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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 19(3): 317-321, jul.-set. 2007. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-470941

RESUMO

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A pressão do balonete transmitida diretamente na parede da traquéia de forma irregular pode ocasionar lesões e levar a broncoaspiração. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar que ao implantar uma rotina de mensuração da pressão do balonete, obtém-se controle fidedigno para manter as medidas dentro dos parâmetros considerados seguros, evitando assim, as complicações descritas. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 3195 medidas de pressão de balonete em 1194 pacientes dos sexos masculino e feminino, internados nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI) e coronariana (UC), que estavam sob ventilação mecânica com uso de prótese endotraqueal e cânula de traqueostomia, nos períodos matutino e vespertino. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de março a agosto de 2005 foi realizado acompanhamento das medidas colhidas pelos profissionais de fisioterapia e observou-se que as medidas foram irregulares, em média, em 80 por cento dos casos. Diante desse fato foi elaborado um programa de treinamento, com foco nas Equipes de Enfermagem das UTI e UC, que consistiu na orientação dos procedimentos adequados realizados à beira do leito (treinamento em loco). Os treinamentos foram realizados em dois períodos (matutino e vespertino) para abranger toda a equipe. CONCLUSÕES: Sugere-se a necessidade da vigilância das pressões do balonete através da implantação de uma rotina de mensurações matutina, vespertina e noturna, como meio profilático, para prevenir as possíveis complicações da pressão de balão da prótese traqueal.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The tube cuff pressure directly transmitted on the tracheal wall in an irregular form can cause injuries and lead to bronchoaspiration. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the implementation of routine tube cuff pressure measurements result in a reliable control to maintain the measurements within the parameters considered safe, thus preventing the described complications. METHODS: A total of 3,195 tube cuff measurements were obtained from 1,194 male and female patients admitted at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Coronary Unit (CU), who were undergoing mechanical ventilation with endotracheal prosthesis and tracheotomy cannula, during the morning and afternoon periods. RESULTS: From March to August 2005 the follow-up of the measurements obtained by the physical therapy professionals was carried out and it was observed that the measurements were irregular, on average, in 80 percent of the cases. Thus, a training program was established, which was focused on the Nursing Teams of the ICU and CU, consisting in providing directions for the adequate procedures performed at the bedside (in loco training). The training procedures were carried out at two different periods (morning and afternoon) in order to include the whole team. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that it is necessary to monitor tube cuff pressure through the implementation of routine measurements in the morning, afternoon and evening periods as a prophylactic measure, in order to prevent the possible complications of tracheal prosthesis balloon pressure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Intubação Intratraqueal , Traqueostomia
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 19(1): 31-37, jan.-mar. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-466766

RESUMO

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A retirada precoce da ventilação mecânica dos pacientes das unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI) é importante para a redução da morbimortalidade, porém na prática, os desmames são realizados aleatoriamente. Face à importância desse procedimento, esse estudo avaliou a implementação de protocolos de desmame e comparou dois métodos distintos. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo 120 pacientes dependentes de ventilação mecânica por mais de 48 horas. O método de Pressão Suporte + PEEP (PSP), foi aplicado aos pacientes em dias pares, constituindo o grupo 1 (GPSP) e em dias ímpares, utilizou-se o método do Tubo-T (TT), formando o grupo 2 (GTT), RESULTADOS: A resposta dos pacientes à extubação revelou evolução semelhante nos dois grupos, porém deixou claro, pela análise estatística do teste Qui-quadrado, o benefício de se utilizar um protocolo de desmame. De todos os pacientes estudados, 109 (90,83 por cento) tiveram sucesso na extubação não sendo necessário nenhum tipo de ventilação não-invasiva dentro de 24 horas após o desmame, enquanto que apenas 11 pacientes (9,17 por cento) necessitaram de ventilação mecânica não-invasiva ou de re-intubação no mesmo período, caracterizando o insucesso do desmame. CONCLUSÕES: A implementação e a padronização de protocolos de desmame da ventilação mecânica, reduziu significativamente o índice de re-intubação na UTI, diminuindo o período de internação e o índice de morbimortalidade, porém neste estudo, não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os métodos analisados.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mechanical ventilation incurs significant morbidity and mortality, weaning intensive care unit patients is highly desirable, although it is usuallyconducted in an empirical manner. Thus, this article assessed a weaning protocol implementation and compared two different methods. METHODS: It was carried out a study involving 120 patients who had received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. These patients were randomlyassigned to undergo one of two weaning techniques: pressure-supportventilation + PEEP (PSP) technique, which was applied to the patients in equal days, forming the PSP group (PSPG) and the T-tube method (TT), applied in odd days and forming the TT group (TTG). Standardized protocols were followedfor each technique RESULTS: The patients response to extubation revealed similar progress in both PSP and TT groups, but after the Chi-square statistical test, the benefits of using a weaning protocol was clear. One hundred nine (90.83 percent) of all patients, had a successful weaning and any noninvasive ventilation type was needed in a span time of 24 hours after extubation, and only eleven (9.17 percent), had an unsuccessful weaning. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study didn't show any difference between the two methods applied, we could conclude that, the implementation of standardized weaning protocols can substantially decrease the patient's reintubation rate, promoting a downward trend in mortality and morbidity for these patients and shortening their hospital and intensive care units length of stay.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Desmame do Respirador/instrumentação , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/normas , Desmame do Respirador
3.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 19(3): 317-21, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The tube cuff pressure directly transmitted on the tracheal wall in an irregular form can cause injuries and lead to bronchoaspiration. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the implementation of routine tube cuff pressure measurements result in a reliable control to maintain the measurements within the parameters considered safe, thus preventing the described complications. METHODS: A total of 3,195 tube cuff measurements were obtained from 1,194 male and female patients admitted at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Coronary Unit (CU), who were undergoing mechanical ventilation with endotracheal prosthesis and tracheotomy cannula, during the morning and afternoon periods. RESULTS: From March to August 2005 the follow-up of the measurements obtained by the physical therapy professionals was carried out and it was observed that the measurements were irregular, on average, in 80% of the cases. Thus, a training program was established, which was focused on the Nursing Teams of the ICU and CU, consisting in providing directions for the adequate procedures performed at the bedside (in loco training). The training procedures were carried out at two different periods (morning and afternoon) in order to include the whole team. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that it is necessary to monitor tube cuff pressure through the implementation of routine measurements in the morning, afternoon and evening periods as a prophylactic measure, in order to prevent the possible complications of tracheal prosthesis balloon pressure.

4.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 19(1): 31-7, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mechanical ventilation incurs significant morbidity and mortality, weaning intensive care unit patients is highly desirable, although it is usuallyconducted in an empirical manner. Thus, this article assessed a weaning protocol implementation and compared two different methods. METHODS: It was carried out a study involving 120 patients who had received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. These patients were randomlyassigned to undergo one of two weaning techniques: pressure-supportventilation + PEEP (PSP) technique, which was applied to the patients in equal days, forming the PSP group (PSPG) and the T-tube method (TT), applied in odd days and forming the TT group (TTG). Standardized protocols were followedfor each technique RESULTS: The patients response to extubation revealed similar progress in both PSP and TT groups, but after the Chi-square statistical test, the benefits of using a weaning protocol was clear. One hundred nine (90.83%) of all patients, had a successful weaning and any noninvasive ventilation type was needed in a span time of 24 hours after extubation, and only eleven (9.17%), had an unsuccessful weaning. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study didn't show any difference between the two methods applied, we could conclude that, the implementation of standardized weaning protocols can substantially decrease the patient's reintubation rate, promoting a downward trend in mortality and morbidity for these patients and shortening their hospital and intensive care units length of stay.

5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 50(4): 259-61, abr. 1988. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-57622

RESUMO

Obstruçäo tardia e degeneraçäo aterosclerótica da artéria mamária interna, empregada na revascularizaçäo direta do miocárdio, säo raramente demonstradas. Isto confere melhor evoluçäo dos pacientes operados com este tipo de enxerto arterial. A artéria epigástrica inferior é continuaçäo da artéria mamária. A partir da artéria ilíaca externa, de onde se origina, tem normalmente diâmetro e comprimento adequados para ser usada como enxerto livre na revascularizaçäo dos ramos coronarianos das faces anterior e lateral do coraçäo. A artéria epigástrica inferior foi empregada em três pacientes para revascularizaçäo da descendente anterior (2 casos) e diagonalis, (1 caso) associada a artéria mamária interna esquerda e veia safena. Os pacientes tiveram evoluçäo pós-operatória normal. A cineangiografia pós-operatória mostrou os três enxertos livres de artéria epigástrica pérvios assim como os de artéria mamária interna e veia safena. A arteria epigástrica inferior poderá ser mais uma opçäo para a revascularizaçäo direta do miocárdio


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Abdome/irrigação sanguínea , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Artérias/transplante , Estudos de Avaliação , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Veia Safena/transplante
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