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1.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(2): 182-187, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Variants of butyrylcholinesterase are frequently associated with prolonged response to suxamethonium or mivacurium. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) can be characterized by phenotyping and determination of genotype. Inappropriate timing of blood sampling might interfere with phenotyping methods. However, guidelines regarding delay between exposure to anaesthesia and testing are not clearly defined. In this study, the BChE activity and phenotype in an early (T1) and late (T2) phase were compared and the phenotype/genotype correlation was assessed. METHODS: Patients with a prolonged paralysis after mivacurium or suxamethonium were selected after ethical committee approval and written consent. BChE activity was based on butyrylthiocholine hydrolysis rate and phenotyping on differential inhibition of BChE activity with dibucaine and fluoride. DNA sequencing allowed genotypic characterization. RESULTS: We included the results of 20 patients with prolonged neuromuscular block (NMB) induced by mivacurium or suxamethonium. In these patients, BChE activity was different at T1 and T2 (2120 [1506-2733] U L-1 and 4055 [2810-5301] U L-1 , respectively; P = 0.0014; values are mean [95% CI]). When phenotyping was possible, phenotyping at T1 and T2 yielded identical results. Phenotyping failed to identify one new variant (p.Tyr146Cys) and the K variant in 14 of 16 patients. CONCLUSION: Anaesthesia interfered with BChE activity, but not with phenotyping. Phenotyping can be performed on blood drawn during or immediately after recovery of mivacurium or suxamethonium to screen for clinically relevant variants of BChE. However, accurate diagnosis of BChE deficiency needs further confirmation by determination of genotype.

2.
Clin Genet ; 99(2): 292-297, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073370

RESUMO

Pathogenic biallelic variants in the BLM/RECQL3 gene cause a rare autosomal recessive disorder called Bloom syndrome (BS). This syndrome is characterized by severe growth delay, immunodeficiency, dermatological manifestations and a predisposition to a wide variety of cancers, often multiple and very early in life. Literature shows that the main mode of BLM inactivation is protein translation termination. We expanded the molecular spectrum of BS by reporting the first deep intronic variant causing intron exonisation. We describe a patient with a clinical phenotype of BS and a strong increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), who was found to be compound heterozygous for a novel nonsense variant c.3379C>T, p.(Gln1127Ter) in exon 18 and a deep intronic variant c.3020-258A>G in intron 15 of the BLM gene. The deep intronic variant creates a high-quality de novo donor splice site, which leads to retention of two intron segments. Both pseudo-exons introduce a premature stop codon into the reading frame and abolish BLM protein expression, confirmed by Western Blot analysis. These findings illustrate the role of non-coding variation in Mendelian disorders and herewith highlight an unmet need in routine testing of Mendelian disorders, being the added value of RNA-based approaches to provide a complete molecular diagnosis.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Risco
6.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(11): 1507-1516, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348739

RESUMO

Purpose: Based on clinical and molecular data, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Breast cancers that have no expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are defined as triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs); luminal cancers have different expressions of ER, PR and/or HER2. TNBCs are frequently linked with advanced disease, poor prognosis and occurrence in young African women, and about 15% of the cases are associated with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. Since radiotherapy is utilized as a principle treatment in the management of TNBC, we aimed to investigate the chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in TNBC patients compared to luminal breast cancer patients and healthy controls using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The effect of mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes on chromosomal radiosensitivity was also evaluated.Methods: Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated in the G0 (83 patients and 90 controls) and S/G2 (34 patients and 17 controls) phase of the cell cycle by exposing blood samples from all patients and controls to 2 and 4 Gy ionizing radiation (IR).Results: In the G0 MN assay, the combined cohort of all breast cancer, TNBC and luminal patients' exhibit significantly elevated spontaneous MN values compared to controls indicating chromosomal instability. Chromosomal radiosensitivity is also significantly elevated in the combined cohort of all breast cancer patients compared to controls. The TNBC patients, however, do not exhibit enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity. Similarly, in the S/G2 phase, 76% of TNBC patients do not show enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity compared to the controls. In both the G0 and S/G2 phase, luminal breast cancer patients demonstrate a shift toward chromosomal radiosensitivity compared to TNBC patients and controls.Conclusions: The observations of the MN assay suggest increased chromosomal instability and chromosomal radiosensitivity in South African breast cancer patients. However, in TNBC patients, the irradiated MN values are not elevated. Our results suggest that the healthy lymphocytes in TNBC patients could handle higher doses of IR.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cromossomos/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/radioterapia , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Tolerância a Radiação , Radiação Ionizante
7.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 567, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-V600E BRAF mutated colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare disease entity with specific clinical features. These tumors are less likely to have microsatellite instability than CRC with a V600E BRAF mutation and often harbor a KRAS or NRAS mutation. Notably, median overall survival is longer than in wild-type BRAF CRC. Little is known about treatment possibilities in these patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 59 year old patient with a rare mutation in BRAF codon 594, who progressed rapidly on all classical therapies but experienced a clear and long lasting response on treatment with Regorafenib. CONCLUSION: Little is known about therapies that can be effective in the rare non-V600E BRAF mutated CRCs. We present a patient who had a definite response to treatment with Regorafenib. There are no predictive markers that define a subset of CRC patients who benefit most from Regorafenib. The specific features of this non-V600E BRAF mutated CRC may be relevant in the exploration of predictive biomarkers for the efficacy of Regorafenib.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/secundário , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Éxons/genética , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(4): 350-364, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Idade de Início , Proteína BRCA1/química , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/química , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
12.
Hum Genet ; 137(6-7): 511-520, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992513

RESUMO

The breakpoints of type-1 NF1 deletions encompassing 1.4-Mb are located within NF1-REPa and NF1-REPc, which exhibit a complex structure comprising different segmental duplications in direct and inverted orientation. Here, we systematically assessed the proportion of type-1 NF1 deletions caused by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and those mediated by other mutational mechanisms. To this end, we analyzed 236 unselected type-1 deletions and observed that 179 of them (75.8%) had breakpoints located within the NAHR hotspot PRS2, whereas 39 deletions (16.5%) had breakpoints located within PRS1. Sixteen deletions exhibited breakpoints located outside of these NAHR hotspots but were also mediated by NAHR. Taken together, the breakpoints of 234 (99.2%) of the 236 type-1 NF1 deletions were mediated by NAHR. Thus, NF1-REPa and NF1-REPc are strongly predisposed to recurrent NAHR, the main mechanism underlying type-1 NF1 deletions. We also observed a non-random overlap between type-1 NF1-deletion breakpoints and G-quadruplex forming sequences (GQs) as well as regions flanking PRDM9A binding-sites. These findings imply that GQs and PRDM9A binding-sites contribute to the clustering of type-1 deletion breakpoints. The co-location of both types of sequence was at its highest within PRS2, indicative of their synergistic contribution to the greatly increased NAHR activity within this hotspot.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Deleção de Genes , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Transcriptoma , Carcinogênese , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Lett ; 425: 125-133, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the second hit spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers at both gene loci to investigate if second hit mechanisms are mutually exclusive or able to coincide within the same tumor. METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity, somatic point mutations and copy number alterations along with promoter methylation were studied in 56 breast and 15 ovarian cancers from BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers. A mathematical methodology was introduced to quantify the tumor cell population carrying a second hit. RESULTS: Copy neutral LOH was the most prevalent LOH mechanism in this cohort (BC 69%, OC 67%). However, only 36% of BC and 47% of OC showed LOH in all cancerous cells. Somatic intragenic deletions and methylated subclones were also found in combination with (partial) loss of heterozygosity. Unequivocal deleterious somatic point mutations were not identified in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Different mechanisms inactivating the wild type allele are present within the same tumor sample at various extents. Results indicate that BRCA1/2-linked breast and ovarian cancer cells are predominantly characterized by LOH, but harbor a complex combination of second hits at various frequencies.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Modelos Teóricos , Mutação Puntual , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 6: 178, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687705

RESUMO

Cancer is a disease of the elderly, and old age is its largest risk factor. With age, DNA damage accumulates continuously, increasing the chance of malignant transformation. The zebrafish has emerged as an important vertebrate model to study these processes. Key mechanisms such as DNA damage responses and cellular senescence can be studied in zebrafish throughout its life course. In addition, the zebrafish is becoming an important resource to study telomere biology in aging, regeneration and cancer. Here we review some of the tools and resources that zebrafish researchers have developed and discuss their potential use in the study of DNA damage, cancer and aging related diseases.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517176

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe a snapshot of international genetic testing practices, specifically regarding the use of multigene panels, for hereditary breast/ovarian cancers. We conducted a survey through the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium, covering questions about 16 non-BRCA1/2 genes. Methods: Data were collected via in-person and paper/electronic surveys. ENIGMA members from around the world were invited to participate. Additional information was collected via country networks in the United Kingdom and in Italy. Results: Responses from 61 cancer genetics practices across 20 countries showed that 16 genes were tested by > 50% of the centers, but only six (PALB2, TP53, PTEN, CHEK2, ATM, and BRIP1) were tested regularly. US centers tested the genes most often, whereas United Kingdom and Italian centers with no direct ENIGMA affiliation at the time of the survey were the least likely to regularly test them. Most centers tested the 16 genes through multigene panels; some centers tested TP53, PTEN, and other cancer syndrome-associated genes individually. Most centers reported (likely) pathogenic variants to patients and would test family members for such variants. Gene-specific guidelines for breast and ovarian cancer risk management were limited and differed among countries, especially with regard to starting age and type of imaging and risk-reducing surgery recommendations. Conclusion: Currently, a small number of genes beyond BRCA1/2 are routinely analyzed worldwide, and management guidelines are limited and largely based on expert opinion. To attain clinical implementation of multigene panel testing through evidence-based management practices, it is paramount that clinicians (and patients) participate in international initiatives that share panel testing data, interpret sequence variants, and collect prospective data to underpin risk estimates and evaluate the outcome of risk intervention strategies.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 515-526, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280214

RESUMO

For 21 putative BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice site variants, the concordance between mRNA analysis and predictions by in silico programs was evaluated. Aberrant splicing was confirmed for 12 alterations. In silico prediction tools were helpful to determine for which variants cDNA analysis is warranted, however, predictions for variants in the Cartegni consensus region but outside the canonical sites, were less reliable. Learning algorithms like Adaboost and Random Forest outperformed the classical tools. Further validations are warranted prior to implementation of these novel tools in clinical settings. Additionally, we report here for the first time activated cryptic donor sites in the large exon 11 of BRCA2 by evaluating the effect at the cDNA level of a novel tandem duplication (5' breakpoint in intron 4; 3' breakpoint in exon 11) and of a variant disrupting the splice donor site of exon 11 (c.6841+1G > C). Additional sites were predicted, but not activated. These sites warrant further research to increase our knowledge on cis and trans acting factors involved in the conservation of correct transcription of this large exon. This may contribute to adequate design of ASOs (antisense oligonucleotides), an emerging therapy to render cancer cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and platinum therapies.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Simulação por Computador , DNA Complementar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16518, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184099

RESUMO

Homologous Recombination (HR) repair is essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in dividing cells and preventing tumorigenesis. BRCA2 plays an important role in HR by recruiting the DNA recombinase RAD51 to the DSB. Despite being a popular model organism in genetic and cancer research, knowledge on the conservation of the HR pathway and function of zebrafish Brca2 is limited. To evaluate this, we developed a Rad51 foci assay in zebrafish embryos. We identified the zebrafish embryonic intestinal tissue as an ideal target for Rad51 immunostaining. After inducing DSB through irradiation, Rad51 foci were present in irradiated embryos but not in unirradiated controls. We present a method for accurate quantification of HR. Both morpholino-induced knockdown and knockout of Brca2 lead to almost complete absence of Rad51 foci in irradiated embryos. These findings indicate conserved function of Brca2 in zebrafish. Interestingly, a statistically significant decrease in Rad51 foci was observed in Brca2 heterozygous carriers compared to wild types, indicative of haploinsufficiency, a hypothesised cause of some tumours in patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish as an excellent in vivo model system for studying the HR pathway and its functionality.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/deficiência , Testes Genéticos , Recombinação Homóloga , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Embrião não Mamífero , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos da radiação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante
19.
Biomol Detect Quantif ; 13: 40-48, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: For the relative quantification of isoform expression, RT-qPCR has been the gold standard for over a decade. More recently, digital PCR is becoming widely implemented, as it is promised to be more accurate, sensitive and less affected by inhibitors, without the need for standard curves. In this study we evaluated RT-qPCR versus RT-droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for the relative quantification of isoforms in controls and carriers of the splice site mutation BRCA1 c.212+3A>G, associated with increased expression of several isoforms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from EBV cell lines of controls and heterozygous BRCA1 c.212+3A>G carriers. Transcript-specific plasmids were available to determine the efficiency, precision, reproducibility and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Both ddPCR and RT-qPCR were able to accurately quantify all targets and showed the same LOB, LOD and LOQ; also precision and reproducibility were similar. Both techniques have the same dynamic range and linearity at biologically relevant template concentrations. However, a significantly higher cost and workload was required for ddPCR experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Our study recognizes the potential and validity of digital PCR but shows the value of a highly optimized qPCR for the relative quantification of isoforms. Cost efficiency and simplicity turned out to be better for RT-qPCR.

20.
Oncol Rep ; 37(3): 1379-1386, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28184943

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk drastically increases in individuals with a heterozygous germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, while it is estimated to equal the population risk for relatives without the familial mutation (non-carriers). The aim of the present study was to use a G2 phase-specific micronucleus assay to investigate whether lymphocytes of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by increased radiosensitivity compared to controls without a family history of breast/ovarian cancer and how this relates to healthy non-carrier relatives. BRCA2 is active in homologous recombination, a DNA damage repair pathway, specifically active in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. We found a significantly increased radiosensitivity in a cohort of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to individuals without a familial history of breast cancer (P=0.046; Mann-Whitney U test). At the individual level, 50% of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers showed a radiosensitive phenotype (radiosensitivity score of 1 or 2), whereas 83% of the controls showed no radiosensitivity (P=0.038; one-tailed Fisher's exact test). An odds ratio of 5 (95% CI, 1.07-23.47) indicated an association between the BRCA2 mutation and radiosensitivity in healthy mutation carriers. These results indicate the need for the gentle use of ionizing radiation for either diagnostic or therapeutic use in BRCA2 mutation carriers. We detected no increased radiosensitivity in the non-carrier relatives.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Quebra Cromossômica/efeitos da radiação , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Mutação/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos
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