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Sci Rep ; 10(1): 936, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969671


Intrusive re-experiencing of traumatic events is a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, characterized by rich and vivid sensory details as reported in "flashbacks". While prevailing models of trauma intrusions focus on dysregulated emotional processes, we hypothesize that a deficiency in intrinsic sensory inhibition could drive overactivation of sensory representations of trauma memories, precipitating sensory-rich intrusions. In a sample of combat veterans, we examined resting-state alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillatory activity (in both power and posterior→frontal connectivity), given its role in sensory cortical inhibition, in association with intrusive re-experiencing symptoms. Veterans further participated in an odor task (including both combat and non-combat odors) to assess olfactory trauma memory and emotional response. We observed an association between intrusive re-experiencing symptoms and attenuated resting-state posterior→frontal alpha connectivity, which were both correlated with olfactory trauma memory. Importantly, olfactory trauma memory was identified as a mediator of the relationship between alpha connectivity and intrusive re-experiencing, suggesting that deficits in intrinsic sensory inhibition contributed to intrusive re-experiencing of trauma via heightened trauma memory. Therefore, by permitting unfiltered sensory cues to enter information processing and activate sensory representations of trauma, sensory disinhibition can constitute a sensory mechanism of intrusive re-experiencing in trauma-exposed individuals.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 13(12): 1305-1316, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380131


Growing evidence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulating intrinsic neural oscillations has spawned interest in applying tACS to treat psychiatric disorders associated with aberrant neural oscillations. The alpha rhythmic activity is known to dominate neural oscillations at the awake, restful state, while attenuated resting-state alpha activity has been implicated in anxious mood. Administering repeated alpha-frequency tACS (α-tACS; at individual peak alpha frequency; 8-12 Hz) over four consecutive days (in the experiment group, sham stimulation in the control group), we demonstrated immediate and lasting (>24 h) increases in resting-state posterior ➔frontal connectivity in the alpha frequency, quantified by Granger causality. Critically, this connectivity enhancement was accompanied by sustained reductions in both anxious arousal and negative perception of sensory stimuli. Resting-state alpha power also increased, albeit only transiently, reversing to the baseline level within 24 h after tACS. Therefore, the lasting enhancement of long-range alpha connectivity due to α-tACS differs from local alpha activity that is nonetheless conserved, highlighting the adaptability of alpha oscillatory networks. In light of increasing recognition of large-scale network dysfunctions as a transdiagnostic pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, this enduring connectivity plasticity, along with the behavioral improvements, paves the way for tACS applications in clinical interventions of psychiatric 'oscillopathies'.

Ansiedade/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adolescente , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
Pest Manag Sci ; 60(4): 350-8, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15119597


An in vivo technique was developed to observe colonisation of mushroom compost by Trichoderma spp. Isolates of T. harzianum (Th2), T. harzianum (Th1), T. koningii (Tk) and T. viride (Tv) were artificially introduced into compost using a mini-bag system. Wheat grains, colonised by Trichoderma spp, were placed centrally on a layer of compost at the bottom of 1-litre polythene bags which were then filled with 350 g of spawned or un-spawned compost, and partially sealed. After 14 and 21 days incubation at 27 degrees C, the bags were assessed for recovery of Trichoderma from middle and top zones using a needle stab re-isolation technique and a visual colonisation scoring system. Visible green mould contamination, similar to that observed in practice, developed within 21 days. The visual colonisation scoring was reliably related to the re-isolation success. In this evaluation, Trichoderma spp showed considerable differences in their relative abilities to colonise spawned and un-spawned compost, with Th2 isolates being consistently superior to the other isolates of Th1, Tk and Tv in colonising spawned compost. This technique was employed to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the colonisation of mushroom compost by three Trichoderma spp: Th2, Th1 and Tk, using 1-litre and 5-litre mini-bag systems. Aqueous suspensions of benomyl, carbendazim, thiabendazole, prochloraz and prochloraz+carbendazim incorporated into the compost at 50 mg litre(-1), or applied to spawn at 50 mg kg(-1), reduced the colonisation by Trichoderma spp. Prochloraz and prochloraz+carbendazim were superior to benomyl, carbendazim or thiabendazole in reducing compost colonisation by Th2, Th1 and Tk, with Th2 being the most persistent type, capable of colonising treated compost in the presence of all five fungicides. The prochloraz+carbendazim mixture, not normally used in mushroom production, was equal to or better than prochloraz alone. The incidence of green mould colonisation by Th2 was as extensive in the 5-litre compost bags as in the 1-litre bags, but colonisation by Th1 and Tk was more apparent in the 5-litre bags. The in vivo mini-bag evaluations using wheat grain Trichoderma inoculum and needle stab re-isolation procedures proved an efficient method for studying colonisation and screening for effectiveness of fungicides applied to mushroom compost or spawn.

Agaricales/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Solo/análise , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Trichoderma/classificação , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/química
Pest Manag Sci ; 58(3): 282-9, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11975175


In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the effects of three commercial disinfectants on isolates of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Cladobotryum dendroides (Bull) W Gams & Hoozemans were combined in the development of methodologies for realistic assessment of disinfectant performance. 'Environ' and 'Purogene' incorporated into agar media at 50 mg AI litre-1 were effective in totally preventing the mycelial growth of T harzianum and C dendroides isolates, whereas with 'Sudol' a concentration of 500 mg AI litre-1 was required. Evaluation of a model in vivo system was combined with observations on the fungicidal effects of disinfectants. Spore suspensions of T harzianum (Th1), T harzianum (Th2) and C dendroides prepared from culture washings with sterilised distilled water were used as contaminating inoculum. Environ, Sudol and Purogene in aqueous solutions at 1000 mg AI litre-1 were sprayed onto these building structure surfaces before or after artificial contamination with spore suspensions. Re-isolation from surfaces was carried out using agar swabs, which were prepared in visking tubing, applied to treated surfaces and incubated at 25 degrees C for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h. Environ and Purogene were more effective than Sudol in limiting the recovery of Trichoderma spp and C dendroides. All three disinfectants applied 12 h after artificial contamination onto wood, concrete or glazed surfaces were able to reduce the recovery of these isolates more effectively than when they were applied 12 h before artificial contamination. Greater persistence of contamination was noted on the rougher surfaces (wood and concrete) than on the smoother glazed surface. It was concluded in this in vivo evaluation that, in many cases, the protection achieved by the physical nature of the smooth glazed tile surfaces was equivalent to that available from the application of disinfectants, thus highlighting the attention needed to the nature of building surfaces in the structures used in the mushroom industry. The artificial contamination and re-isolation techniques allowed significant comparison between disinfectant materials, timings and surface types. In the in vivo experiments using a single standardised test concentration, the relative fungicidal effects of the disinfectants, which varied in the complexity of their active ingredients, were better discriminated than the effects observed in vitro, although the general trend was similar.

Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Fungicidas Industriais/administração & dosagem , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento