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1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the relationship between past or incident myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular (CV) events in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: MI and HFpEF share some common risk factors. The prognostic significance of MI in patients with HFpEF is uncertain. METHODS: The authors pooled data from 3 trials-CHARM Preserved (Candesartan Cilexietil in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity), I-Preserve (Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function), and the Americas region of TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) (N = 8,916)-and examined whether MI before or following enrollment independently predicted CV death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization. RESULTS: At baseline, 2,668 patients (30%) had history of MI. Prior MI was independently associated with greater risk of CV death (4.7 vs. 3.5 events/100 patient-years [py], adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.64]; p < 0.001). Excess sudden death drove this difference (1.9 vs. 1.2 events/100 py, adjusted HR: 1.55 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.97]; p < 0.001). There was no difference in HF hospitalization (5.9 vs. 5.5 events/100 py, adjusted HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.19) or HF death by prior MI. During follow-up, MI occurred in 336 patients (3.8%). Risk of CV death increased 31-fold in the first 30 days after first post-enrollment MI, and remained 58% higher beyond 1 year after MI. Risk of first or recurrent HF hospitalization increased 2.4-fold after MI. CONCLUSIONS: Prior MI in HFpEF is associated with greater CV and sudden death but similar risk of HF outcomes. Patients with HFpEF who experience MI are at high risk of subsequent CV death and HF hospitalization. These data highlight the importance of primary and secondary prevention of MI in patients with HFpEF. (Candesartan Cilexietil in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity [CHARM Preserved]; NCT00634712; Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function [I-Preserve]; NCT00095238; and Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302).

2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(6): 441-450, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the win ratio (WR) with the corresponding hazard ratios (HRs) and 1/HR. BACKGROUND: The primary outcome in many cardiovascular trials is a composite that includes nonfatal and fatal events. The time-to-first event analysis gives equal statistical weighting to each component event. The WR, which takes into account the clinical importance and timing of the outcomes, has been suggested as an alternative approach. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models and WR. RESULTS: In the these trials (n = 16) the WR and HR differed only slightly. For example, in the PARADIGM-HF (sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril), the primary outcome of time to first heart failure hospitalization (HFH) or cardiovascular death (CVD) and use of the Cox model gave a 1/HR of 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12 to 1. 41; z-score = 4.8). Using WR for testing this composite in the hierarchical order of CVD and HFH gave a WR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.39; z-score = 4.7), reflecting an effect similar to that of sacubitril/valsartan therapy on CVD and HFH. In the DIG (digoxin vs. placebo) trial, the outcome of time-to-first HFH or CVD using Cox gave a 1/HR of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.27; z-score = 4.5). Using the WR for testing this composite in the hierarchical order of CVD and HFH gave a WR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.20; z-score = 3.1), reflecting a larger effect of digoxin on HFH than on CVD. Several other trials and endpoints including patient-reported measurements were studied. CONCLUSIONS: In 16 large cardiovascular outcome trials, HR and WR provided similar estimates of treatment effects. The WR allows prioritization of fatal outcomes and the hierarchical testing of broader composite endpoints including patient-reported outcomes. In this way, the WR allows for the incorporation of patient-centered and other outcomes, while prioritizing the competing risk of death and hospital admission.

3.
Lancet ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three drug classes (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists [MRAs], angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors [ARNIs], and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 [SGLT2] inhibitors) reduce mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) beyond conventional therapy consisting of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and ß blockers. Each class was previously studied with different background therapies and the expected treatment benefits with their combined use are not known. Here, we used data from three previously reported randomised controlled trials to estimate lifetime gains in event-free survival and overall survival with comprehensive therapy versus conventional therapy in patients with chronic HFrEF. METHODS: In this cross-trial analysis, we estimated treatment effects of comprehensive disease-modifying pharmacological therapy (ARNI, ß blocker, MRA, and SGLT2 inhibitor) versus conventional therapy (ACE inhibitor or ARB and ß blocker) in patients with chronic HFrEF by making indirect comparisons of three pivotal trials, EMPHASIS-HF (n=2737), PARADIGM-HF (n=8399), and DAPA-HF (n=4744). Our primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death or first hospital admission for heart failure; we also assessed these endpoints individually and assessed all-cause mortality. Assuming these relative treatment effects are consistent over time, we then projected incremental long-term gains in event-free survival and overall survival with comprehensive disease-modifying therapy in the control group of the EMPHASIS-HF trial (ACE inhibitor or ARB and ß blocker). FINDINGS: The hazard ratio (HR) for the imputed aggregate treatment effects of comprehensive disease-modifying therapy versus conventional therapy on the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure was 0·38 (95% CI 0·30-0·47). HRs were also favourable for cardiovascular death alone (HR 0·50 [95% CI 0·37-0·67]), hospital admission for heart failure alone (0·32 [0·24-0·43]), and all-cause mortality (0·53 [0·40-0·70]). Treatment with comprehensive disease-modifying pharmacological therapy was estimated to afford 2·7 additional years (for an 80-year-old) to 8·3 additional years (for a 55-year-old) free from cardiovascular death or first hospital admission for heart failure and 1·4 additional years (for an 80-year-old) to 6·3 additional years (for a 55-year-old) of survival compared with conventional therapy. INTERPRETATION: Among patients with HFrEF, the anticipated aggregate treatment effects of early comprehensive disease-modifying pharmacological therapy are substantial and support the combination use of an ARNI, ß blocker, MRA, and SGLT2 inhibitor as a new therapeutic standard. FUNDING: None.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407608

RESUMO

AIMS: The prevalence of liver function abnormalities is common in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We assessed the impact of liver function on prognosis and the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on measures of liver function in patients with HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PARADIGM-HF trial was a randomized, double-blind, active treatment-controlled trial. We included 8232 HFrEF patients with available measures of liver function, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin; the primary endpoint was a composite of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular (CV) death. At screening, 11.6% of study patients had total bilirubin above the upper limit of normal (20.5 µmol/L) and 9.2% had ALP above the upper limit of normal (123 IU/L). Although ALP and albumin were associated with an increased risk of outcomes, among conventional test of liver function, total bilirubin was the strongest predictor for the primary endpoint [hazard ratio (HR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15; P < 0.001], HF hospitalization (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.07-1.22; P < 0.001); CV death (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.00-1.14; P = 0.040), and all-cause death (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02-1.14; P = 0.009). All conventional measures of liver function were significantly improved in the sacubitril/valsartan group compared with the enalapril group after randomization (between-group reduction: total bilirubin 2.4%, 95% CI 0.7-4.2%, P = 0.007; aspartate aminotransferase 7.9%, 95% CI 6.7-9.0%, P < 0.001; alanine aminotransferase 7.7%; 95% CI 6.2-9.3%, P < 0.001; ALP 5.4%, 95% CI 4.4-6.4%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Total bilirubin was a significant and independent predictor of CV death or HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF enrolled in PARADIGM-HF. Sacubitril/valsartan improved measures of liver function compared with enalapril.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spironolactone up-titration may be limited by side effects that could be minimized at lower than target doses, whether lower than target doses remain efficacious is unknown. In TOPCAT, spironolactone (or placebo) were started at 15 mg/day, and increased up to a maximum of 45 mg/day. The prognostic implications related to spironolactone dose are is yet to be reported. AIMS: To assess the average spironolactone/placebo doses provided during the trial, overall and within "high-risk" subgroups (e.g. elderly, renal dysfunction, high potassium); discontinuation rates; and the efficacy of lower than target doses in HFpEF. METHODS: 1767 patients from "TOPCAT-Americas" were included. Linear, logistic and Cox regressions were applied. RESULTS: Patients randomized to spironolactone received lower doses than placebo: 22.5 (15.0-27.5)mg/day vs. 27.5 (17.5-27.5)mg/day; p < 0.001. Patients aged≥75 years, with an eGFR≤60 mL/min/1.73m2 , and with a K+ > 4.5 mmol/L, received lower spironolactone doses (median≈20 mg/day). This pattern of dose-differences was not observed in patients taking placebo, where the between-subgroup placebo doses were similar (spironolactone-placebo by subgroup interactionp < 0.05). Among patients taking spironolactone, 25.4% discontinued the drug during the first year, compared with 18.3% of the patients taking placebo; p < 0.001. The discontinuation rates in the aforementioned "high-risk" subgroups reached 30% during the first year. Spironolactone reduced the primary outcome of HFH/CVD without significant heterogeneity between the studied subgroups (interactionp > 0.1). Spironolactone discontinuation was associated with a 2 to 4-fold higher risk of subsequent events. CONCLUSION: Spironolactone (but not placebo) was used at lower doses among the elderly, those with renal dysfunction and with higher potassium levels. The effect of spironolactone was homogenous across these subgroups. In patients unable to tolerate "target" doses, a low-dose strategy should be preferred to stopping treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While patients with cardiovascular disease face excess risks of severe illness with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), there may be indirect consequences of the pandemic on this high-risk patient segment. OBJECTIVES: To examine longitudinal trends in hospitalizations for acute cardiovascular conditions across a tertiary care healthcare system. METHODS: We tracked acute cardiovascular hospitalizations between January 1st, 2019 and March 31st, 2020. We estimated daily hospitalization rates using negative binomial models. Temporal trends in hospitalization rates were compared across the first 3 months of 2020, with the first 3 months of 2019 as a reference. RESULTS: From January 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020, 6,083 patients experienced 7,187 hospitalizations for primary acute cardiovascular reasons. There was 43.4% (27.4% to 56.0%) fewer estimated daily hospitalizations in March 2020 as compared with March 2019 (P<0.001). The daily rate of hospitalizations did not change throughout 2019 (-0.01% per day [-0.04% to +0.02%], P=0.50), January 2020 (-0.5% per day [-1.6% to +0.5%], P=0.31), or February 2020 (+0.7% per day [-0.6% to +2.0%], P=0.27). There was significant daily decline in hospitalizations in March 2020 (-5.9% per day [-7.6% to -4.3%], P<0.001). Length of stay was shorter (4.8 [2.4,8.3] days vs. 6.0 [3.1,9.6] days; P=0.003) and in-hospital mortality was not significantly different (6.2% vs. 4.4%; P=0.30) in March 2020 compared with March 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a marked decline in acute cardiovascular hospitalizations and patients who were admitted had shorter lengths of stay. These data substantiate concerns that acute care of cardiovascular conditions may be delayed, deferred, or abbreviated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 372-381, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of baseline N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), whether NT-proBNP modified the treatment response to sacubitril/valsartan, and the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan on NT-proBNP overall and in key subgroups. BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan reduces NT-proBNP in heart failure (HF) with both reduced and preserved ejection fraction (EF), but did not significantly reduce total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death compared with valsartan in patients with HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). METHODS: In the PARAGON-HF (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial, 4,796 patients with HFpEF and elevated NT-proBNP were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. NT-proBNP was measured at screening in all patients and at 5 subsequent times in >2,700 patients: before, between, and after sequential valsartan and sacubitril/valsartan run-in periods, and 16 and 48 weeks post-randomization. RESULTS: Median NT-proBNP was 911 pg/ml (interquartile range: 464 to 1,613 pg/ml) at screening. Screening NT-proBNP was strongly associated with the primary endpoint, total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death (rate ratio [RR]: 1.68 per log increase in NT-proBNP, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53 to 1.85; p < 0.001). This relationship was stronger in patients with atrial fibrillation (adjusted RR: 2.33 [95% CI: 1.89 to 2.87] vs. 1.58 [95% CI: 1.42 to 1.75] in patients without atrial fibrillation; p interaction <0.001) and weaker in obese patients (adjusted RR: 1.50 [95% CI: 1.31 to 1.71] vs. 1.92 [95% CI: 1.70 to 2.17] in nonobese patients; p interaction <0.001). Screening NT-proBNP did not modify the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan (p interaction = 0.96). Sacubitril/valsartan reduced NT-proBNP by 19% (95% CI: 14% to 23%; p < 0.001) compared with valsartan 16 weeks post-randomization, with similar reductions in men (20%) and women (18%), and in patients with left ventricular EF ≤57% (20%) and >57% (18%). Decreases in NT-proBNP predicted lower subsequent risk of the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline NT-proBNP predicted HF events but did not modify the sacubitril/valsartan treatment effect in patients with HFpEF. Sacubitril/valsartan reduced NT-proBNP consistently in men and women, and in patients with lower or higher EF. (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(14): 1644-1656, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend targeting systolic blood pressure (SBP) <130 mm Hg in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) with limited data. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the optimal achieved SBP and whether the treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan on outcomes are related to BP lowering, particularly among women who derive greater benefit from sacubitril/valsartan. METHODS: Using 4,795 trial participants, this study related baseline and time-updated mean achieved SBP quartiles (<120, 120 to 129, 130 to 139, ≥140 mm Hg) to the primary outcome (cardiovascular death and total heart failure hospitalization), its components, myocardial infarction or stroke, and a renal composite outcome. At the 16-week visit, the study assessed the relationship between SBP change and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score (KCCQ-OSS) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The study analyzed whether the BP-lowering effects of sacubitril/valsartan accounted for its treatment effects. RESULTS: Average age was 73 ± 8 years, and 52% of participants were women. After multivariable adjustment, baseline and mean achieved SBP of 120 to 129 mm Hg demonstrated the lowest risk for all outcomes. Sacubitril/valsartan reduced SBP by 5.2 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 4.4 to 6.0) compared with valsartan at 4 weeks, which was not modified by baseline SBP. However, sacubitril/valsartan reduced SBP more in women (6.3 mm Hg) than men (4.0 mm Hg) (interaction p = 0.005). Change in SBP was directly associated with change in NT-proBNP (p < 0.001) but not KCCQ-OSS (p = 0.40). The association between sacubitril/valsartan and the primary outcome was not modified by baseline SBP (interaction p = 0.50) and was similar when adjusting for time-updated SBP, regardless of sex. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline and mean achieved SBP of 120 to 129 mm Hg identified the lowest risk patients with HFpEF. Baseline SBP did not modify the treatment effect of sacubitril/valsartan, and the BP-lowering effects of sacubitril/valsartan did not account for its effects on outcomes, regardless of sex. (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167560

RESUMO

AIMS: The prognostic importance of post-diagnosis assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in cancer patients is not well established. We sought to examine the association between CRF and mortality in cancer patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a single-center cohort analysis of 1,632 patients (58% male; 64±12 years) with adult onset cancer who were clinically referred for exercise treadmill testing a median of 7 (IQR: 3, 12) years after primary diagnosis. CRF was defined as peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved during standard Bruce protocol, and categorized by tertiles. The association between CRF and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for important covariates. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 4.6 (IQR: 2.6, 7.0) years; a total of 411 deaths (229, 50, and 132 all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer related, respectively) occurred during this period. Compared with low CRF (range: 1.9-7.6 METs), the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.28-0.52) for intermediate CRF (range: 7.7-10.6 METs) and 0.17 (95% CI: 0.11-0.27) for high CRF (range: 10.7-22.0 METs). The corresponding HRs were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.19-0.86) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.16-1.05) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.26-0.60) and 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09-0.28) for cancer mortality, respectively. The adjusted risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality decreased by 26%, 14%, and 25% with each 1 MET increment in CRF. CONCLUSION: CRF is a strong, independent predictor of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality, even after adjustment for important clinical covariates in patients with certain cancers.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in advanced heart failure patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist system (CF-LVAS). Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) reduce the risk of major cardiovascular and neurological events such as stroke, but their impact has not been evaluated in patients implanted with a CF-LVAS. We sought to explore the association between use of statin therapy and subsequent occurrence of neurological events, particularly stroke, following CF-LVAS implantation. METHODS: We performed a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study in 200 consecutive adults implanted with a durable CF-LVAS over a 10-year period (2008-2018). We compared patients according to statin use following pump implantation, stratified by an exploratory analysis of pump type (HeartMate II, HeartWare HVAD, and HeartMate 3 [HM3] LVAS). RESULTS: Overall, 24% of CF-LVAS recipients developed at least 1 neurological event, at a rate of 0.11 events per patient-year (EPPY) among those prescribed statins and 0.22 EPPY among non-users (age-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.24-0.88; p = 0.019). In the cohort without the HM3 pump, ischemic strokes were 62% lower among statin users (0.05 versus 0.12 EPPY for non-users; age-adjusted HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.99; p = 0.048). The risk of ischemic stroke did not differ significantly when HM3 recipients were included in the analysis (age-adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.22-1.21; p = 0.13). However, ischemic stroke rate in HM3 LVAS recipients was similar to the rate in statin users who received a non-HM3 LVAS (0.06 and 0.05 EPPY, respectively). Rates of hemorrhagic stroke and other safety end points were not significantly different according to statin use. CONCLUSION: Statin prescription following CF-LVAS is associated with lower rates of neurological events, driven predominantly by a reduction in ischemic strokes. These findings suggest that most patients with a pre-existing indication for statin therapy may continue using statins following CF-LVAS in an effort to decrease the incidence of ischemic stroke.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221596

RESUMO

AIMS: The PARADIGM-HF and PARAGON-HF trials tested sacubitril/valsartan against active controls given renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) are ethically mandated in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction and are used in the vast majority of patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. To estimate the effects of sacubitril/valsartan had it been tested against a placebo control, we made indirect comparisons of the effects of sacubitril/valsartan with putative placebos in HF across the full range of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed patient-level data from the PARADIGM-HF and PARAGON-HF trials (n = 13 194) and the CHARM-Alternative and CHARM-Preserved trials (n = 5050, candesartan vs. placebo). The rate ratio (RR) of sacubitril/valsartan vs. putative placebo was estimated by the product of the RR for sacubitril/valsartan vs. RASi and the RR for RASi vs. placebo. Total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death were analysed using the negative binomial method. Treatment effects were estimated using cubic spline methods by ejection fraction as a continuous measure. Across the range of LVEF, sacubitril/valsartan was associated with a RR 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.65] for the recurrent primary endpoint compared with putative placebo (P < 0.001). Treatment benefits of sacubitril/valsartan vs. putative placebo varied non-linearly with LVEF with attenuation of effects observed at LVEF above 60%. When analyzing data from PARADIGM-HF and CHARM-Alternative, the estimated risk reduction of sacubitril/valsartan vs. putative placebo was 48% (95% CI 35-58%); P < 0.001. When analyzing data from PARAGON-HF and CHARM-Preserved (with LVEF ≥ 45%), the estimated risk reduction of sacubitril/valsartan vs. putative placebo was 29% (95% CI 7-46%); P = 0.013. Across the full range of LVEF, consistent effects were observed for time-to-first endpoints: first primary endpoint (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.64-0.82), first HF hospitalization (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.58-0.78), cardiovascular death (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.89), and all-cause death (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.96); all P < 0.02. CONCLUSION: This putative placebo analysis reinforces the treatment benefits of sacubitril/valsartan on risk of adverse cardiovascular events across the full range of LVEF, with most pronounced effects observed at a LVEF up to 60%.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212368

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic hyperglycaemia, assessed by elevated glycated haemoglobin (A1C), is a known risk factor for heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular (CV) death among subjects with diabetes. Whether this risk varies with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unknown. This study evaluated whether A1C influences a composite outcome of either HF hospitalization or CV death differently along the spectrum of LVEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the relationships of baseline A1C and LVEF with a composite outcome of either CV death or HF hospitalization in the 4091 patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome enrolled in the ELIXA trial who had available LVEF. We assessed for interaction between A1C and LVEF as continuous variables with respect to this outcome. During a median follow-up of 25.7 months, 343 patients (8.4%) had HF hospitalization or died of CV causes. In a multivariable model, A1C and LVEF were each associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization or CV death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.21 per 1% higher A1C, and adjusted HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.27-1.51 per 10% lower in LVEF]. Both A1C and LVEF were independently and incrementally associated with risk without evidence of interaction (P for interaction = 0.31). Patients with A1C ≥ 8% and LVEF <40% were at threefold higher risk than those with A1C < 7% and LVEF ≥50% (adjusted HR 3.18, 95% CI 2.03-4.98, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a contemporary cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome, baseline chronic hyperglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization or CV death independently of LVEF.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101262

RESUMO

Importance: High blood pressure (BP) is a leading contributor to premature mortality worldwide. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) demonstrated a 27% reduction in all-cause death with intensive (vs standard) BP control. However, traditional reporting of survival benefits is not readily interpretable outside medical communities. Objective: To estimate residual life span and potential survival gains with intensive compared with standard BP control in the SPRINT trial using validated nonparametric age-based methods. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of data from an open-label randomized clinical trial included data from 102 enrolling clinical sites in the United States. Adults who were 50 years or older, were at high cardiovascular risk but without diabetes, and had a screening systolic BP between 130 and 180 mm Hg were enrolled between November 2010 and March 2013. Data analysis occurred from May 2019 to December 2019. Interventions: A 1:1 randomization to intensive (target, <120 mm Hg) or standard (target, <140 mm Hg) systolic BP targets. Main Outcomes and Measures: We calculated age-based estimates of projected survival (at a given age) using baseline age rather than time from randomization as the time axis. In each treatment arm at every year of age, residual life span was estimated using the area under the survival curve, up to a maximum of 95 years. Differences in areas under the survival curves reflect the estimated treatment benefits on projected survival. Results: A total of 9361 adults were enrolled (mean [SD] age at randomization, 68 [9] years; 6029 [64.4%] were men; 5399 [57.7%] were non-Hispanic white individuals). Mean survival benefits with intensive vs standard BP control ranged from 6 months to up to 3 years. At age 50 years, the estimated residual survival was 37.3 years with intensive treatment and 34.4 years with standard treatment (difference, 2.9 years [95% CI, 0.9-5.0 years]; P = .008). At age 65 years, residual survival was 24.5 years with intensive treatment and 23.3 years with standard treatment (difference, 1.1 years [95% CI, 0.1-2.1 years]; P = .03). Absolute survival gains with intensive vs standard BP control decreased with age, but the relative benefits were consistent (4% to 9%). Conclusions and Relevance: Intensive BP control improves projected survival by 6 months to 3 years among middle-aged and older adults at high cardiovascular risk but without diabetes mellitus. These post hoc actuarial analyses from SPRINT support the survival benefits of intensive BP control, especially among middle-aged adults at risk. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077268

RESUMO

AIMS: Increased body mass index (BMI) is common in heart failure (HF) patients and is associated with lower levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We evaluated the influence of BMI on lung ultrasonography (LUS) findings indicative of pulmonary congestion (i.e. B-lines) in patients with chronic and acute HF (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed ambulatory chronic HF (n = 118) and hospitalized AHF (n = 177) patients (mean age 70 years, 64% men, mean BMI 29 kg/m2 , mean ejection fraction 42%) undergoing echocardiography and LUS in eight chest zones. B-lines and chest wall thickness (skin to pleura) on ultrasound were quantified offline and blinded to clinical findings. NT-proBNP was available in AHF patients (n = 167). In chronic HF, B-line number decreased by 18% per 5 unit increase in BMI [95% confidence interval (CI) -35% to +5%, P = 0.11]. In AHF, the number of B-lines decreased by 12% per 5 unit increase in BMI (95% CI -19% to -5%, P = 0.001), whereas NT-proBNP concentration decreased by 28% per 5 unit increase in BMI (95% CI -40% to -16%, P < 0.001). For AHF, B-line number declined to a lesser degree than NT-proBNP concentration with increasing BMI (P = 0.020), and >6 B-lines were observed in half of AHF patients with severe obesity. There was an inverse relationship between B-line number and chest wall thickness, and this association varied by chest region. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an inverse relationship between B-lines and BMI, B-lines declined to a lesser degree than NT-proBNP with increasing BMI. These data suggest that LUS may be useful in patients with HF despite obesity.

18.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(1): e006638, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spironolactone has been demonstrated to reduce heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction in the Americas region of the TOPCAT trial (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial). We assessed effects of 12 months of treatment with spironolactone on biomarkers reflecting myocardial stress, myocardial injury, renal function, and systemic inflammation. METHODS: This TOPCAT biorepository substudy evaluated 247 patients (14% of the total 1767 patients in the Americas region) with symptomatic HF, ejection fraction ≥45%, and elevated natriuretic peptides or a prior HF hospitalization. Paired blood samples at baseline and after 12 months of treatment with spironolactone or placebo were available in 204 patients. RESULTS: At baseline, the median (interquartile range) concentration of BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) was 124 (69-197) ng/L, NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) 624 (307-1312) ng/L, hs-cTnI (high sensitivity cardiac troponin I) 6.3 (3.4-13.0) ng/L, hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) 2.8 (1.3-6.1) mg/L, uric acid 7.2 (5.8-8.7) mg/dL, and urine protein-creatinine ratio 0.11 (0.08-0.20) mg/mg. Compared with placebo-assigned participants at 12 months, those randomized to spironolactone experienced greater reductions from baseline in levels of NT-proBNP (P=0.017) and BNP (P=0.002); these differences persisted after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and enrollment strata. No between-group differences in changes in hs-cTnI, CRP, uric acid, or urine protein-creatinine ratio were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This TOPCAT biorepository substudy suggests potential effects on markers of cardiac wall stress or filling pressures during 12 months of treatment with spironolactone in patients with chronic HF with preserved ejection fraction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00094302.

19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872620901835, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although pleural effusions are common among patients with acute heart failure, the relevance of pleural effusion size assessed on thoracic ultrasound has not been investigated systematically. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included patients hospitalised for acute heart failure and performed a thoracic ultrasound early after admission (thoracic ultrasound 1) and at discharge (thoracic ultrasound 2) independently of routine clinical management. A semiquantitative score was applied offline blinded to clinical findings to categorise and monitor pleural effusion size. RESULTS: Among 188 patients (median age 72 years, 62% men, 78% white, median left ventricular ejection fraction 38%), pleural effusions on thoracic ultrasound 1 were present in 66% of patients and decreased in size during the hospitalisation in 75% based on the pleural effusion score (P<0.0001). Higher values of the pleural effusion score were associated with higher pleural effusion volumes on computed tomography (P<0.001), higher NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide values (P=0.001) and a greater number of B-lines on lung ultrasound (P=0.004). Nevertheless, 47% of patients were discharged with persistent pleural effusions, 19% with large effusions. However, higher values of the pleural effusion score on thoracic ultrasound 2 did not identify patients at increased risk of 90-day heart failure rehospitalisations or death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.19; P=0.46) whereas seven or more B-lines on lung ultrasound at discharge were independently associated with adverse events (adjusted HR 2.43, 95% CI 1.11-5.37; P=0.027). CONCLUSION: Among patients with acute heart failure, pleural effusions are associated with other clinical, imaging and laboratory markers of congestion and improve with heart failure therapy. The prognostic relevance of persistent pleural effusions at discharge should be investigated in larger studies.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940010

RESUMO

Importance: If we assume that women and men exhibit variations of the same fundamental vascular physiology, then conventional analyses of subclinical measures would suggest that women catch up to men by midlife in the extent of potentially important vascular disease. Alternatively, under the assumption that vascular physiology may fundamentally differ between women and men, a sex-specific analysis of existing data could offer new insights and augment our understanding of sex differences in cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate whether longitudinal patterns of blood pressure (BP) elevation differ between women and men during the life course when considering baseline BP levels as the reference. Design Setting, and Participants: We conducted sex-specific analyses of longitudinal BP measures (144 599 observations) collected for a period of 43 years (1971 to 2014) in 4 community-based US cohort studies. The combined total included 32 833 participants (54% female) spanning ages 5 to 98 years. Data were analyzed between May 4, 2019, and August 5, 2019. Exposures: Age and serially assessed longitudinal BP measures: systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP). Main Outcomes and Measures: Sex-specific change in each primary BP measure compared with baseline BP levels, derived from multilevel longitudinal models fitted over the age span, and new-onset cardiovascular disease events. Results: Of the 32 833 participants, 17 733 were women (54%). Women compared with men exhibited a steeper increase in BP that began as early as in the third decade and continued through the life course (likelihood ratio test χ2 = 531 for systolic BP; χ2 = 123 for diastolic BP; χ2 = 325 for MAP; and χ2 = 572 for PP; P for all <.001). After adjustment for multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors, these between-sex differences in all BP trajectories persisted (likelihood ratio test χ2 = 314 for systolic BP; χ2 = 31 for diastolic BP; χ2 = 129 for MAP; and χ2 = 485 for PP; P for all <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: In contrast with the notion that important vascular disease processes in women lag behind men by 10 to 20 years, sex-specific analyses indicate that BP measures actually progress more rapidly in women than in men, beginning early in life. This early-onset sexual dimorphism may set the stage for later-life cardiovascular diseases that tend to present differently, not simply later, in women compared with men.

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