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1.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a mainstay of therapy in the treatment of SLE. The effect of HCQ on platelets and vascular health is uncertain. We investigated the relationship between HCQ use and dose with platelet activity, platelet transcriptomics and vascular health in patients with SLE. METHODS: Platelet aggregation, platelet mRNA expression and vascular health (sublingual capillary perfused boundary region (PBR), red blood cell filling (RBCF) and brachial artery reactivity testing) were analysed by HCQ use and dose. RESULTS: Among 132 subjects with SLE (age: 39.7±12.9 years, 97% female), 108 were on HCQ. SLE disease activity was similar between subjects on and off HCQ. Platelet aggregation in response to multiple agonists was significantly lower in patients on HCQ. There were inverse relationships between HCQ dose and gene expression pathways of platelet activity. Gene expression of P-selectin (SELP) was inversely correlated with HCQ dose (r=-0.41, p=0.003), which was validated at the protein level. Subjects on HCQ had improved vascular function correlating with HCQ dose as measured by lower PBR (r=-0.52, p=0.007), higher RBCF (r=0.55, p=0.004) and greater brachial artery reactivity (r=0.43, p=0.056). CONCLUSION: HCQ use was associated with decreased platelet activation and activation-related transcripts and improved vascular health in SLE.

2.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783474

RESUMO

Antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) are prevalent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), particularly in patients with lupus nephritis, yet the nature and regulation of antigenic cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are poorly understood. Null mutations in the secreted DNase DNASE1L3 cause human monogenic SLE with anti-dsDNA autoreactivity. We report that >50% of sporadic SLE patients with nephritis manifested reduced DNASE1L3 activity in circulation, which was associated with neutralizing autoantibodies to DNASE1L3. These patients had normal total plasma cfDNA levels but showed accumulation of cfDNA in circulating microparticles. Microparticle-associated cfDNA contained a higher fraction of longer polynucleosomal cfDNA fragments, which bound autoantibodies with higher affinity than mononucleosomal fragments. Autoantibodies to DNASE1L3-sensitive antigens on microparticles were prevalent in SLE nephritis patients and correlated with the accumulation of cfDNA in microparticles and with disease severity. DNASE1L3-sensitive antigens included DNA-associated proteins such as HMGB1. Our results reveal autoantibody-mediated impairment of DNASE1L3 activity as a common nongenetic mechanism facilitating anti-dsDNA autoreactivity in patients with severe sporadic SLE.

3.
Med J Aust ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the age-standardised prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a metropolitan area of Sydney, with a focus on its prevalence among older people. DESIGN, SETTING: Population-based epidemiological study of people with IBD in the City of Canada Bay, a local government area in the inner west of Sydney, during 1 March 2016 - 10 November 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with confirmed IBD according to the Copenhagen or revised Porto criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude prevalence of IBD, including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis; age-standardised prevalence of IBD, based on the World Health Organization standard population; prevalence rates among people aged 65 years or more. RESULTS: The median age of 364 people with IBD was 47 years (IQR, 34-62 years); 185 were women (50.8%). The crude IBD prevalence rate was 414 cases (95% CI, 371-456 cases) per 100 000 population; the age-standardised rate was 348 cases (95% CI, 312-385 cases) per 100 000 population. The age-standardised rate for Crohn disease was 166 cases (95% CI, 141-192 cases) per 100 000 population; for ulcerative colitis, 148 cases (95% CI, 124-171 cases) per 100 000 population. The IBD prevalence rate in people aged 65 years or more was 612 cases (95% CI, 564-660 cases) per 100 000, and for those aged 85 years or more, 891 cases (95% CI, 833-949 cases) per 100 000; for people under 65, the rate was 380 cases (95% CI, 342-418 cases) per 100 000. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the prevalence of confirmed IBD in a metropolitan sample was highest among older people. Challenges for managing older patients with IBD include higher rates of comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and cognitive decline, and the immunosuppressive nature of standard therapies for IBD.

4.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(10): e008686, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on inhibition of viral replication and limited reports on clinical efficacy, hydroxychloroquine is being considered as prophylaxis and treatment of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Although hydroxychloroquine is generally considered safe during pregnancy based on studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic conditions, there may still be reluctance to institute this antimalarial during pregnancy for the sole purpose of antiviral therapy. METHODS: To provide data regarding any potential fetal/neonatal cardiotoxicity, we leveraged a unique opportunity in which neonatal ECGs and hydroxychloroquine blood levels were available in a recently completed study evaluating the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily to prevent the recurrence of congenital heart block associated with anti-SSA/Ro (anti-Sjögren's Syndrome A/Ro) antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-five ECGs were available for corrected QT interval (QTc) measurement, and levels of hydroxychloroquine were assessed during each trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood, providing unambiguous assurance of drug exposure. Overall, there was no correlation between cord blood levels of hydroxychloroquine and the neonatal QTc (R=0.02, P=0.86) or the mean of hydroxychloroquine values obtained throughout each individual pregnancy and the QTc (R=0.04, P=0.80). In total 5 (11% [95% CI, 4%-24%]) neonates had prolongation of the QTc >2 SD above historical healthy controls (2 markedly and 3 marginally) but ECGs were otherwise normal. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, these data provide reassurances that the maternal use of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a low incidence of infant QTc prolongation. However, if included in clinical COVID-19 studies, early postnatal ECGs should be considered. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01379573.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Eletrocardiografia , Coração Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Coração Fetal/fisiopatologia , Idade Gestacional , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Helicobacter ; 25(6): e12751, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has had a major impact on the global health of billions of people. Triple therapy was extensively used in Australia by 1986 for H pylori eradication after its discovery in 1984 and was critical in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this infection. AIMS: This study analyzed hospital admission, mortality, and therapeutic data to determine the economic and clinical impact that antibiotic triple therapy had on peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in Australia. METHODS: An analysis of indirect and direct cost-savings in Australia between 1990 and 2015 associated with triple therapy and the impact on PUD mortality and hospital admissions. RESULTS: The direct and indirect impacts of PUD treated by triple therapy between 1990 and 2015 suggest that triple therapy is likely to have prevented 18 665 deaths, and saved 258 887 life years and 33 776 productive life years. The total savings, over the 26-year period, including direct and indirect costs, are calculated to be $10.03 billion, equating to an average annual saving of $393.419 million. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the enormous benefits to Australia's health care of the discovery of triple therapy, a relatively low-cost antibiotic regimen which brought considerable savings via the reduction in morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality related to PUD. It is likely that benefits of similar scale occurred internationally.

6.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(9): 1564-1573, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of, and agreement among, EEG and aEEG readers' estimation of maturity and a novel computational measure of functional brain age (FBA) in preterm infants. METHODS: Seven experts estimated the postmenstrual ages (PMA) in a cohort of recordings from preterm infants using cloud-based review software. The FBA was calculated using a machine learning-based algorithm. Error analysis was used to determine the accuracy of PMA assessments and intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess agreement between experts. RESULTS: EEG recordings from a PMA range 25 to 38 weeks were successfully interpreted. In 179 recordings from 62 infants interpreted by all human readers, there was moderate agreement between experts (aEEG ICC = 0.724; 95%CI:0.658-0.781 and EEG ICC = 0.517; 95%CI:0.311-0.664). In 149 recordings from 61 infants interpreted by all human readers and the FBA algorithm, random and systematic errors in visual interpretation of PMA were significantly higher than the computational FBA estimate. Tracking of maturation in individual infants showed stable FBA trajectories, but the trajectories of the experts' PMA estimate were more likely to be obscured by random errors. The accuracy of visual interpretation of PMA estimation was compromised by neurodevelopmental outcome for both aEEG and EEG review. INTERPRETATION: Visual assessment of infant maturity is possible from the EEG or aEEG, with an average of human experts providing the highest accuracy. Tracking PMA of individual infants was hampered by errors in experts' estimates. FBA provided the most accurate maturity assessment and has potential as a biomarker of early outcome.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(3): 292-302, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical evidence support the role of macrophage Toll-like receptor signaling in maternal anti-SSA/Ro-mediated congenital heart block (CHB). OBJECTIVES: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an orally administered Toll-like receptor antagonist widely used in lupus including during pregnancy, was evaluated for efficacy in reducing the historical 18% recurrence rate of CHB. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, single-arm, 2-stage clinical trial was designed using Simon's optimal approach. Anti-SSA/Ro-positive mothers with a previous pregnancy complicated by CHB were recruited (n = 19 Stage 1; n = 35 Stage 2). Patients received 400 mg daily of HCQ prior to completion of gestational week 10, which was maintained through pregnancy. The primary outcome was 2° or 3° CHB any time during pregnancy, and secondary outcomes included isolated endocardial fibroelastosis, 1° CHB at birth and skin rash. RESULTS: By intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, 4 of 54 evaluable pregnancies resulted in a primary outcome (7.4%; 90% confidence interval: 3.4% to 15.9%). Because 9 mothers took potentially confounding medications (fluorinated glucocorticoids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin) after enrollment but prior to a primary outcome, to evaluate HCQ alone, 9 additional mothers were recruited and followed the identical protocol. In the per-protocol analysis restricted to pregnancies exposed to HCQ alone, 4 of 54 (7.4%) fetuses developed a primary outcome as in the ITT. Secondary outcomes included mild endocardial fibroelastosis (n = 1) and cutaneous neonatal lupus (n = 4). CONCLUSIONS: These prospective data support that HCQ significantly reduces the recurrence of CHB below the historical rate by >50%, suggesting that this drug should be prescribed for secondary prevention of fetal cardiac disease in anti-SSA/Ro-exposed pregnancies. (Preventive Approach to Congenital Heart Block With Hydroxychloroquine [PATCH]; NCT01379573).

8.
JCI Insight ; 5(12)2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396533

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis, one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), has a heterogeneous clinical and pathological presentation. For example, proliferative nephritis identifies a more aggressive disease class that requires immunosuppression. However, the current classification system relies on the static appearance of histopathological morphology, which does not capture differences in the inflammatory response. Therefore, a biomarker grounded in the disease biology is needed in order to understand the molecular heterogeneity of lupus nephritis and identify immunologic mechanism and pathways. Here, we analyzed the patterns of 1000 urine protein biomarkers in 30 patients with active lupus nephritis. We found that patients stratify over a chemokine gradient inducible by IFN-γ. Higher values identified patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. After integrating the urine proteomics with the single-cell transcriptomics of kidney biopsies, we observed that the urinary chemokines defining the gradient were predominantly produced by infiltrating CD8+ T cells, along with natural killer and myeloid cells. The urine chemokine gradient significantly correlated with the number of kidney-infiltrating CD8+ cells. These findings suggest that urine proteomics can capture the complex biology of the kidney in lupus nephritis. Patient-specific pathways could be noninvasively tracked in the urine in real time, enabling diagnosis and personalized treatment.

9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(8): 1446-1457, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589297

RESUMO

AIMS: Investigating human heart development and applying this to deviations resulting in disease is incomplete without molecular characterization of the cell types required for normal functioning. We investigated foetal human heart single-cell transcriptomes from mid-gestational healthy and anti-SSA/Ro associated congenital heart block (CHB) samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three healthy foetal human hearts (19th to 22nd week of gestation) and one foetal heart affected by autoimmune-associated CHB (21st week of gestation) were subjected to enzymatic dissociation using the Langendorff preparation to obtain single-cell suspensions followed by 10× Genomics- and Illumina-based single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). In addition to the myocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and other minor cell types, previously uncharacterized diverse sub-populations of endothelial cells were identified in the human heart. Differential gene expression analysis revealed increased and heterogeneous interferon responses in varied cell types of the CHB heart compared with the healthy controls. In addition, we also identified matrisome transcripts enriched in CHB stromal cells that potentially contribute to extracellular matrix deposition and subsequent fibrosis. CONCLUSION: These data provide an information-rich resource to further our understanding of human heart development, which, as illustrated by comparison to a heart exposed to a maternal autoimmune environment, can be leveraged to provide insight into the pathogenesis of disease.

10.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2423-2431, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695359

RESUMO

In subjects with chronic bronchitis, protection against acute bronchitis following oral administration of a whole-cell killed nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) preparation was demonstrated in the mid-1980s. Subsequently, studies aiming to validate clinical efficacy of this oral treatment were complicated by a number of factors, including the modification of clinical definitions, the implications of which were not recognized at that time. The objective of this review is to integrate our pre-clinical and clinical research in this field conducted over the past 30 years to demonstrate the evolution of the idea of communication between mucosal surfaces through the common mucosal immune system and the development of an effective oral NTHi immunotherapy. Our earliest studies recruited subjects with chronic sputum production and high levels of culture-positive sputum for Gram-negative bacteria but by 2000, the clinical diagnostic focus had switched from "chronic bronchitis" to "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" (COPD), which was functionally defined using spirometry. This change led to variable clinical trial results, confirming the importance of chronic sputum production and culture-positive sputum. Additional conditioning factors such as patient age and gender were influential in study populations with low culture-positive sputum production. Through this period, studies in human and in rodent models provided new insights into airway protection mechanisms and the pathogenesis of airway inflammation. Key findings were the importance of a dysbiosis within the airway microbiome, and the critical role of an interdependence between the bronchus and the gut, with a Peyer's patch-dependent extra-bronchus "loop" controlling the composition of the bronchus microbiome. Within this context, intercurrent virus infections initiate a microbiome-dependant hypersensitivity reaction involving Peyer's patch-derived Th17 cells. We conclude that whole-cell killed NTHi immunotherapy has consistent and significant benefits when examined in the context of changing clinical disease definitions, age and gender, and has the potential to change the natural history of chronic airway disease.


Assuntos
Terapia Biológica/métodos , Bronquite/terapia , Haemophilus influenzae , Imunoterapia/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1436-1443, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and its individual phenotypes of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and cerebrovascular disease by age and sex in a large US cohort of hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: A nested case-control study of adults with and without SLE was conducted from the January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014, National Inpatient Sample. Hospitalized patients with SLE were matched (1:3) by age, sex, race, and calendar year to hospitalized patients without SLE. The prevalences of CAD, PAD, and cerebrovascular disease were evaluated, and associations with SLE were determined after adjustment for common cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among the 252,676 patients with SLE and 758,034 matched patients without SLE, the mean age was 51 years, 89% were women, and 49% were white. Patients with SLE had a higher prevalence of ASCVD vs those without SLE (25.6% vs 19.2%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.44-1.47; P<.001). After multivariable adjustment, SLE was associated with a greater odds of ASCVD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.41-1.51). The association between SLE and ASCVD was observed in women and men and was attenuated with increasing age. Also, SLE was associated with increased odds of CAD (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.40-1.44), PAD (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.22-1.28), and cerebrovascular disease (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.65-1.71). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized US patients, SLE was associated with increased ASCVD prevalence, which was observed in both sexes and was greatest in younger patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
13.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 49: 43-51, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173991

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents the most effective means of therapeutically manipulating the gastrointestinal microbiome. Originally employed as a treatment of last-resort in patients with life-threatening Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), FMT gained widespread acceptance during the CDI epidemic, where it achieved resolution rates approaching 100%. Following our newfound appreciation for the role of the gut microbiome in both health and disease and owing to FMT's unique mechanism/s of action, FMT is rapidly advancing as an effective treatment for a number of conditions in which the gastrointestinal microbiome is thought to play a role. We review the role of FMT from its beginnings in CDI to its expansion into inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and colon cancer.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Humanos
14.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 915-927, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110316

RESUMO

The molecular and cellular processes that lead to renal damage and to the heterogeneity of lupus nephritis (LN) are not well understood. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to renal biopsies from patients with LN and evaluated skin biopsies as a potential source of diagnostic and prognostic markers of renal disease. Type I interferon (IFN)-response signatures in tubular cells and keratinocytes distinguished patients with LN from healthy control subjects. Moreover, a high IFN-response signature and fibrotic signature in tubular cells were each associated with failure to respond to treatment. Analysis of tubular cells from patients with proliferative, membranous and mixed LN indicated pathways relevant to inflammation and fibrosis, which offer insight into their histologic differences. In summary, we applied scRNA-seq to LN to deconstruct its heterogeneity and identify novel targets for personalized approaches to therapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biópsia , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(3): 532-537, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638300

RESUMO

Essentials Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at increased risk for premature CVD. Platelet activity, vascular dysfunction and carotid artery plaque are associated with FcγRIIA genotype in SLE. FcγRIIA genotype was not associated with platelet activity or carotid plaque in healthy controls. FcγRIIA represents a link that connects platelet activity, vascular health and CVD in SLE. SUMMARY: Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease associated with an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Platelets express receptors contributing to inflammation and immunity, including FcγRIIA, the low affinity receptor of the Fc portion of IgG antibodies. The variation at a single amino acid substitution, H131R, in the extracellular binding domain alters the affinity for IgG, which may account for individual variation in platelet activity and platelet-mediated disease. Objectives This study was performed to investigate the association between FcγRIIA genotype, preclinical atherosclerosis, platelet reactivity and vascular health. Methods FcγRIIA was genotyped in 80 SLE patients and 30 healthy controls. Carotid ultrasound plaque, soluble E-selectin and platelet aggregability were evaluated in SLE and matched controls. Results Carotid plaque was significantly more prevalent in SLE patients carrying a variant allele compared to those with a homozygous ancestral allele (58% vs. 25%, P = 0.04). In contrast, prevalent carotid plaque was not associated with genotype in controls. Consistently, SLE variant FcγRIIA carriers vs. ancestral allele carriers had a significant increase in the levels of soluble E-selectin, which was not observed in controls. Monocyte and leukocyte-platelet aggregation and platelet aggregation in response to submaximal agonist stimulation were significantly elevated in SLE patients with the variant vs. ancestral genotype. Conclusions Carotid ultrasound plaque, soluble E-selectin levels and platelet activity were more frequently prevalent in SLE patients carrying variant FcγRIIA. The interplay between FcγRIIA-mediated platelet activation and endothelial cells might represent a mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in SLE patients.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Ativação Plaquetária/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de IgG/genética , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Selectina E/sangue , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Immunol ; 202(1): 48-55, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518570

RESUMO

Given that diseases associated with anti-SSA/Ro autoantibodies, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome, are linked with an upregulation of IFN and type I IFN-stimulated genes, including sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1), a receptor on monocytes/macrophages, recent attention has focused on a potential role for IFN and IFN-stimulated genes in the pathogenesis of congenital heart block (CHB). Accordingly, three approaches were leveraged to address the association of IFN, IFN-stimulated genes, and the phenotype of macrophages in affected fetal cardiac tissue: 1) cultured healthy human macrophages transfected with hY3, an anti-SSA/Ro-associated ssRNA, 2) RNA isolated from freshly sorted human leukocytes/macrophages after Langendorff perfusion of three fetal hearts dying with CHB and three healthy gestational age-matched hearts, and 3) autopsy tissue from three additional human CHB hearts and one healthy heart. TLR ligation of macrophages with hY3 led to the upregulation of a panel of IFN transcripts, including SIGLEC1, a result corroborated using quantitative PCR. Using independent and agnostic bioinformatics approaches, CD45+CD11c+ and CD45+CD11c- human leukocytes flow sorted from the CHB hearts highly expressed type I IFN response genes inclusive of SIGLEC1. Furthermore, Siglec-1 expression was identified in the septal region of several affected fetal hearts. These data now provide a link between IFN, IFN-stimulated genes, and the inflammatory and possibly fibrosing components of CHB, positioning Siglec-1-positive macrophages as integral to the process.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Septos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Autoimunidade , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Bloqueio Cardíaco/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/genética , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/genética
17.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(1): 1-8, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many neonates undergo electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring to identify and manage acute symptomatic seizures. Information about brain function contained in the EEG background data may also help predict neurobehavioral outcomes. For EEG background features to be useful as prognostic indicators, the interpretation of these features must be standardized across electroencephalographers. We aimed at determining the interrater and intrarater agreement among electroencephalographers interpreting neonatal EEG background patterns. METHODS: Five neonatal electroencephalographers reviewed 5-to-7.5-minute epochs of EEG from full-term neonates who underwent continuous conventional EEG monitoring. The EEG assessment tool used to classify background patterns was based on the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's guideline for neonatal EEG terminology. Interrater and intrarater agreement were measured using Kappa coefficients. RESULTS: Interrater agreement was consistently highest for voltage (binary: substantial, kappa = 0.783; categorical: moderate, kappa = 0.562), seizure presence (fair-substantial; kappa = 0.375-0.697), continuity (moderate; kappa = 0.481), burst voltage (moderate; kappa = 0.574), suppressed background presence (moderate-substantial; kappa = 0.493-0.643), delta activity presence (fair-moderate; kappa = 0.369-0.432), theta activity presence (fair-moderate; kappa = 0.347-0.600), presence of graphoelements (fair; kappa = 0.381), and overall impression (binary: moderate, kappa = 0.495; categorical: fair-moderate, kappa = 0.347, 0.465). Agreement was poor or inconsistent for all other patterns. Intrarater agreement was variable, with highest average agreement for voltage (binary: substantial, kappa = 0.75; categorical: substantial, kappa = 0.714) and highest consistent agreement for continuity (moderate-substantial; kappa = 0.43-0.67) and overall impression (moderate-substantial; kappa = 0.42-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates substantial variability in neonatal EEG background interpretation across electroencephalographers, indicating a need for educational and technological strategies aimed at improving performance.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Monitorização Neurofisiológica , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(454)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111646

RESUMO

Photosensitivity, or skin sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is a feature of lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions, but the mechanistic underpinnings are poorly understood. We identify a Langerhans cell (LC)-keratinocyte axis that limits UVR-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin injury via keratinocyte epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation. We show that the absence of LCs in Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) mice leads to photosensitivity and that, in vitro, mouse and human LCs can directly protect keratinocytes from UVR-induced apoptosis. LCs express EGFR ligands and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), the metalloprotease that activates EGFR ligands. Deletion of ADAM17 from LCs leads to photosensitivity, and UVR induces LC ADAM17 activation and generation of soluble active EGFR ligands, suggesting that LCs protect by providing activated EGFR ligands to keratinocytes. Photosensitive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) models and human SLE skin show reduced epidermal EGFR phosphorylation and LC defects, and a topical EGFR ligand reduces photosensitivity. Together, our data establish a direct tissue-protective function for LCs, reveal a mechanistic basis for photosensitivity, and suggest EGFR stimulation as a treatment for photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus and potentially other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos da radiação , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Células de Langerhans/citologia , Células de Langerhans/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/efeitos da radiação , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação
19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 36, 2018 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin M (IgM) autoreactivity to malondialdehyde (MDA) protein modifications is part of the natural antibody repertoire in health and may have beneficial functions. In contrast, IgG anti-MDA are increased in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity and may instead have pathogenic properties. METHODS: Herein, we investigated serum IgG anti-MDA levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 398 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the Swedish Karolinska SLE cohort and compared these to findings in 225 US SLE patients from New York University and Johns Hopkins University. RESULTS: In two independent cohorts, IgG anti-MDA levels correlated positively with disease activity by the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; p < 0.0001, Spearman R = 0.3). Meta-analysis found an odds ratio of 2.7 (confidence interval (CI) 1.9-3.9; p < 0.0001) for high anti-MDA IgG levels with active disease (SLEDAI ≥ 6). Furthermore, IgG anti-MDA correlated directly with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR-1, sTNFR-2), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) measurements, and inversely with complement factors (C1q, C2, C3, C4). Importantly, IgG anti-MDA levels were significantly elevated in SLE patients with active nephritis (p = 0.0005) and correlated with cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgG anti-MDA in SLE patients was associated with high disease activity, with active lupus nephritis, and with biomarkers of systemic inflammation. This natural antibody reactivity may have potential prognostic utility, and may also actively contribute to pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Malondialdeído/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 44(2): 125-142, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539074

RESUMO

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lower airways of COPD patients, bacterial infection is a common phenomenon and Haemophilus influenzae is the most commonly identified bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable and nontypeable (NTHi) strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. While NTHi is a common commensal in the human nasopharynx, it is associated with considerable inflammation when it is present in the lower airways of COPD patients, resulting in morbidity due to worsening symptoms and increased frequency of COPD exacerbations. Treatment of lower airway NTHi infection with antibiotics, though successful in the short term, does not offer long-term protection against reinfection, nor does it change the course of the disease. Hence, there has been much interest in the development of an effective NTHi vaccine. This review will summarize the current literature concerning the role of NTHi infections in COPD patients and the consequences of using prophylactic antibiotics in patients with COPD. There is particular focus on the rationale, findings of clinical studies and possible future directions of NTHi vaccines in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/patologia , Haemophilus influenzae/classificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
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