*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(9): 090501, 2022 Mar 04.*

##### RESUMO

The theory of open quantum systems lays the foundation for a substantial part of modern research in quantum science and engineering. Rooted in the dimensionality of their extended Hilbert spaces, the high computational complexity of simulating open quantum systems calls for the development of strategies to approximate their dynamics. In this Letter, we present an approach for tackling open quantum system dynamics. Using an exact probabilistic formulation of quantum physics based on positive operator-valued measure, we compactly represent quantum states with autoregressive neural networks; such networks bring significant algorithmic flexibility due to efficient exact sampling and tractable density. We further introduce the concept of string states to partially restore the symmetry of the autoregressive neural network and improve the description of local correlations. Efficient algorithms have been developed to simulate the dynamics of the Liouvillian superoperator using a forward-backward trapezoid method and find the steady state via a variational formulation. Our approach is benchmarked on prototypical one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems, finding results which closely track the exact solution and achieve higher accuracy than alternative approaches based on using Markov chain Monte Carlo method to sample restricted Boltzmann machines. Our Letter provides general methods for understanding quantum dynamics in various contexts, as well as techniques for solving high-dimensional probabilistic differential equations in classical setups.

##### Assuntos

Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Física*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(21): 216401, 2021 May 28.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of quantum many-body systems are plagued by the Fermion sign problem. The computational complexity of simulating Fermions scales exponentially in the projection time ß and system size. The sign problem is basis dependent and an improved basis, for fixed errors, leads to exponentially quicker simulations. We show how to use sign-free quantum Monte Carlo simulations to optimize over the choice of basis on large two-dimensional systems. We numerically illustrate these techniques decreasing the "badness" of the sign problem by optimizing over single-particle basis rotations on one- and two-dimensional Hubbard systems. We find a generic rotation which improves the average sign of the Hubbard model for a wide range of U and densities for L×4 systems. In one example improvement, the average sign (and hence simulation cost at fixed accuracy) for the 16×4 Hubbard model at U/t=4 and n=0.75 increases by exp[8.64(6)ß]. For typical projection times of ßâª100, this accelerates such simulation by many orders of magnitude.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(18): 180602, 2021 May 07.*

##### RESUMO

Disorder and interactions can lead to the breakdown of statistical mechanics in certain quantum systems, a phenomenon known as many-body localization (MBL). Much of the phenomenology of MBL emerges from the existence of â bits, a set of conserved quantities that are quasilocal and binary (i.e., possess only ±1 eigenvalues). While MBL and â bits are known to exist in one-dimensional systems, their existence in dimensions greater than one is a key open question. To tackle this question, we develop an algorithm that can find approximate binary â bits in arbitrary dimensions by adaptively generating a basis of operators in which to represent the â bit. We use the algorithm to study four models: the one-, two-, and three-dimensional disordered Heisenberg models and the two-dimensional disordered hard-core Bose-Hubbard model. For all four of the models studied, our algorithm finds high-quality â bits at large disorder strength and rapid qualitative changes in the distributions of â bits in particular ranges of disorder strengths, suggesting the existence of MBL transitions. These transitions in the one-dimensional Heisenberg model and two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model coincide well with past estimates of the critical disorder strengths in these models, which further validates the evidence of MBL phenomenology in the other two- and three-dimensional models we examine. In addition to finding MBL behavior in higher dimensions, our algorithm can be used to probe MBL in various geometries and dimensionality.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(27): 276402, 2021 Dec 31.*

##### RESUMO

Gauge symmetries play a key role in physics appearing in areas such as quantum field theories of the fundamental particles and emergent degrees of freedom in quantum materials. Motivated by the desire to efficiently simulate many-body quantum systems with exact local gauge invariance, gauge equivariant neural-network quantum states are introduced, which exactly satisfy the local Hilbert space constraints necessary for the description of quantum lattice gauge theory with Z_{d} gauge group and non-Abelian Kitaev D(G) models on different geometries. Focusing on the special case of Z_{2} gauge group on a periodically identified square lattice, the equivariant architecture is analytically shown to contain the loop-gas solution as a special case. Gauge equivariant neural-network quantum states are used in combination with variational quantum Monte Carlo to obtain compact descriptions of the ground state wave function for the Z_{2} theory away from the exactly solvable limit, and to demonstrate the confining or deconfining phase transition of the Wilson loop order parameter.

*Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3369-3377, 2020 May 13.*

##### RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer an ideal platform to study the strain fields induced by individual atomic defects, yet challenges associated with radiation damage have so far limited electron microscopy methods to probe these atomic-scale strain fields. Here, we demonstrate an approach to probe single-atom defects with sub-picometer precision in a monolayer 2D transition metal dichalcogenide, WSe2-2xTe2x. We utilize deep learning to mine large data sets of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy images to locate and classify point defects. By combining hundreds of images of nominally identical defects, we generate high signal-to-noise class averages which allow us to measure 2D atomic spacings with up to 0.2 pm precision. Our methods reveal that Se vacancies introduce complex, oscillating strain fields in the WSe2-2xTe2x lattice that correspond to alternating rings of lattice expansion and contraction. These results indicate the potential impact of computer vision for the development of high-precision electron microscopy methods for beam-sensitive materials.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(22): 226401, 2019 Jun 07.*

##### RESUMO

Obtaining an accurate ground state wave function is one of the great challenges in the quantum many-body problem. In this Letter, we propose a new class of wave functions, neural network backflow (NNB). The backflow approach, pioneered originally by Feynman and Cohen [Phys. Rev. 102, 1189 (1956)10.1103/PhysRev.102.1189], adds correlation to a mean-field ground state by transforming the single-particle orbitals in a configuration-dependent way. NNB uses a feed-forward neural network to learn the optimal transformation via variational Monte Carlo calculations. NNB directly dresses a mean-field state, can be systematically improved, and directly alters the sign structure of the wave function. It generalizes the standard backflow [L. F. Tocchio et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 041101(R) (2008)10.1103/PhysRevB.78.041101], which we show how to explicitly represent as a NNB. We benchmark the NNB on Hubbard models at intermediate doping, finding that it significantly decreases the relative error, restores the symmetry of both observables and single-particle orbitals, and decreases the double-occupancy density. Finally, we illustrate interesting patterns in the weights and bias of the optimized neural network.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(11): 117202, 2018 Mar 16.*

##### RESUMO

Frustrated quantum magnets are a central theme in condensed matter physics due to the richness of their phase diagrams. They support a panoply of phases including various ordered states and topological phases. Yet, this problem has defied a solution for a long time due to the lack of controlled approximations which make it difficult to distinguish between competing phases. Here we report the discovery of a special quantum macroscopically degenerate point in the XXZ model on the spin-1/2 kagome quantum antiferromagnet for the ratio of Ising to antiferromagnetic transverse coupling J_{z}/J=-1/2. This point is proximate to many competing phases explaining the source of the complexity of the phase diagram. We identify five phases near this point including both spin-liquid and broken-symmetry phases and give evidence that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is close to a transition between two phases.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(19): 195901, 2018 May 16.*

##### RESUMO

QMCPACK is an open source quantum Monte Carlo package for ab initio electronic structure calculations. It supports calculations of metallic and insulating solids, molecules, atoms, and some model Hamiltonians. Implemented real space quantum Monte Carlo algorithms include variational, diffusion, and reptation Monte Carlo. QMCPACK uses Slater-Jastrow type trial wavefunctions in conjunction with a sophisticated optimizer capable of optimizing tens of thousands of parameters. The orbital space auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method is also implemented, enabling cross validation between different highly accurate methods. The code is specifically optimized for calculations with large numbers of electrons on the latest high performance computing architectures, including multicore central processing unit and graphical processing unit systems. We detail the program's capabilities, outline its structure, and give examples of its use in current research calculations. The package is available at http://qmcpack.org.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(7): 075701, 2017 Aug 18.*

##### RESUMO

Many-body localization (MBL) is a phase of matter that is characterized by the absence of thermalization. Dynamical generation of a large number of local quantum numbers has been identified as one key characteristic of this phase, quite possibly the microscopic mechanism of breakdown of thermalization and the phase transition itself. We formulate a robust algorithm, based on Wegner-Wilson flow (WWF) renormalization, for computing these conserved quantities and their interactions. We present evidence for the existence of distinct fixed point distributions of the latter: a Gaussian white-noise-like distribution in the ergodic phase, a 1/f law inside the MBL phase, and scale-free distributions in the transition regime.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(1): 017201, 2017 Jan 06.*

##### RESUMO

A key property of many-body localized Hamiltonians is the area law entanglement of even highly excited eigenstates. Matrix product states (MPS) can be used to efficiently represent low entanglement (area law) wave functions in one dimension. An important application of MPS is the widely used density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for finding ground states of one-dimensional Hamiltonians. Here, we develop two algorithms, the shift-and-invert MPS (SIMPS) and excited state DMRG which find highly excited eigenstates of many-body localized Hamiltonians. Excited state DMRG uses a modified sweeping procedure to identify eigenstates, whereas SIMPS applies the inverse of the shifted Hamiltonian to a MPS multiple times to project out the targeted eigenstate. To demonstrate the power of these methods, we verify the breakdown of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis in the many-body localized phase of the random field Heisenberg model, show the saturation of entanglement in the many-body localized phase, and generate local excitations.

*Nat Commun ; 6: 8156, 2015 Aug 28.*

##### RESUMO

Superionic ice is a special group of ice phases at high temperature and pressure, which may exist in ice-rich planets and exoplanets. In superionic ice liquid hydrogen coexists with a crystalline oxygen sublattice. At high pressures, the properties of superionic ice are largely unknown. Here we report evidence that from 280 GPa to 1.3 TPa, there are several competing phases within the close-packed oxygen sublattice. At even higher pressure, the close-packed structure of the oxygen sublattice becomes unstable to a new unusual superionic phase in which the oxygen sublattice takes the P2(1)/c symmetry. We also discover that higher pressure phases have lower transition temperatures. The diffusive hydrogen in the P2(1)/c superionic phase shows strong anisotropic behaviour and forms a quasi-two-dimensional liquid. The ionic conductivity changes abruptly in the solid to close-packed superionic phase transition, but continuously in the solid to P2(1)/c superionic phase transition.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(18): 187205, 2013 Nov 01.*

##### RESUMO

The Dirac spin liquid ground state of the spin 1/2 Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet has potential instabilities. This has been suggested as the reason why it does not emerge as the ground state in large-scale numerical calculations. However, previous attempts to observe these instabilities have failed. We report on the discovery of a projected BCS state with lower energy than the projected Dirac spin liquid state which provides new insight into the stability of the ground state of the kagome antiferromagnet. The new state has three remarkable features. First, it breaks spatial symmetry in an unusual way that may leave spinons deconfined along one direction. Second, it breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry down to Z(2). Third, it has the spatial symmetry of a previously proposed "monopole" suggesting that it is an instability of the Dirac spin liquid. The state described herein also shares a remarkable similarity to the distortion of the kagome lattice observed at low Zn concentrations in Zn-paratacamite and in recently grown single crystals of volborthite suggesting it may already be realized in these materials.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(14): 146405, 2013 Apr 05.*

##### RESUMO

We perform calculations of the 3D finite-temperature homogeneous electron gas in the warm-dense regime (r(s) ≡ (3/4πn)(1/3)a(0)(-1) = 1.0-40.0 and Θ ≡ T/T(F) = 0.0625-8.0) using restricted path-integral Monte Carlo simulations. Precise energies, pair correlation functions, and structure factors are obtained. For all densities, we find a significant discrepancy between the ground state parametrized local density approximation and our results around T(F). These results can be used as a benchmark for developing finite-temperature density functionals, as well as input for orbital-free density function theory formulations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(1): 015701, 2012 Jul 06.*

##### RESUMO

We solve for the time-dependent finite-size scaling functions of the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising chain during a linear-in-time ramp of the field through the quantum critical point. We then simulate Mott-insulating bosons in a tilted potential, an experimentally studied system in the same equilibrium universality class, and demonstrate that universality holds for the dynamics as well. We find qualitatively athermal features of the scaling functions, such as negative spin correlations, and we show that they should be robustly observable within present cold atom experiments.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 8(7): 2181-8, 2012 Jul 10.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have received considerable attention over past decades due to their great promise for providing a direct solution to the many-body Schrodinger equation in electronic systems. Thanks to their low scaling with the number of particles, QMC methods present a compelling competitive alternative for the accurate study of large molecular systems and solid state calculations. In spite of such promise, the method has not permeated the quantum chemistry community broadly, mainly because of the fixed-node error, which can be large and whose control is difficult. In this Perspective, we present a systematic application of large scale multideterminant expansions in QMC and report on its impressive performance with first row dimers and the 55 molecules of the G1 test set. We demonstrate the potential of this strategy for systematically reducing the fixed-node error in the wave function and for achieving chemical accuracy in energy predictions. When compared to traditional quantum chemistry methods like MP2, CCSD(T), and various DFT approximations, the QMC results show a marked improvement over all of them. In fact, only the explicitly correlated CCSD(T) method with a large basis set produces more accurate results. Further developments in trial wave functions and algorithmic improvements appear promising for rendering QMC as the benchmark standard in large electronic systems.

*J Chem Phys ; 135(24): 244105, 2011 Dec 28.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods such as variational Monte Carlo and fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo depend heavily on the quality of the trial wave function. Although Slater-Jastrow wave functions are the most commonly used variational ansatz in electronic structure, more sophisticated wave functions are critical to ascertaining new physics. One such wave function is the multi-Slater-Jastrow wave function which consists of a Jastrow function multiplied by the sum of Slater determinants. In this paper we describe a method for working with these wave functions in QMC codes that is easy to implement, efficient both in computational speed as well as memory, and easily parallelized. The computational cost scales quadratically with particle number making this scaling no worse than the single determinant case and linear with the total number of excitations. Additionally, we implement this method and use it to compute the ground state energy of a water molecule.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 103(5): 055701, 2009 Jul 31.*

##### RESUMO

We study the Wigner crystal melting in a two-dimensional quantum system of distinguishable particles interacting via the 1/r Coulomb potential. We use quantum Monte Carlo methods to calculate its phase diagram, locate the Wigner crystal region, and analyze its instabilities towards the liquid phase. We discuss the role of quantum effects in the critical behavior of the system, and compare our numerical results with the classical theory of melting, and the microemulsion theory of frustrated Coulomb systems. We find a Pomeranchuk effect much larger then in solid helium. In addition, we find that the exponent for the algebraic decay of the hexatic phase differs significantly from the Kosterilitz-Thouless theory of melting. We search for the existence of mesoscopic phases and find evidence of metastable bubbles but no mesoscopic phase that is stable in equilibrium.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 96(10): 105302, 2006 Mar 17.*

##### RESUMO

Measurements of the moment of inertia by Kim and Chan have found that solid (4)He acts like a supersolid at low temperatures. To understand the order in solid 4(He), we have used path integral Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO) [equivalent to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)]. We do not find ODLRO in a defect-free hcp crystal of (4)He at the melting density. We discuss these results in relation to proposed quantum solid trial functions. We conclude that the solid (4)He wave function has correlations which suppress both vacancies and BEC.