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1.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 600-608, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Global left ventricular (LV) function is routinely used to assess cardiac function; however, myocardial strain is able to identify more subtle dysfunction. We aimed to determine the recovery and prognostic value of featuring tracking (FT) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) strain in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO). METHODS: In the randomized EXPLORE trial, there was no significant difference in global LV function after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the CTO, compared with no-CTO PCI, post-STEMI. In the current study, we included 200 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with a baseline CMR, of which 180 also had 4-month follow-up (serial) CMR. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was calculated from 3 long-axis views. Global circumferential strain (GCS) and segmental strain were calculated from 3 short-axis views (basal, mid, and apical). RESULTS: Global strain significantly improved at 4 months (GLS ∆ - 1.8 ± 4.3%, p < 0.001; GCS ∆ - 1.7 ± 4.7%, p < 0.001); however, there was no treatment effect of CTO-PCI on strain recovery. GLS was a significant predictor for 4 months of LV ejection fraction (p = 0.006), incremental to other CMR parameters including infarct size. For mortality, infarct size remained the strongest predictor. On regional level, segmental strain independently predicted recovery in the dysfunctional segments (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Global and segmental myocardial strains significantly improved over time, with no effect of CTO-PCI. Global strain was associated with outcome and segmental strain was an independent predictor for regional LV recovery in the dysfunctional CTO territory. Further research is needed to determine the additional prognostic value of strain beyond routine CMR parameters. KEY POINTS: • In STEMI patients with a concurrent CTO, strain significantly improves over time, regardless of CTO-PCI. • Global strain is an independent predictor for functional recovery, incremental to infarct size, LVEF, and clinical parameters. • Segmental strain was able to predict the recovery of wall thickening, incremental to transmural extent of infarction.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630816

RESUMO

AIMS: The impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DM on short-term clinical outcomes after TAVR in a large randomized trial population. METHODS AND RESULTS: BRAVO-3 trial randomized 802 patients undergoing trans-femoral TAVR to procedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin. The study population was divided according to the presence of DM, and further stratified according to the use of insulin. Net adverse cardiovascular outcomes (NACE - death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or major bleeding by Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 3b or above) was the primary outcome in-hospital and at 30-days. Of the total 802 randomized patients, 239 (30%) had DM at baseline, with 87 (36%) being treated with insulin. At 30-days, DM patients experienced numerically higher rates of net adverse cardiovascular events (16.3% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.48) and acute kidney injury (19.7% vs. 15.1%, p = 0.11), while non-DM (NDM) patients had numerically higher rates of cerebrovascular accidents (3.6% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.22). After multivariable adjustment, DM patients had higher odds of vascular complications at 30-days (OR 1.57, p = 0.03) and life-threatening bleeding both in-hospital (OR 1.50, p = 0.046) and at 30-days (OR 1.50, p = 0.03) with the excess overall risk primarily attributed to the higher rates observed among non-insulin dependent DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DM had higher adjusted odds of vascular and bleeding complications up to 30-days post-TAVR. Overall, there was no significant association between DM and early mortality following TAVR.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511862

RESUMO

AIMS: Consensus is lacking regarding the best treatment for coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR). The two most effective treatments are angioplasty with paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) and repeat stenting with drug-eluting stent (DES) but individual trials were not statistically powered for clinical endpoints, results were heterogeneous, and evidence about comparative efficacy and safety in relevant subsets was limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Difference in Anti-restenotic Effectiveness of Drug-eluting stent and drug-coated balloon AngiopLasty for the occUrrence of coronary in-Stent restenosis (DAEDALUS) study was a comprehensive, investigator-initiated, collaborative, individual patient data meta-analysis comparing angioplasty with PCB alone vs. repeat stenting with DES alone for the treatment of coronary ISR. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017075007). All 10 available randomized clinical trials were included with 1976 patients enrolled, 1033 assigned to PCB and 943 to DES. At 3-year follow-up, PCB was associated with a significant increase in the risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR) compared with DES [hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, 95% CI 1.02-1.70, P = 0.035; number-needed-to-harm 28.5]. There was a significant interaction between treatment effect and type of restenosed stent (P = 0.029) with a more marked difference in patients with DES-ISR and comparable effects in patients with bare-metal stent-ISR. At 3-year follow-up, the primary safety endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion thrombosis was comparable between treatments (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58-1.09, P = 0.152). A pre-specified subgroup analysis indicated a significant interaction between treatment effect and type of DES used to treat ISR (P = 0.033), with a lower incidence of events associated with PCB compared with first-generation DES and similar effect between PCB and second-generation DES (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.71-1.60, P = 0.764). Long-term all-cause mortality was similar between PCB and DES (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.53-1.22, P = 0.310); results were consistent comparing PCB and non-paclitaxel-based DES (HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.80-2.54, P = 0.235). Myocardial infarction and target lesion thrombosis were comparable between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coronary ISR, repeat stenting with DES is moderately more effective than angioplasty with PCB at reducing the need for TLR at 3 years. The incidence of a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion thrombosis was similar between groups. The rates of individual endpoints, including all-cause mortality, were not significantly different between groups.

4.
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients treated with bare metal stents and first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) smaller stent diameter (SD) has been associated with worse long term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data on the impact of small SD on outcomes after PCI with second-generation DES is scarce. METHODS: Consecutive patients treated with second-generation DES between 2010 and 2016 were included in a single tertiary center. Patients were grouped according to SD: ≤2.50 mm, 2.75 ≤ 3.00 mm, 3.25 ≤ 3.50 mm, and >3.50 mm. One-year event rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and adjusted hazard ratios were generated using Cox regression analysis. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE; death, myocardial infarction [MI], or target vessel revascularization [TVR]). RESULTS: Of the 17,607 patients who underwent PCI with second-generation DES, 32.6% (n = 5,741) had SD ≤2.5 mm, 39.1% (n = 6,890) had SD 2.75 ≤ 3.0 mm, 22.2% (n = 3,910) had SD 3.25 ≤ 3.5 mm, and 6.1% (n = 1,066) had SD >3.5 mm. At 1 year, MACE rates were 10.5%, 9.5%, 8.0%, and 8.0%, respectively, with increasing SD (p = .006). TVR rates decreased with increasing SD (7.2%, 5.8%, 4.7%, and 3.3%, respectively [p < .0001]) whereas rates of MI across SD groups were comparable (1.7%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 1.5%, respectively [p = .60]). After multivariable adjustment, smaller SD remained associated with higher rates of MACE, TVR, and target lesion revascularization. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients undergoing PCI with second-generation DES, smaller SD was associated with increased MACE, driven by higher rates of repeat revascularization. Further research into the optimal treatment of small coronary arteries is warranted.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270529

RESUMO

AIMS: The effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy with alirocumab or evolocumab on individual clinical efficacy and safety endpoints remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alirocumab and evolocumab in patients with dyslipidaemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with alirocumab or evolocumab vs. placebo or other lipid-lowering therapies up to March 2018. Primary efficacy endpoints were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. We estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effect models. We included 39 RCTs comprising 66 478 patients of whom 35 896 were treated with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors (14 639 with alirocumab and 21 257 with evolocumab) and 30 582 with controls. Mean weighted follow-up time across trials was 2.3 years with an exposure time of 150 617 patient-years. Overall, the effects of PCSK9 inhibition on all-cause death and cardiovascular death were not statistically significant (P = 0.15 and P = 0.34, respectively). Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors were associated with lower risk of MI (1.49 vs. 1.93 per 100 patient-year; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86; I2 = 0%; P < 0.0001), ischaemic stroke (0.44 vs. 0.58 per 100 patient-year; RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.89; I2 = 0%; P = 0.0005), and coronary revascularization (2.16 vs. 2.64 per 100 patient-year; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89; I2 = 0%; P < 0.0001), compared with the control group. Use of these PCSK9 inhibitors was not associated with increased risk of neurocognitive adverse events (P = 0.91), liver enzymes elevations (P = 0.34), rhabdomyolysis (P = 0.58), or new-onset diabetes mellitus (P = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibition with alirocumab or evolocumab was associated with lower risk of MI, stroke, and coronary revascularization, with favourable safety profile.

7.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 39, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171787

RESUMO

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the most acute manifestation of coronary artery disease and is associated with great morbidity and mortality. A complete thrombotic occlusion developing from an atherosclerotic plaque in an epicardial coronary vessel is the cause of STEMI in the majority of cases. Early diagnosis and immediate reperfusion are the most effective ways to limit myocardial ischaemia and infarct size and thereby reduce the risk of post-STEMI complications and heart failure. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI; if PCI cannot be performed within 120 minutes of STEMI diagnosis, fibrinolysis therapy should be administered to dissolve the occluding thrombus. The initiation of networks to provide around-the-clock cardiac catheterization availability and the generation of standard operating procedures within hospital systems have helped to reduce the time to reperfusion therapy. Together with new advances in antithrombotic therapy and preventive measures, these developments have resulted in a decrease in mortality from STEMI. However, a substantial amount of patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular events after STEMI. New insights have been gained regarding the pathophysiology of STEMI and feed into the development of new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2401-2409, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the impact of residual inflammatory risk (RIR) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≤70 mg/dl are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence and impact of persistent high RIR after PCI in patients with baseline LDL-C ≤70 mg/dl. METHODS: All patients undergoing PCI between January 2009 and December 2016 in a single tertiary center, with baseline LDL-C ≤70 mg/dl and serial high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assessments (at least 2 measurements ≥4 weeks apart) were retrospectively analyzed. High RIR was defined as hsCRP >2 mg/l. Patients were categorized as persistent low RIR (first low then low hsCRP), attenuated RIR (first high then low hsCRP), increased RIR (first low then high hsCRP), or persistent high RIR (first high then high hsCRP). Primary endpoint of interest was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular accident (MACCE) (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), within 1 year of the second hsCRP measurement. RESULTS: A total of 3,013 patients were included, with persistent low, attenuated, increased, and persistent high RIR in 1,225 (41.7%), 414 (13.7%), 346 (11.5%), and 1,028 (34.1%) patients, respectively. Overall, there was a stepwise increase in the incidence rates of MACCE, transitioning from the persistent low to the attenuated, increased, and persistent high RIR (respectively, 64.4 vs. 96.6 vs. 138.0 vs. 152.4 per 1,000 patient-years; p < 0.001). After adjustment, the presence of persistent high RIR remained strongly associated with MACCE (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.45 to 3.02; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing PCI with baseline LDL-C ≤70 mg/dl, persistent high RIR is frequent and is associated with increased risk of MACCE. Targeting residual inflammation in patients with optimal LDL-C control may further improve outcomes after PCI.

9.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(7): 1374-1381, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prostar XL (PS) and ProGlide (PG) are common vascular closure devices (VCD) used in TAVR via transfemoral vascular approach. The impact of these VCD on vascular and bleeding complications remains unclear. METHODS: The BRAVO-3 trial randomized 802 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR. We stratified patients according to type of VCD used and examined the 30-day incidence of major or minor vascular complications, major bleeding (BARC ≥3b), AKI and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; death, myocardial infarction or stroke). RESULTS: A total of 746 (93%) patients were treated with either PS (n = 352, 47%) or PG (n = 394, 53%) VCD, without significant differences in successful deployment rate (PS 322 [91.2%] vs. PG 373 [94.2%] respectively, p = .20). PG was associated with a significantly lower incidence of major or minor vascular complications, compared to PS (adjusted OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37-0.80; p < .01). Rates of acute kidney injury were also lower with the PG device. There was no significant difference between bleeding, MACCE, and death. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to PS, the PG VCD was associated with a lower rate of major or minor vascular complications and lower rates of AKI after transfemoral TAVR.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(10): 983-992, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) cessation and cardiovascular risk after percutaneous coronary intervention in relation to age. BACKGROUND: Examination of outcomes by age after percutaneous coronary intervention is relevant given the aging population. METHODS: Two-year clinical outcomes, incidence, and effect of DAPT cessation on outcomes were compared by ages ≤55, 56 to 74, and ≥75 years from the PARIS (Patterns of Non-Adherence to Antiplatelet Regimens in Stented Patients) registry. DAPT cessation included physician-recommended discontinuation, interruption for surgery, and disruption (from noncompliance or bleeding). Clinical endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (a composite of cardiac death, definite or probable stent thrombosis, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization), a secondary restrictive definition of MACE (MACE2) excluding target lesion revascularization, and bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 1,192 patients (24%) were ≤55 years, 2,869 (57%) were 56 to 74 years, and 957 (19%) were ≥75 years of age. Patients ≥75 years of age had higher DAPT cessation rates and increased risk for MACE2, death, cardiac death, and bleeding compared with younger patients. Discontinuation and interruption were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk across age groups, whereas disruption was associated with increased risk for MACE and MACE2 in younger patients but not in patients ≥75 years of age (p for trend <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nonadherence and outcomes vary by age, with patients ≥75 years having the highest DAPT cessation rates. We observed no association between outcomes and DAPT cessation in patients ≥75 years, whereas discontinuation was associated with lower MACE rates and disruption with increased MACE rates in patients <75 years.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(4): e007133, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a well-recognized risk factor for both bleeding and ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to determine the impact of baseline anemia on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) cessation patterns ≤2 years after PCI and the subsequent risk of clinical adverse events. METHODS AND RESULTS: PARIS (Patterns of Non-Adherence to Dual Anti-Platelet Regimen in Stented Patients) was a prospective multicenter observational registry of PCI-treated patients (n=5018). Anemia was defined as baseline Hb (hemoglobin) <12 g/dL for men and <11 g/dL for women. DAPT cessation modes included physician-recommended discontinuation, temporary interruption (≤14 days), and disruption due to bleeding or noncompliance. The primary end point was 2-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization. We identified 824 (18%) anemic and 4194 (82%) nonanemic patients. Anemic patients were older and had a higher rate of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and prior PCI. DAPT interruption and disruption were significantly more common in anemic patients throughout 2 years after PCI, whereas physician-recommended discontinuation occurred more often in anemic patients during the first year after PCI and in nonanemic patients during the second year. The 2-year adjusted risks of MACE and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding events were significantly higher in anemic patients. Compared with uninterrupted DAPT, disruption, but not interruption and physician-recommended discontinuation, was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction in nonanemic patients and a higher risk of both myocardial infarction and MACE in anemic patients. There was no significant interaction between anemia and risk of clinical outcomes associated with each DAPT cessation mode. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline anemia was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of MACE and major bleeding. Physicians more frequently recommend DAPT discontinuation to anemic patients during the first year, and to nonanemic patients during the second year after PCI. DAPT disruption was associated with a higher risk of MACE outcomes.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(11): 1788-1795, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955866

RESUMO

Intensive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins is recommended after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to evaluate adherence to guideline-recommended statin therapy (GRST) and the rate of residual cholesterol risk (RCR) at follow-up after elective PCI. All patients who underwent elective PCI between January 2010 and May 2016 were prospectively included in this single-center study. GRST was defined as high-intensity statin (HIS) therapy for patients ≤75 years old and moderate-intensity statin (MIS) or HIS therapy for patients >75 years. RCR at follow-up was defined as <50% decrease in LDL-C with HIS or <30% with MIS for statin-naïve patients and as LDL-C >70 mg/dL for nonstatin-naïve patients. A total of 2,653 patients were included, with 1,304 (49.2%) discharged with GRST. There was a significant increase in the number of patients discharged with GRST over time from 44.2% in 2010 to 63.0% in 2016 (p <0.001). Conversely, RCR at follow-up was present in 1,120 patients (42.2%) overall and remained stable over time. Risk factors of RCR at follow-up were female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13 to 1.70), previous myocardial infarction (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.64), smoking (OR: 1.30; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67), higher LDL-C level at baseline (OR: 1.22; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.25). The presence of RCR was associated with an increased adjusted risk of death within 1 year of the second LDL-C measurement (adjHR: 2.78; 95% CI 1.15 to 6.67). In conclusion, although the rate of GRST at discharge has improved significantly over time in patients who underwent elective PCI, the prevalence of RCR at follow-up has not changed appreciably suggesting that further implementation of guidelines as well as novel or more intensive pharmacotherapy may be warranted.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 59-61, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of stent thrombosis (ST) or target lesion revascularization (TLR) is increased with smaller stent diameters (SD). Whether SD has a deleterious effect in women treated with early- vs. new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. METHODS: We pooled patient-level data from 26 randomized control trials of DES. Only women treated with DES were included. Subjects were stratified according to SD: small, SD ≤ 2.75 mm; intermediate, 2.75 mm < SD ≤ 3.25 mm; and large, SD ≥ 3.25 mm. Endpoints of interest were 3-year definite ST, TLR, major adverse cardiac events (MACE: the composite of death, myocardial infarction or TLR) and death. RESULTS: Of 6413 women, 2274 (35.0%) had a small SD, 2448 (38.0%) had an intermediate SD, and 1691 (26.0%) had a large SD. By multivariable analysis, stent diameter (per 0.25 mm decrease) was associated with an increased risk of TLR and ST, which was uniform in terms of magnitude and direction between early- and new-generation DES. There were no differences in MACE or death across groups. CONCLUSION: Small SD in women undergoing PCI is associated with an increased risk of definite ST and TLR, consistently with both early- and new-generation DES.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(12): 1941-1948, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005238

RESUMO

Limited data on gender differences by ethnicity after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) exist. In this prospective cohort study, we examined gender differences in 1-year outcomes among patients from 4 ethnic groups who underwent PCI from 2010 to 2016 at a tertiary center. The primary outcome was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization. Secondary outcomes included composite of death or MI and individual components of MACE. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between gender in each ethnic group. The study included 16,361 patients: 7,881 whites (26.1% women), 1,943 blacks (47.3% women), 2,621 Asians (22.6% women), and 3,916 Hispanics (39.3% women). Women were older with more co-morbidities than men. Unadjusted, women had higher incidence of 1-year MACE than men among whites and Asians but not blacks or Hispanics, which was driven by a greater incidence of death in white women and greater incidence of MI in Asian women compared with male counterparts. After adjustment, findings showed similar risk of 1-year MACE in women versus men in whites, Asians, and Hispanics (Whites: hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 1.16; Asians: HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.67; Hispanics: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.27). Black women had lower risk of 1-year MACE compared with black men (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.97), driven by lower risk of death or MI. In conclusion, this study suggests that risk factors account for adverse events in women after PCI.

15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(4): 536-545, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO PCI) on ventricular ectopy (VE) and symptomatology during exercise testing. BACKGROUND: During exercise, the hypoxic myocardium in the CTO-territory can act as a substrate for VE and could lead to anginal complaints. METHODS: In the EXPLORE-trial, 302 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-patients were randomized to CTO PCI or no-CTO PCI. For this sub-study, we analyzed all available exercise electrocardiograms (X-ECGs) at 4 months follow-up on symptoms and electrocardiographic parameters. RESULTS: A total of 155 X-ECGs were available, 80 in the CTO PCI group (51.6%) and 75 in the no-CTO PCI group (48.4%). There were no differences regarding exercised time, achieved endurance, ST-deviation nor maximum heart-rate. The percentage of patients experiencing chest-pain during exercise was lower in the CTO PCI group (0% vs. 8.5%, p = .03). Also, there was a trend towards a higher maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP, 185 mmHg vs. 175, p = .09). No difference in VE was found between randomization groups, but patients with successful CTO PCI had a higher frequency of VE, compared to failed and no-CTO PCI (26% vs. 8%, p = .02). This did not result in higher frequencies of sustained ventricular arrhythmias or mortality. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in STEMI-patients, CTO PCI is associated with a small reduction of chest-pain during exercise and tended to be associated with an increase of maximum SBP. The observation that successful CTO PCI was associated with more VE during exercise, compared with failed/no-CTO PCI needs further exploration.

16.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(4): E255-E256, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859726

RESUMO

The incidence of coronary perforation in a contemporary cohort of 13,339 PCI procedures was 0.51%. The majority (75%) were large-vessel perforations Although only 1 patient required emergency cardiac surgery, in-hospital mortality was high (10%) Given the infrequent occurrence of coronary perforations, uniform recommendations for its management are lacking. Nonetheless, the present study suggests that avoiding oversized balloons or stents might potentially reduce the incidence of perforations.

17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(1): 42-51, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924052

RESUMO

We sought to investigate the utilization of prasugrel and its association with outcomes relative to clopidogrel in three typical subgroups of ACS in a real-world setting. Prasugrel is superior to clopidogrel for reducing risk of ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but is associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications. PROMETHEUS was a retrospective multicenter observational study of 19,913 ACS patients undergoing PCI from 8 centers in the United States between 2010 and 2013. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke or unplanned revascularization. The study cohort included 3285 (16.5%) patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 5412 (27.2%) patients with NSTEMI and 11,216 (56.3%) patients with unstable angina (UA). The frequency of prasugrel use at discharge was highest in STEMI and lowest in UA patients, 27.3% versus 22.2% versus 18.9% (p < 0.001). Use of prasugrel vs clopidogrel was associated with a lower rate of MACE in STEMI, NSTEMI, or UA at 1 year, but the differences were attenuated for all groups except for patients with UA (adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94, p = 0.006) after propensity adjusted analysis. After adjustment, there was no difference in bleeding risk between prasugrel and clopidogrel for all groups at 1 year. STEMI patients were more likely to receive prasugrel compared to NSTEMI and UA patients. Prasugrel was associated with reduced adverse outcomes compared with clopidogrel in unadjusted analyses, findings that were largely attenuated upon adjustment and suggest preferential use of prasugrel in low vs high risk patients.

18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(2): 189-190, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719858

RESUMO

1,025 patients with de novo coronary artery disease (66.9%) or in-stent restenosis (ISR) (33.1%) underwent treatment with paclitaxel drug-coated balloons in a multinational single-arm registry. Bail-out stenting rate was only 4.8%. One-year target lesion revascularization was 2.3% for de novo lesions, 2.9% for bare metal stent ISR, and 5.8% for drug-eluting stent ISR. Short-term results with coronary drug-coated balloons are promising. Nonetheless, long-term data, preferably from randomized trials are necessary to confirm their safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Reestenose Coronária , Stents Farmacológicos , Humanos , Paclitaxel , Folhas de Planta , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(1): 82-90, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 1-year outcomes after platinum chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PtCr-EES) in small versus non-small coronary arteries within a large, diverse sample of men, women, and minorities. BACKGROUND: There exists limited outcomes data on the use of second-generation drug-eluting stent to treat small diameter coronary arteries. METHODS: We pooled patients from the PLATINUM Diversity and PROMUS Element Plus stent registries. Small-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention (SV-PCI) was defined as ≥1 target lesion with reference vessel diameter (RVD) ≤2.5 mm. Endpoints included major adverse cardiac event (MACE; death, myocardial infarction [MI] or target vessel revascularization [TVR]), target vessel failure (TVF; death related to the target vessel, target vessel MI or TVR) and definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST). Multivariable Cox regression was used to risk-adjust outcomes. RESULTS: We included 4,155/4,182 (99%) patients with available RVD, of which 1,607 (39%) underwent small-vessel PCI. SV-PCI was not associated with increased MACE (adjHR 1.02; 95%CI 0.81-1.30) or TVF (adjHR 1.07; 95%CI 0.82-1.39). MI risk was lower in white men compared to women and minorities, both in the setting of SV-PCI (adjHR 0.41; 95%CI 0.23-0.74 and adjHR 0.39; 95%CI 0.20-0.75, respectively) and for non-SV-PCI (adjHR 0.61; 95%CI 0.38-0.99 and adjHR 0.45; 95%CI 0.27-0.74, respectively). There was no significant interaction between RVD and sex or minority status for any endpoint. CONCLUSION: In a large diverse contemporary PCI outcomes database, SV-PCI with PtCr-EES was not associated with increased MACE or TVR and did not account for the increased MI risk noted in women and minorities compared to white men.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(1): e007411, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630354

RESUMO

The performance of transcatheter aortic valve replacement has expanded considerably during the past decade. Technological advances and refinement in implantation techniques have resulted in improved procedural outcomes, whereas indications are progressively extending toward lower-risk patients. Ischemic/embolic complications and major bleeding remain important and strongly correlate to mortality. In this regard, the optimal antithrombotic regimen after successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement remains unclear, in the absence of randomized trials. For patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation, empirical treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel) for 3 to 6 months is currently recommended. However, dual antiplatelet therapy has been preliminarily associated with increased risk of bleeding compared with single antiplatelet therapy without significant ischemic benefit. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants and warfarin have also entered clinical investigation, to address the issue of preexisting or new-onset of atrial fibrillation and potentially attenuate subclinical leaflet thrombosis. Clinical trials are necessary to systematically address the risks and benefits of these approaches. In this review, we present the pathophysiological mechanisms of post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement complications and provide updated insights on the rationale behind the various antithrombotic regimens being currently evaluated in large randomized trials.

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