found after adjusting for the children's age, gender, parental refractive error, parental educational level, and daily outdoor activity hours [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 0.94-1.27]. However, a weak protective effect of the outdoor activity on myopia was found (OR, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.70-0.96), after adjusting for similar confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In general, no association between near work and myopia was found, except for the high near work subgroup with moderate outdoor activity levels. A weak protective effect of outdoor activity on myopia in Chinese rural children was observed.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Miopia/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Brain Sci ; 7(8)2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792441

RESUMO

The diagnosis and treatment of the possible visual sequelae in those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an important area of health care in this special population. One of their most prevalent yet elusive visual symptoms is visual motion sensitivity (VMS). In this review, we present the basic VMS phenomenon and its related symptoms, clinical studies in the area, clinical research investigations using the visual-evoked potential (VEP) as a cortical probe, and possible mechanisms and related neurophysiology that may underlie VMS. Lastly, therapeutic interventions are briefly described, as well as future directions for clinical research and patient care in those with VMS and TBI.

18.
Brain Sci ; 7(8)2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792451

RESUMO

Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) manifest a wide range of visual dysfunctions. One of the most prevalent involves the oculomotor system, which includes version, vergence, and accommodation. However, until recently, there has been no comprehensive, computer-based program for remediation of these oculomotor deficits. We present such an oculomotor rehabilitation program that has been tested in a clinical trial in patients having TBI with a high degree of success based on before-and-after objective system recordings, performance measures, and related visual symptomotology. The basic program components include a versatile stimulus package incorporating the attentional paradigm of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the ability to add a visual and/or auditory distractor to the training to increase difficulty level ("task loading"), automated assessment of RSVP errors, and automated assessment of visual performance over the training period. Program limitations and future directions are also considered.

20.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 37(4): 489-497, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503812

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with the progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. METHODS: A total of 386 children aged 6-17 years were enrolled in the baseline investigation of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study in 2010. They were invited for follow-up vision examinations in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, including cycloplegic (cyclopentolate 1%, three times) autorefraction. We investigated the difference between the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) and the non-cycloplegic SE (DSE) provided by autorefraction and its association with refractive error progression. The progression of refractive error was defined as the difference between the cycloplegic SE at follow-up and at baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen children (57%) with completed refractive data (mean ± standard deviation: -1.36 ± 2.44 D at baseline) were ultimately enrolled. The DSE reduced from 0.51 ± 0.72 D at baseline to 0.19 ± 0.43 D in the third year of follow-up (p = 0.01). The baseline DSE was positively associated with the children's baseline cycloplegic refraction (ß = 0.193 dioptre dioptre-1 , p < 0.001). After further divided by refractive status, the DSE was consistently higher in the hyperopic group than in either the emmetropic or myopic groups at each follow-up (all p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, the myopic children with larger baseline DSE (ß = -0.404 dioptre dioptre-1 , p = 0.01) exhibited more myopic refractive change. However, baseline DSE was not found to be a significant risk factor (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 0.79-1.41) for those with newly developed myopia. CONCLUSION: In this sample, the children's DSE was found to be increased as the hyperopic refraction increased. Furthermore, greater the DSE was associated with the progression of refractive error among the myopic children, but not with the onset of myopia.


Assuntos
Ciclopentolato/administração & dosagem , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas , Refração Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais
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