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1.
Int J Radiat Biol ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348739

RESUMO

Purpose: Based on clinical and molecular data, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Breast cancers that have no expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are defined as triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs); luminal cancers have different expressions of ER, PR and/or HER2. TNBCs are frequently linked with advanced disease, poor prognosis and occurrence in young African women, and about 15% of the cases are associated with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. Since radiotherapy is utilized as a principle treatment in the management of TNBC, we aimed to investigate the chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in TNBC patients compared to luminal breast cancer patients and healthy controls using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The effect of mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes on chromosomal radiosensitivity was also evaluated. Methods: Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated in the G0 (83 patients and 90 controls) and S/G2 (34 patients and 17 controls) phase of the cell cycle by exposing blood samples from all patients and controls to 2 and 4 Gy ionizing radiation (IR). Results: In the G0 MN assay, the combined cohort of all breast cancer, TNBC and luminal patients' exhibit significantly elevated spontaneous MN values compared to controls indicating chromosomal instability. Chromosomal radiosensitivity is also significantly elevated in the combined cohort of all breast cancer patients compared to controls. The TNBC patients, however, do not exhibit enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity. Similarly, in the S/G2 phase, 76% of TNBC patients do not show enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity compared to the controls. In both the G0 and S/G2 phase, luminal breast cancer patients demonstrate a shift toward chromosomal radiosensitivity compared to TNBC patients and controls. Conclusions: The observations of the MN assay suggest increased chromosomal instability and chromosomal radiosensitivity in South African breast cancer patients. However, in TNBC patients, the irradiated MN values are not elevated. Our results suggest that the healthy lymphocytes in TNBC patients could handle higher doses of IR.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 567, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-V600E BRAF mutated colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare disease entity with specific clinical features. These tumors are less likely to have microsatellite instability than CRC with a V600E BRAF mutation and often harbor a KRAS or NRAS mutation. Notably, median overall survival is longer than in wild-type BRAF CRC. Little is known about treatment possibilities in these patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 59 year old patient with a rare mutation in BRAF codon 594, who progressed rapidly on all classical therapies but experienced a clear and long lasting response on treatment with Regorafenib. CONCLUSION: Little is known about therapies that can be effective in the rare non-V600E BRAF mutated CRCs. We present a patient who had a definite response to treatment with Regorafenib. There are no predictive markers that define a subset of CRC patients who benefit most from Regorafenib. The specific features of this non-V600E BRAF mutated CRC may be relevant in the exploration of predictive biomarkers for the efficacy of Regorafenib.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.

7.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

8.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992513

RESUMO

The breakpoints of type-1 NF1 deletions encompassing 1.4-Mb are located within NF1-REPa and NF1-REPc, which exhibit a complex structure comprising different segmental duplications in direct and inverted orientation. Here, we systematically assessed the proportion of type-1 NF1 deletions caused by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and those mediated by other mutational mechanisms. To this end, we analyzed 236 unselected type-1 deletions and observed that 179 of them (75.8%) had breakpoints located within the NAHR hotspot PRS2, whereas 39 deletions (16.5%) had breakpoints located within PRS1. Sixteen deletions exhibited breakpoints located outside of these NAHR hotspots but were also mediated by NAHR. Taken together, the breakpoints of 234 (99.2%) of the 236 type-1 NF1 deletions were mediated by NAHR. Thus, NF1-REPa and NF1-REPc are strongly predisposed to recurrent NAHR, the main mechanism underlying type-1 NF1 deletions. We also observed a non-random overlap between type-1 NF1-deletion breakpoints and G-quadruplex forming sequences (GQs) as well as regions flanking PRDM9A binding-sites. These findings imply that GQs and PRDM9A binding-sites contribute to the clustering of type-1 deletion breakpoints. The co-location of both types of sequence was at its highest within PRS2, indicative of their synergistic contribution to the greatly increased NAHR activity within this hotspot.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 425: 125-133, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the second hit spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers at both gene loci to investigate if second hit mechanisms are mutually exclusive or able to coincide within the same tumor. METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity, somatic point mutations and copy number alterations along with promoter methylation were studied in 56 breast and 15 ovarian cancers from BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers. A mathematical methodology was introduced to quantify the tumor cell population carrying a second hit. RESULTS: Copy neutral LOH was the most prevalent LOH mechanism in this cohort (BC 69%, OC 67%). However, only 36% of BC and 47% of OC showed LOH in all cancerous cells. Somatic intragenic deletions and methylated subclones were also found in combination with (partial) loss of heterozygosity. Unequivocal deleterious somatic point mutations were not identified in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Different mechanisms inactivating the wild type allele are present within the same tumor sample at various extents. Results indicate that BRCA1/2-linked breast and ovarian cancer cells are predominantly characterized by LOH, but harbor a complex combination of second hits at various frequencies.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 515-526, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280214

RESUMO

For 21 putative BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice site variants, the concordance between mRNA analysis and predictions by in silico programs was evaluated. Aberrant splicing was confirmed for 12 alterations. In silico prediction tools were helpful to determine for which variants cDNA analysis is warranted, however, predictions for variants in the Cartegni consensus region but outside the canonical sites, were less reliable. Learning algorithms like Adaboost and Random Forest outperformed the classical tools. Further validations are warranted prior to implementation of these novel tools in clinical settings. Additionally, we report here for the first time activated cryptic donor sites in the large exon 11 of BRCA2 by evaluating the effect at the cDNA level of a novel tandem duplication (5' breakpoint in intron 4; 3' breakpoint in exon 11) and of a variant disrupting the splice donor site of exon 11 (c.6841+1G > C). Additional sites were predicted, but not activated. These sites warrant further research to increase our knowledge on cis and trans acting factors involved in the conservation of correct transcription of this large exon. This may contribute to adequate design of ASOs (antisense oligonucleotides), an emerging therapy to render cancer cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and platinum therapies.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16518, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184099

RESUMO

Homologous Recombination (HR) repair is essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in dividing cells and preventing tumorigenesis. BRCA2 plays an important role in HR by recruiting the DNA recombinase RAD51 to the DSB. Despite being a popular model organism in genetic and cancer research, knowledge on the conservation of the HR pathway and function of zebrafish Brca2 is limited. To evaluate this, we developed a Rad51 foci assay in zebrafish embryos. We identified the zebrafish embryonic intestinal tissue as an ideal target for Rad51 immunostaining. After inducing DSB through irradiation, Rad51 foci were present in irradiated embryos but not in unirradiated controls. We present a method for accurate quantification of HR. Both morpholino-induced knockdown and knockout of Brca2 lead to almost complete absence of Rad51 foci in irradiated embryos. These findings indicate conserved function of Brca2 in zebrafish. Interestingly, a statistically significant decrease in Rad51 foci was observed in Brca2 heterozygous carriers compared to wild types, indicative of haploinsufficiency, a hypothesised cause of some tumours in patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish as an excellent in vivo model system for studying the HR pathway and its functionality.

12.
Biomol Detect Quantif ; 13: 40-48, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For the relative quantification of isoform expression, RT-qPCR has been the gold standard for over a decade. More recently, digital PCR is becoming widely implemented, as it is promised to be more accurate, sensitive and less affected by inhibitors, without the need for standard curves. In this study we evaluated RT-qPCR versus RT-droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for the relative quantification of isoforms in controls and carriers of the splice site mutation BRCA1 c.212+3A>G, associated with increased expression of several isoforms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from EBV cell lines of controls and heterozygous BRCA1 c.212+3A>G carriers. Transcript-specific plasmids were available to determine the efficiency, precision, reproducibility and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Both ddPCR and RT-qPCR were able to accurately quantify all targets and showed the same LOB, LOD and LOQ; also precision and reproducibility were similar. Both techniques have the same dynamic range and linearity at biologically relevant template concentrations. However, a significantly higher cost and workload was required for ddPCR experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Our study recognizes the potential and validity of digital PCR but shows the value of a highly optimized qPCR for the relative quantification of isoforms. Cost efficiency and simplicity turned out to be better for RT-qPCR.

13.
Oncol Rep ; 37(3): 1379-1386, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28184943

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk drastically increases in individuals with a heterozygous germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, while it is estimated to equal the population risk for relatives without the familial mutation (non-carriers). The aim of the present study was to use a G2 phase-specific micronucleus assay to investigate whether lymphocytes of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by increased radiosensitivity compared to controls without a family history of breast/ovarian cancer and how this relates to healthy non-carrier relatives. BRCA2 is active in homologous recombination, a DNA damage repair pathway, specifically active in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. We found a significantly increased radiosensitivity in a cohort of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to individuals without a familial history of breast cancer (P=0.046; Mann-Whitney U test). At the individual level, 50% of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers showed a radiosensitive phenotype (radiosensitivity score of 1 or 2), whereas 83% of the controls showed no radiosensitivity (P=0.038; one-tailed Fisher's exact test). An odds ratio of 5 (95% CI, 1.07-23.47) indicated an association between the BRCA2 mutation and radiosensitivity in healthy mutation carriers. These results indicate the need for the gentle use of ionizing radiation for either diagnostic or therapeutic use in BRCA2 mutation carriers. We detected no increased radiosensitivity in the non-carrier relatives.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Quebra Cromossômica/efeitos da radiação , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Mutação/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos
14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 112, 2016 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. METHODS: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). "Cases" were defined as TH, and "controls" were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 "controls" carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH "case". Matched SH2 "controls" carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH "case". After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2. RESULTS: The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Vigilância da População , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
16.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158801, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463617

RESUMO

Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 52, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27184744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk increases drastically in individuals carrying a germline BRCA1 mutation. The exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes of BRCA1 mutation carriers is counterintuitive, since BRCA1 is active in the DNA damage response pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether healthy BRCA1 mutations carriers demonstrate an increased radiosensitivity compared with healthy individuals. METHODS: We defined a novel radiosensitivity indicator (RIND) based on two endpoints measured by the G2 micronucleus assay, reflecting defects in DNA repair and G2 arrest capacity after exposure to doses of 2 or 4 Gy. We investigated if a correlation between the RIND score and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) could be established. RESULTS: We found significantly increased radiosensitivity in the cohort of healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers compared with healthy controls. In addition, our analysis showed a significantly different distribution over the RIND scores (p = 0.034, Fisher's exact test) for healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers compared with non-carriers: 72 % of mutation carriers showed a radiosensitive phenotype (RIND score 1-4), whereas 72 % of the healthy volunteers showed no radiosensitivity (RIND score 0). Furthermore, 28 % of BRCA1 mutation carriers had a RIND score of 3 or 4 (not observed in control subjects). The radiosensitive phenotype was similar for relatives within several families, but not for unrelated individuals carrying the same mutation. The median RIND score was higher in patients with a mutation leading to a premature termination codon (PTC) located in the central part of the gene than in patients with a germline mutation in the 5' end of the gene. CONCLUSIONS: We show that BRCA1 mutations are associated with a radiosensitive phenotype related to a compromised DNA repair and G2 arrest capacity after exposure to either 2 or 4 Gy. Our study confirms that haploinsufficiency is the mechanism involved in radiosensitivity in patients with a PTC allele, but it suggests that further research is needed to evaluate alternative mechanisms for mutations not subjected to NMD.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos/efeitos da radiação , Genes BRCA1 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Alelos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Humanos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos da radiação , Testes para Micronúcleos
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11375, 2016 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117709

RESUMO

Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Ciclofilinas/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , tRNA Metiltransferases
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(2): 238-49, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26189818

RESUMO

Genomic rearrangements can cause both Mendelian and complex disorders. Currently, several major mechanisms causing genomic rearrangements, such as non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS), and microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR), have been proposed. However, to what extent these mechanisms contribute to gene-specific pathogenic copy-number variations (CNVs) remains understudied. Furthermore, few studies have resolved these pathogenic alterations at the nucleotide-level. Accordingly, our aim was to explore which mechanisms contribute to a large, unique set of locus-specific non-recurrent genomic rearrangements causing the genetic neurocutaneous disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Through breakpoint-spanning PCR as well as array comparative genomic hybridization, we have identified the breakpoints in 85 unrelated individuals carrying an NF1 intragenic CNV. Furthermore, we characterized the likely rearrangement mechanisms of these 85 CNVs, along with those of two additional previously published NF1 intragenic CNVs. Unlike the most typical recurrent rearrangements mediated by flanking low-copy repeats (LCRs), NF1 intragenic rearrangements vary in size, location, and rearrangement mechanisms. We propose the DNA-replication-based mechanisms comprising both FoSTeS and/or MMBIR and serial replication stalling to be the predominant mechanisms leading to NF1 intragenic CNVs. In addition to the loop within a 197-bp palindrome located in intron 40, four Alu elements located in introns 1, 2, 3, and 50 were also identified as intragenic-rearrangement hotspots within NF1.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 371(6): 497-506, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline loss-of-function mutations in PALB2 are known to confer a predisposition to breast cancer. However, the lifetime risk of breast cancer that is conferred by such mutations remains unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the risk of breast cancer among 362 members of 154 families who had deleterious truncating, splice, or deletion mutations in PALB2. The age-specific breast-cancer risk for mutation carriers was estimated with the use of a modified segregation-analysis approach that allowed for the effects of PALB2 genotype and residual familial aggregation. RESULTS: The risk of breast cancer for female PALB2 mutation carriers, as compared with the general population, was eight to nine times as high among those younger than 40 years of age, six to eight times as high among those 40 to 60 years of age, and five times as high among those older than 60 years of age. The estimated cumulative risk of breast cancer among female mutation carriers was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 20) by 50 years of age and 35% (95% CI, 26 to 46) by 70 years of age. Breast-cancer risk was also significantly influenced by birth cohort (P<0.001) and by other familial factors (P=0.04). The absolute breast-cancer risk for PALB2 female mutation carriers by 70 years of age ranged from 33% (95% CI, 25 to 44) for those with no family history of breast cancer to 58% (95% CI, 50 to 66) for those with two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer at 50 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Loss-of-function mutations in PALB2 are an important cause of hereditary breast cancer, with respect both to the frequency of cancer-predisposing mutations and to the risk associated with them. Our data suggest the breast-cancer risk for PALB2 mutation carriers may overlap with that for BRCA2 mutation carriers. (Funded by the European Research Council and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/congênito , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Risco , Deleção de Sequência
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