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1.
Klin Onkol ; 32(Supplementum2): 51-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for a considerable proportion of dominantly inherited breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. The laboratory interpretation has always been dependent on the information available at the time of the report conclusion. The aim of this study has been to review the results from the BRCA testing at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected hereditary predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer, belonging to 7,400 families, were referred by genetic counsellors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing at the MMCI from 1999 to the beginning of 2018. Various methods have been used over 20 years of laboratory practice - starting with the Protein Truncation Test and Heteroduplex Analysis via the High Resolution Melting analysis and Sanger sequencing up to Next Generation Sequencing. RESULTS: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening resulted in the identification of 1,021 families with a germline high-risk BRCA1 mutation and 497 families carrying a high-risk BRCA2 mutation, representing a mutation detection rate of 20.5%. A broad spectrum of unique mutations classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic has been detected in both genes - 124 in the BRCA1 and 123 in the BRCA2 gene. Other sequence variants (96 unique variants in the BRCA1 and 126 in the BRCA2 gene) have been revised and classified as benign or likely benign. The other 82 unique variants remain classified as of uncertain significance mainly due to a lack of information for inclusion in other groups. All the results are summarised in the tables, including the reasons for their classification. CONCLUSION: The clinical classification of rare sequence variants identified in the high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling. Here we present an overview of BRCA mutation frequencies in our region and the retrospective evaluation and eventually reclassification of previously reported rare variants in light of recent findings.

2.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(11): 1507-1516, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348739

RESUMO

Purpose: Based on clinical and molecular data, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Breast cancers that have no expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are defined as triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs); luminal cancers have different expressions of ER, PR and/or HER2. TNBCs are frequently linked with advanced disease, poor prognosis and occurrence in young African women, and about 15% of the cases are associated with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. Since radiotherapy is utilized as a principle treatment in the management of TNBC, we aimed to investigate the chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in TNBC patients compared to luminal breast cancer patients and healthy controls using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The effect of mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes on chromosomal radiosensitivity was also evaluated.Methods: Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated in the G0 (83 patients and 90 controls) and S/G2 (34 patients and 17 controls) phase of the cell cycle by exposing blood samples from all patients and controls to 2 and 4 Gy ionizing radiation (IR).Results: In the G0 MN assay, the combined cohort of all breast cancer, TNBC and luminal patients' exhibit significantly elevated spontaneous MN values compared to controls indicating chromosomal instability. Chromosomal radiosensitivity is also significantly elevated in the combined cohort of all breast cancer patients compared to controls. The TNBC patients, however, do not exhibit enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity. Similarly, in the S/G2 phase, 76% of TNBC patients do not show enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity compared to the controls. In both the G0 and S/G2 phase, luminal breast cancer patients demonstrate a shift toward chromosomal radiosensitivity compared to TNBC patients and controls.Conclusions: The observations of the MN assay suggest increased chromosomal instability and chromosomal radiosensitivity in South African breast cancer patients. However, in TNBC patients, the irradiated MN values are not elevated. Our results suggest that the healthy lymphocytes in TNBC patients could handle higher doses of IR.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 567, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-V600E BRAF mutated colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare disease entity with specific clinical features. These tumors are less likely to have microsatellite instability than CRC with a V600E BRAF mutation and often harbor a KRAS or NRAS mutation. Notably, median overall survival is longer than in wild-type BRAF CRC. Little is known about treatment possibilities in these patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 59 year old patient with a rare mutation in BRAF codon 594, who progressed rapidly on all classical therapies but experienced a clear and long lasting response on treatment with Regorafenib. CONCLUSION: Little is known about therapies that can be effective in the rare non-V600E BRAF mutated CRCs. We present a patient who had a definite response to treatment with Regorafenib. There are no predictive markers that define a subset of CRC patients who benefit most from Regorafenib. The specific features of this non-V600E BRAF mutated CRC may be relevant in the exploration of predictive biomarkers for the efficacy of Regorafenib.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1461-1470, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922664

RESUMO

Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of fractures. This prospective observational study investigated whether areal bone mineral density (aBMD) as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry can predict incident fragility fractures in de novo kidney transplant recipients and whether bone turnover markers increase diagnostic accuracy. Parameters of bone mineral metabolism including parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23, sclerostin, calcidiol and calcitriol, and bone turnover markers were assessed in blood samples collected immediately prior to kidney transplantation in 518 adult recipients. aBMD was measured at several skeletal sites within 14 days posttransplant. Thirty patients had a history of a fragility fracture at the time of transplantation, and osteopenia or osteoporosis at the femoral neck was observed in 77%. Bone turnover markers were inversely correlated with aBMD at all skeletal sites. Low aBMD and low PTH were associated with history of fragility fracture at the time of transplantation, independent of age, gender, and comorbidity. During a median post-transplant follow-up of 5.2 years, 38 patients sustained a fragility fracture, corresponding to a fracture incidence of 14.1 per 1000 person-years. Low aBMD at the hip and lumbar spine were associated with incident fractures, independent of classical determinants, including history of fracture. PTH and bone turnover markers at the time of transplantation failed to predict incident fractures. In conclusion, aBMD is low, correlates inversely with bone turnover, and predicts incident fractures in de novo kidney transplant recipients.

7.
Kidney Int ; 95(2): 412-419, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665572

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is among the most common hereditary nephropathies. Low bone turnover osteopenia has been reported in mice with conditional deletion of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes in osteoblasts, and preliminary clinical data also suggest suppressed bone turnover in patients with ADPKD. The present study compared the bone phenotype between patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) due to ADPKD and controls with ESRD due to other causes. Laboratory parameters of bone mineral metabolism (fibroblast growth factor 23 and sclerostin), bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) and bone mineral density (BMD, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, DXA) were assessed in 518 patients with ESRD, including 99 with ADPKD. Bone histomorphometry data were available in 71 patients, including 10 with ADPKD. Circulating levels of bone alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in patients with ADPKD (17.4 vs 22.6 ng/mL), as were histomorphometric parameters of bone formation. Associations between ADPKD and parameters of bone formation persisted after adjustment for classical determinants including parathyroid hormone, age, and sex. BMD was higher in skeletal sites rich in cortical bone in patients with ADPKD compared to non-ADPKD patients (Z-score midshaft radius -0.04 vs -0.14; femoral neck -0.72 vs -1.02). Circulating sclerostin levels were significantly higher in ADPKD patients (2.20 vs 1.84 ng/L). In conclusion, patients with ESRD due to ADPKD present a distinct bone and mineral phenotype, characterized by suppressed bone turnover, better preserved cortical BMD, and high sclerostin levels.

8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427544

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis are major public health problems associated with an aging population. Vitamin K insufficiency is prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preliminary data indicate that poor vitamin K status may compromise bone health and that increased inflammation may be in the causal pathway. We performed an ancillary analysis of data collected in the frame of prospective observational cohort studies exploring various aspects of bone health in de novo renal transplant recipients to investigate the association between vitamin K status, inflammation, bone mineral density, and incident clinical fractures. Parameters of mineral metabolism (including biointact PTH and FGF23, sclerostin, calcidiol, calcitriol) and inflammation (CRP and IL-6), osteoprotegerin, bone turnover markers (P1NP, BsAP, and TRAP5B), and dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein (dp-ucMGP) were assessed on blood samples collected immediately prior to kidney transplantation in 468 patients. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry within 14 days posttransplant. Poor vitamin K status, defined by dp-ucMGP >500 nmol/L, was highly prevalent (90%). High dp-ucMGP levels independently associated with elevated inflammatory markers and low aBMD. No associations were observed between vitamin K status and bone turnover markers. During a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 33 patients sustained a fragility fracture. In Cox-proportional hazards analysis, a dp-ucMGP above median associated with incident fractures, independent of classical determinants, including age, gender, history of fracture, and aBMD (HR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.91; p < 0.05). In conclusion, poor vitamin K status associates with inflammation and low aBMD in patients with ESRD and confers an increased risk of incident fractures in de novo renal transplant recipients. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339234

RESUMO

The skeletal effects of renal transplantation are not completely understood, especially in patients managed with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol and long term. We enrolled 69 adult transplant recipients (39 males; ages 51.1 ± 12.2 years), free of antiresorptive therapy and managed with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol, into a 5-year prospective observational study to evaluate changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), mineral metabolism and bone remodelling. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, laboratory parameters of mineral metabolism (including parathyroid hormone, sclerostin and fibroblast growth factor 23) and non-renal cleared bone turnover markers (BTMs) (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, trimeric N-terminal propeptide and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were assessed at baseline and 1 and 5 years post-transplantation. The mean cumulative methylprednisolone exposure at 1 and 5 years amounted to 2.5 ± 0.8 and 5.8 ± 3.3 g, respectively. Overall, bone remodelling activity decreased after transplantation. Post-transplant aBMD changes were minimal and were significant only in the ultradistal radius during the first post-operative year {median -2.2% [interquartile range (IQR) -5.9-1.2] decline, P = 0.01} and in the lumbar spine between Years 1 and 5 [median 1.6% (IQR -3.2-7.0) increase, P = 0.009]. BTMs, as opposed to mineral metabolism parameters and cumulative corticosteroid exposure, associated with aBMD changes, both in the early and late post-transplant period. Most notably, aBMD changes inversely associated with bone remodelling changes. In summary, in de novo renal transplant recipients treated with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol, BMD changes are limited, highly variable and related to remodelling activity rather than corticosteroid exposure.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.

12.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992513

RESUMO

The breakpoints of type-1 NF1 deletions encompassing 1.4-Mb are located within NF1-REPa and NF1-REPc, which exhibit a complex structure comprising different segmental duplications in direct and inverted orientation. Here, we systematically assessed the proportion of type-1 NF1 deletions caused by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) and those mediated by other mutational mechanisms. To this end, we analyzed 236 unselected type-1 deletions and observed that 179 of them (75.8%) had breakpoints located within the NAHR hotspot PRS2, whereas 39 deletions (16.5%) had breakpoints located within PRS1. Sixteen deletions exhibited breakpoints located outside of these NAHR hotspots but were also mediated by NAHR. Taken together, the breakpoints of 234 (99.2%) of the 236 type-1 NF1 deletions were mediated by NAHR. Thus, NF1-REPa and NF1-REPc are strongly predisposed to recurrent NAHR, the main mechanism underlying type-1 NF1 deletions. We also observed a non-random overlap between type-1 NF1-deletion breakpoints and G-quadruplex forming sequences (GQs) as well as regions flanking PRDM9A binding-sites. These findings imply that GQs and PRDM9A binding-sites contribute to the clustering of type-1 deletion breakpoints. The co-location of both types of sequence was at its highest within PRS2, indicative of their synergistic contribution to the greatly increased NAHR activity within this hotspot.

13.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal pathology in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by the growth of angiomyolipoma and renal cysts, and in rare cases renal cell carcinoma. Other consequences of renal involvement in TSC, including hypertension, proteinuria, and hyperfiltration, are not well studied. We aimed to analyze the early manifestations of the renal TSC phenotype in a young TSC cohort and to explore common, modifiable risk factors. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, TSC patients attending the TSC clinics of two tertiary hospitals were included. Data on demographics, history, genotype, kidney function, hematuria, proteinuria, blood pressure, and renal imaging were collected. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included, with a median age of 0.8 years (0.0-63.0) at first presentation, and a median follow-up time of 10.2 (0.4-41.0) years. Mutation analysis was available in 64 patients (80%). Renal lesions (cysts or angiomyolipoma) were observed in 55/73 (75%). Thirty-two percent (19/60) were hypertensive, 8/51 (16%) had proteinuria, and 18/71 (25%) had hyperfiltration (median eGFR 154 ml/min/m2). Six (7.5%) patients had developed end stage renal disease at the last follow-up. No association was found between hyperfiltration, hypertension, or proteinuria and CKD ≥ 3. Cox regression showed a significant positive association between the presence of a renal intervention and CKD ≥ 3 (Hazard-Ratio 3.91, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Besides renal cysts and angiomyolipoma, the modifiable progression factors hypertension, proteinuria, and hyperfiltration occur frequently and early in TSC patients. This represents a preventive treatment target.

14.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 126, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient activation is associated with better outcomes and lower costs. Although the concept is widely investigated, little attention was given to patient activation and its predictors in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Hence, we aimed to investigate the level of patient activation and aimed to determine patient- and treatment-related predictors of activation in patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study recruited patients undergoing hemodialysis in three Flemish hospitals. Participants were questioned about patient characteristics (i.e., age, sex, education, employment, children, social support, leisure-time, living condition, and care at home), treatment- and health-related characteristics (i.e., hospital, time since first dialysis, transplantation, self-reported health (EQ-VAS) and depressive symptoms (PHQ-2)), and patient activation (PAM-13). Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses with dummy variables were conducted to investigate the associations between the independent variables and patient activation. RESULTS: The average patient activation-score was 51. Of 192 patients, 44% patients did not believe they had an important role regarding their health. Multiple linear regression showed that older patients, who reported being in bad health, treated in a particular hospital, without leisure-time activities, and living in a residential care home, had lower patient activation. These variables explained 31% of the variance in patient activation. Based on literature, we found that activation of patients on hemodialysis is low, compared to that of other chronic patient groups. CONCLUSION: It could be useful to implement patient activation monitoring, since the level of activation is low in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Older patients, who reported being in bad health, treated in a particular hospital, without leisure-time activities, living in a residential care home, are at higher risk for lower activation.

16.
Cancer Lett ; 425: 125-133, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the second hit spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers at both gene loci to investigate if second hit mechanisms are mutually exclusive or able to coincide within the same tumor. METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity, somatic point mutations and copy number alterations along with promoter methylation were studied in 56 breast and 15 ovarian cancers from BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers. A mathematical methodology was introduced to quantify the tumor cell population carrying a second hit. RESULTS: Copy neutral LOH was the most prevalent LOH mechanism in this cohort (BC 69%, OC 67%). However, only 36% of BC and 47% of OC showed LOH in all cancerous cells. Somatic intragenic deletions and methylated subclones were also found in combination with (partial) loss of heterozygosity. Unequivocal deleterious somatic point mutations were not identified in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Different mechanisms inactivating the wild type allele are present within the same tumor sample at various extents. Results indicate that BRCA1/2-linked breast and ovarian cancer cells are predominantly characterized by LOH, but harbor a complex combination of second hits at various frequencies.

17.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 29(4): 470-475.e3, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential added value of paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) angioplasty to reduce fistula dysfunction related to recurrent stenoses in patients undergoing hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized study was conducted in 3 dialysis referral centers. From January 2013 to October 2015, 64 patients (22 female, 42 male) with dysfunctional autologous dialysis fistulae were randomized to undergo conventional percutaneous balloon angioplasty (n = 31) or PCB angioplasty (n = 33). Procedural and postprocedural data were assessed. Primary patency of the fistula was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months following the procedure. Statistical analysis was based on the Fisher exact test and independent t test. RESULTS: There were no procedural or postprocedural complications. After 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up, primary patency rates after PCB angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) were 88% and 80% (P = .43), 67% and 65% (P = .76), and 42% and 39% (P = .95), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although primary patency rates after PCB angioplasty in autologous dialysis fistulae at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up are slightly better than those after PTA, the difference is not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/terapia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 515-526, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280214

RESUMO

For 21 putative BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice site variants, the concordance between mRNA analysis and predictions by in silico programs was evaluated. Aberrant splicing was confirmed for 12 alterations. In silico prediction tools were helpful to determine for which variants cDNA analysis is warranted, however, predictions for variants in the Cartegni consensus region but outside the canonical sites, were less reliable. Learning algorithms like Adaboost and Random Forest outperformed the classical tools. Further validations are warranted prior to implementation of these novel tools in clinical settings. Additionally, we report here for the first time activated cryptic donor sites in the large exon 11 of BRCA2 by evaluating the effect at the cDNA level of a novel tandem duplication (5' breakpoint in intron 4; 3' breakpoint in exon 11) and of a variant disrupting the splice donor site of exon 11 (c.6841+1G > C). Additional sites were predicted, but not activated. These sites warrant further research to increase our knowledge on cis and trans acting factors involved in the conservation of correct transcription of this large exon. This may contribute to adequate design of ASOs (antisense oligonucleotides), an emerging therapy to render cancer cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and platinum therapies.

19.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 61: 17-24, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154021

RESUMO

Fanconi Anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by defects in DNA repair, associated with chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC). The FA repair pathway involves complex DNA repair mechanisms crucial for genomic stability. Deficiencies in DNA repair genes give rise to chromosomal radiosensitivity. FA patients have shown increased clinical radiosensitivity by exhibiting adverse normal tissue side-effects. The study aimed to investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of homozygous and heterozygous carriers of FA mutations using three micronucleus (MN) assays. The G0 and S/G2MN assays are cytogenetic assays to evaluate DNA damage induced by ionising radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. The MMC MN assay detects DNA damage induced by a crosslinking agent in the G0 phase. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of FA and their parents were screened for the complete coding region of 20 FA genes. Blood samples of all FA patients and parents were exposed to ionising radiation of 2 and 4Gy. Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated in the G0 and S/G2 phase. Most of our patients were homozygous for the founder mutation FANCG c.637_643delTACCGCC; p.(Tyr213Lysfs*6) while one patient was compound heterozygous for FANCG c.637_643delTACCGCC and FANCG c.1379G > A, p.(Gly460Asp), a novel missense mutation. Another patient was compound heterozygous for two deleterious FANCA mutations. In FA patients, the G0- and S/G2-MN assays show significantly increased chromosomal radiosensitivity and genomic instability. Moreover, chromosomal damage was significantly elevated in MMC treated FA cells. We also observed an increase in chromosomal radiosensitivity and genomic instability in the parents using 3 assays. The effect was significant using the MMC MN assay. The MMC MN assay is advantageous as it is less labour intense, time effective and has potential as a reliable alternative method for detecting FA patients from parents and controls.


Assuntos
Anemia de Fanconi/diagnóstico , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos da radiação , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Radiação Ionizante , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular , Criança , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Reparo do DNA , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação A da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação G da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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