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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2557, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186421

RESUMO

Facial recognition from DNA refers to the identification or verification of unidentified biological material against facial images with known identity. One approach to establish the identity of unidentified biological material is to predict the face from DNA, and subsequently to match against facial images. However, DNA phenotyping of the human face remains challenging. Here, another proof of concept to biometric authentication is established by using multiple face-to-DNA classifiers, each classifying given faces by a DNA-encoded aspect (sex, genomic background, individual genetic loci), or by a DNA-inferred aspect (BMI, age). Face-to-DNA classifiers on distinct DNA aspects are fused into one matching score for any given face against DNA. In a globally diverse, and subsequently in a homogeneous cohort, we demonstrate preliminary, but substantial true (83%, 80%) over false (17%, 20%) matching in verification mode. Consequences of future efforts include forensic applications, necessitating careful consideration of ethical and legal implications for privacy in genomic databases.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Face/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Genótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22 Suppl 1: 207-212, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074157

RESUMO

There is ample evidence from heritability studies, genetic syndromes and experimental animal models that facial morphology is strongly influenced by genes. In this brief review, we present an up-to-date overview of the efforts to identify genes associated with the size and shape of human facial features. We discuss recent methodological advances that have led to breakthroughs, but also the multitude of challenges facing the field. We offer perspective on possible applications of this line of research, particularly in the context of the precision genomics movement.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6085, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988365

RESUMO

Dense surface registration, commonly used in computer science, could aid the biological sciences in accurate and comprehensive quantification of biological phenotypes. However, few toolboxes exist that are openly available, non-expert friendly, and validated in a way relevant to biologists. Here, we report a customizable toolbox for reproducible high-throughput dense phenotyping of 3D images, specifically geared towards biological use. Given a target image, a template is first oriented, repositioned, and scaled to the target during a scaled rigid registration step, then transformed further to fit the specific shape of the target using a non-rigid transformation. As validation, we use n = 41 3D facial images to demonstrate that the MeshMonk registration is accurate, with 1.26 mm average error, across 19 landmarks, between placements from manual observers and using the MeshMonk toolbox. We also report no variation in landmark position or centroid size significantly attributable to landmarking method used. Though validated using 19 landmarks, the MeshMonk toolbox produces a dense mesh of vertices across the entire surface, thus facilitating more comprehensive investigations of 3D shape variation. This expansion opens up exciting avenues of study in assessing biological shapes to better understand their phenotypic variation, genetic and developmental underpinnings, and evolutionary history.

4.
J Anat ; 234(5): 709-717, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834524

RESUMO

The present study investigates how sexual dimorphism in the human mandible develops in three-dimensionally during adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of mandibular meshes of 268 males and 386 females, aged between 8.5 and 19.5 years of age, were derived from cone beam computed tomography and were analysed using geometric morphometric methods. Growth trajectories of the mandible in males and females were modelled separately using a recently developed non-linear kernel regression framework. Growth rate and direction at a dense array of points all over the mandibular surface were visualized within each group and compared between groups. We found that mandibular sexual dimorphism already exists at 9 years of age, but this is mostly in size not in shape. The differential growth rate and duration between the sexes during pubertal growth largely explained by adult sexual dimorphism: the growth direction in both males and females is similar but the male mandible changed more quickly and over a longer period than the female mandible, where the growth rate peaked and declined earlier. This results in increasing dimorphism in form, which is evident in both size and shape. The development of dimorphic features, concentrated in the chin and ramus, were further visualized. The dense morphometric approach provides detailed three-dimensional quantitative assessment of the development of sexual dimorphism of the mandible.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(5): 1633-1638, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647112

RESUMO

Recent studies have called into question the idea that facial masculinity is a condition-dependent male ornament that indicates immunocompetence in humans. We add to this growing body of research by calculating an objective measure of facial masculinity/femininity using 3D images in a large sample (n = 1,233) of people of European ancestry. We show that facial masculinity is positively correlated with adult height in both males and females. However, facial masculinity scales with growth similarly in males and females, suggesting that facial masculinity is not exclusively a male ornament, as male ornaments are typically more sensitive to growth in males compared with females. Additionally, we measured immunocompetence via heterozygosity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a widely-used genetic marker of immunity. We show that, while height is positively correlated with MHC heterozygosity, facial masculinity is not. Thus, facial masculinity does not reflect immunocompetence measured by MHC heterozygosity in humans. Overall, we find no support for the idea that facial masculinity is a condition-dependent male ornament that has evolved to indicate immunocompetence.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Beleza , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imunocompetência/fisiologia , Masculino , Masculinidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Genet ; 9: 554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510565

RESUMO

Introduction: The human face is a complex trait displaying a strong genetic component as illustrated by various studies on facial heritability. Most of these start from sparse descriptions of facial shape using a limited set of landmarks. Subsequently, facial features are preselected as univariate measurements or principal components and the heritability is estimated for each of these features separately. However, none of these studies investigated multivariate facial features, nor the co-heritability between different facial features. Here we report a spatially dense multivariate analysis of facial heritability and co-heritability starting from data from fathers and their children available within ALSPAC. Additionally, we provide an elaborate overview of related craniofacial heritability studies. Methods: In total, 3D facial images of 762 father-offspring pairs were retained after quality control. An anthropometric mask was applied to these images to establish spatially dense quasi-landmark configurations. Partial least squares regression was performed and the (co-)heritability for all quasi-landmarks (∼7160) was computed as twice the regression coefficient. Subsequently, these were used as input to a hierarchical facial segmentation, resulting in the definition of facial modules that are internally integrated through the biological mechanisms of inheritance. Finally, multivariate heritability estimates were obtained for each of the resulting modules. Results: Nearly all modular estimates reached statistical significance under 1,000,000 permutations and after multiple testing correction (p ≤ 1.3889 × 10-3), displaying low to high heritability scores. Particular facial areas showing the greatest heritability were similar for both sons and daughters. However, higher estimates were obtained in the former. These areas included the global face, upper facial part (encompassing the nasion, zygomas and forehead) and nose, with values reaching 82% in boys and 72% in girls. The lower parts of the face only showed low to moderate levels of heritability. Conclusion: In this work, we refrain from reducing facial variation to a series of individual measurements and analyze the heritability and co-heritability from spatially dense landmark configurations at multiple levels of organization. Finally, a multivariate estimation of heritability for global-to-local facial segments is reported. Knowledge of the genetic determination of facial shape is useful in the identification of genetic variants that underlie normal-range facial variation.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207895, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586353

RESUMO

Perfect bilateral symmetry is the optimal outcome of the development of bilateral traits in the absence of developmental perturbations. Any random perturbation in this perfect symmetrical state is called Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA). Many studies have been conducted on FA as an indicator of Developmental Instability (DI) and its possible link with stress and individual quality in general and with attractiveness, health and level of masculinity or femininity in humans. Most human studies of facial asymmetry use 2D pictures and a limited number of landmarks. We developed a protocol to utilize high-density 3D scans of human faces to measure the level of asymmetry. A completely symmetric spatially dense anthropometric mask with paired vertices is non-rigidly mapped on target faces using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) registration algorithm. A set of 19 manually indicated landmarks were used to validate the mapping precision. The protocol's accuracy in FA calculation is assessed, and results show that a spatially dense approach is more accurate. In addition, it generates an integrated asymmetry estimate across the entire face. Finally, the automatic nature of the protocol provides a great advantage by omitting the tedious step of manual landmark indication on the biological structure of interest.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/fisiologia , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

9.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol ; : 20180261, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:: To propose a reliable and practical method for automatically segmenting the mandible from CBCT images. METHODS:: The marker-based watershed transform is a region-growing approach that dilates or "floods" predefined markers onto a height map whose ridges denote object boundaries. We applied this method to segment the mandible from the rest of the CBCT image. The height map was generated to enhance the sharp decreases of intensity at the mandible/tissue border and suppress noise by computing the intensity gradient image of the CBCT itself. Two sets of markers, "mandible" and "background" were automatically placed inside and outside the mandible, respectively in a novel image using image registration. The watershed transform flooded the gradient image by dilating the markers simultaneously until colliding at watershed lines, estimating the mandible boundary. CBCT images of 20 adolescent subjects were chosen as test cases. Segmentation accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by measuring overlap (Dice similarity coefficient) and boundary agreement against a well-accepted interactive segmentation method described in the literature. RESULTS:: The Dice similarity coefficient was 0.97 ± 0.01 (mean ± SD), indicating almost complete overlap between the automatically and the interactively segmented mandibles. Boundary deviations were predominantly under 1 mm for most of the mandibular surfaces. The errors were mostly from bones around partially erupted wisdom teeth, the condyles and the dental enamels, which had minimal impact on the overall morphology of the mandible. CONCLUSIONS:: The marker-based watershed transform method produces segmentation accuracy comparable to the well-accepted interactive segmentation approach.

10.
Front Genet ; 9: 502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410503

RESUMO

Objectives: Orofacial clefting is one of the most prevalent craniofacial malformations. Previous research has demonstrated that unaffected relatives of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) show distinctive facial features, which can be an expression of underlying NSCL/P susceptibility genes. These results support the hypothesis that genes involved in the occurrence of a cleft also play a role in normal craniofacial development. In this study, we investigated the influence of genetic variants associated with NSCL/P on normal-range variation in facial shape. Methods: A literature review of genome wide association studies (GWAS) investigating the genetic etiology of NSCL/P was performed, resulting in a list of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 38 genetic loci. Genotype data were available for 65 of these selected SNPs in three datasets with a combined sample size of 7,418 participants of European ancestry, whose 3D facial images were also available. The effect of each SNP was tested using a multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA) against 63 hierarchically-constructed facial segments in each of the three datasets and meta-analyzed. This allowed for the investigation of associations between SNPs known to be involved in NSCL/P and normal-range facial shape variations in a global-to-local perspective, without preselecting specific facial shape features or characteristics. Results: Six NSCL/P SNPs showed significant associations with variation in normal-range facial morphology. rs6740960 showed significant effects in the chin area (p = 3.71 × 10-28). This SNP lies in a non-coding area. Another SNP, rs227731 near the NOG gene, showed a significant effect in the philtrum area (p = 1.96 × 10-16). Three SNPs showed significant effects on the shape of the nose. rs742071 (p = 8.71 × 10-14), rs34246903 (p = 6.87 × 10-12), and rs10512248 (p = 8.4 × 10-9). Respectively, these SNPs are annotated to PAX7, MSX1, and PTCH1. Finally, rs7590268, an intron variant of THADA, showed an effect in the shape of the supraorbital ridge (p = 3.84 × 10-7). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence NSCL/P-associated genetic variants influence normal-range craniofacial morphology, with significant effects observed for the chin, the nose, the supraorbital ridges and the philtrum area.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345654

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic orofacial clefting is one of the most frequently occurring congenital conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and nature of reduced olfactory function in patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P) and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Olfactory function was tested using the Sniffin' Sticks identification test in patients with NSCL/P, in their unaffected relatives, and in control subjects. MR imaging was performed to measure olfactory bulb (OB) volumes and olfactory sulcus (OS) depths. A reduced olfactory function was seen in significantly more patients with NSCL/P (p = .002) than in control subjects, regardless of the cleft type. Strikingly, unaffected relatives of patients with NSCL/P also had a higher rate of hyposmia (p = .001). In hyposmic patients, the OB volumes (left: p = .01 and right: p = .003) and the depth of the left OS (p = .02) were significantly smaller than in controls. In hyposmic relatives, both OS depths (left: p = .02 and right: p = .03) were significantly smaller. Patients with NSCL/P and their unaffected relatives have an increased prevalence of reduced olfactory function, associated with changes in the central olfactory structures.

13.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 17(2)2018 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708886

RESUMO

Arrays based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been successful for the large scale discovery of copy number variants (CNVs). However, current CNV calling algorithms still have limitations in detecting CNVs with high specificity and sensitivity, especially in case of small (<100 kb) CNVs. Therefore, this study presents a simple statistical analysis to evaluate CNV calls from SNP arrays in order to improve the noise-robustness of existing CNV calling algorithms. The proposed approach estimates local noise of log R ratios and returns the probability that a certain observation is different from this log R ratio noise level. This probability can be triggered at different thresholds to tailor specificity and/or sensitivity in a flexible way. Moreover, a comparison based on qPCR experiments showed that the proposed noise-robust CNV calls outperformed original ones for multiple threshold values.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Linhagem , Probabilidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4771, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556038

RESUMO

Many disorders present with characteristic abnormalities of the craniofacial complex. Precise descriptions of how and when these abnormalities emerge and change during childhood and adolescence can inform our understanding of their underlying pathology and facilitate diagnosis from craniofacial shape. In this paper we develop a framework for analysing how anatomical differences between populations emerge and change over time, and for binary group classification that adapts to the age of each participant. As a proxy for a disease-control comparison we use a database of 3D photographs of normally developing boys and girls to examine emerging sex-differences. Essentially we define 3D craniofacial 'growth curves' for each sex. Differences in the forehead, upper lip, chin and nose emerge primarily from different growth rates between the groups, whereas differences in the buccal region involve different growth directions. Differences in the forehead, buccal region and chin are evident before puberty, challenging the view that sex differences result from pubertal hormone levels. Classification accuracy was best for older children. This paper represents a significant methodological advance for the study of facial differences between growing populations and comprehensively describes developing craniofacial sex differences.

15.
Forensic Sci Int ; 286: 61-69, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567544

RESUMO

3D facial images are becoming increasingly common. They provide more information about facial form than their 2D counterparts and will be useful in future forensic applications. These include age estimation and predicting changes in appearance of missing persons (synthetic growth). We present a framework for both age estimation and synthetic growth of children and adolescents from 3D photographs. Age estimation accuracy was substantially better than for existing approaches (mean absolute error=1.19 years). Our synthetically 'grown' images were compared to actual longitudinal images of the same cases. On average 75% of the head overall and 85% of the face were predicted correctly to within three millimetres. We find that our approach is most suitable for ageing children from late childhood into adolescence. The work can be improved in the future by modelling skin colouring and taking account of other factors that influence face shape such as BMI.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Imagem Tridimensional , Fotografação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estatística como Assunto
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 414-423, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459680

RESUMO

Genome-wide association scans of complex multipartite traits like the human face typically use preselected phenotypic measures. Here we report a data-driven approach to phenotyping facial shape at multiple levels of organization, allowing for an open-ended description of facial variation while preserving statistical power. In a sample of 2,329 persons of European ancestry, we identified 38 loci, 15 of which replicated in an independent European sample (n = 1,719). Four loci were completely new. For the others, additional support (n = 9) or pleiotropic effects (n = 2) were found in the literature, but the results reported here were further refined. All 15 replicated loci highlighted distinctive patterns of global-to-local genetic effects on facial shape and showed enrichment for active chromatin elements in human cranial neural crest cells, suggesting an early developmental origin of the facial variation captured. These results have implications for studies of facial genetics and other complex morphological traits.

17.
PLoS Genet ; 14(1): e1007207, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385133

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006616.].

18.
PLoS Biol ; 16(1): e2003703, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315301

RESUMO

Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the routes and genetic composition of these postglacial migrants remain unclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57× coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavated across Scandinavia and dated from 9,500-6,000 years before present (BP). Surprisingly, among the Scandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient that opposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. Our results suggest two different early postglacial migrations into Scandinavia: initially from the south, and later, from the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along which novel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups met and mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns of genetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These potential adaptations include high frequencies of low pigmentation variants and a gene region associated with physical performance, which shows strong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans.

19.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 22(2): 503-515, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103561

RESUMO

Statistical shape modeling is a powerful tool for visualizing and quantifying geometric and functional patterns of the heart. After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle typically remodels in response to physiological challenges. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to describe statistical shape changes. Which method best characterizes left ventricular remodeling after MI is an open research question. A better descriptor of remodeling is expected to provide a more accurate evaluation of disease status in MI patients. We therefore designed a challenge to test shape characterization in MI given a set of three-dimensional left ventricular surface points. The training set comprised 100 MI patients, and 100 asymptomatic volunteers (AV). The challenge was initiated in 2015 at the Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart workshop, in conjunction with the MICCAI conference. The training set with labels was provided to participants, who were asked to submit the likelihood of MI from a different (validation) set of 200 cases (100 AV and 100 MI). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used as the outcome measures. The goals of this challenge were to (1) establish a common dataset for evaluating statistical shape modeling algorithms in MI, and (2) test whether statistical shape modeling provides additional information characterizing MI patients over standard clinical measures. Eleven groups with a wide variety of classification and feature extraction approaches participated in this challenge. All methods achieved excellent classification results with accuracy ranges from 0.83 to 0.98. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were all above 0.90. Four methods showed significantly higher performance than standard clinical measures. The dataset and software for evaluation are available from the Cardiac Atlas Project website1.

20.
Acta Orthop Belg ; 84(3): 307-315, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840573

RESUMO

AIMS: To apply cutting edge geometry processing techniques and statistical shape modelling to perform a quali-tative and quantitive evaluation of femoral deformity in developmental hip dysplasia and to describe its relation to the amount of acetabular coverage in full 3D. An observational case-control study consisting of 40 right dysplastic cases compared to 43 normal hips, was designed. All subjects were Asian females with an average age of 53.9 years. The right femurs were scanned using computed tomography, followed by 3D reconstruction for statistical shape modelling. Inter- shape correspondences of the femoral shape were used to portray changes in femoral morphology to the amount of acetabular coverage. Partial least-squares regression was applied to establish a direct connection between acetabular coverage and the geometry of the femoral shape. Acetabular coverage accounted for 7.1% of variation in the overal femur shape (p<0.05). Significant changes in femoral morphology (p<0.05) were observed with decreasing acetabular coverage. The regression model demonstrated progressive shortening of the femur neck, as well as increasing attening of the femur head. Further, analysis of curvature and normal displacement demonstrated significant (p<0.05) flat- tening of the femur head especially in the area of the head-neck junction with increasing severity of acetabular dysplasia. Anatomic abnormalities inherent to the dysplastic hip are limited to the very proximal part of the femur and significantly increase when the acetabular coverage decreases. Flattening of the femur head is most pronounced at the peripheral part of the head, in specific the femoral head-neck region.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Luxação do Quadril/complicações , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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