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1.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the efficacy of adjuvant therapy (AT) in patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN). This single center retrospective cohort study aims to assess the impact of AT on survival in these patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing surgery for invasive IPMN between 1993 and 2018 were included in the study. We compared the clinicopathologic features and evaluated overall survival (OS) using multivariate Cox regression adjusting for adjuvant therapy, age, T and N stage, perineural and lymphovascular invasion. We also assessed survival differences between surgery alone and AT in node negative (N0) and node positive (N+) subgroups. RESULTS: 103 patients were included in the study; 69 underwent surgery alone while 34 also received AT. Patients in the AT group were significantly younger, presented at higher T and N stages and had more perineural and lymphovascular invasion. Median OS in the surgery alone group was 134 months and 65 months in the AT group, p = 0.052. On multivariate analysis, AT was not associated with improved OS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03 (0.52-2.05). In N0 patients, compared to surgery alone, AT was associated with a worse median OS (65 vs 167 months, p = 0.03), whereas in N+ patients there was a non-significant improvement (50.5 vs 20.4 months, p = 0.315). CONCLUSION: AT did not improve survival in the overall cohort even after multivariate analysis. N0 patients have excellent survival, and AT should probably be avoided in them, whereas it may be considered in patients with N+ disease.

2.
J Am Coll Surg ; 230(6): 912-924, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative complication (POC) adversely impacts long-term survival in patients with gastric cancer, perhaps due in part to lower rates for receipt of multimodality therapy (MMT). We sought to determine the impact of POC on MMT completion rates and overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 206 patients with locally advanced gastric cancer undergoing curative-intent resection from 2001 to 2015. POCs were graded using Clavien-Dindo classification and survival outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients underwent operation followed by chemoradiation therapy, 58 received perioperative chemotherapy, and 28 received total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT). Minor (Clavien-Dindo grade I to II) and major (Clavien-Dindo grade III to IV) POC occurred in 72 (35.0%) and 39 (18.9%) patients, respectively. At median follow-up of 37 months, the 3-year OS of patients experiencing a major, minor, or no POC were 33.3%, 56.9%, and 62.1% (p = 0.023), respectively. In contrast, there was no difference in 3-year OS rates in patients experiencing POC if they completed all intended MMT. Non-TNT patients who experienced a major POC were less likely to complete MMT (hazard ratio 0.36, p = 0.017), and a major POC in these patients had a significant impact on OS (hazard ratio 2.76, p = 0.011), and it did not in patients who completed MMT (hazard ratio 1.58, p = 0.336). CONCLUSIONS: Major POC adversely affects long-term survival after gastrectomy for gastric cancer, at least in part via lower completion rates of MMT. Treatment strategy designed to ensure the completion of MMT, such as TNT, might be preferable, particularly for patients at high risk for POCs.

3.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898183

RESUMO

Subsets of esophagogastric (EG) cancers harbor genetic abnormalities, including amplification of HER2, MET, or FGFR2 or mutations in PIK3CA, EGFR, or BRAF. Ganetespib which is a novel triazolone heterocyclic inhibitor of HSP90, is a potentially biologically rational treatment strategy for advanced EG cancers with these gene amplification. This multicenter, single-arm phase 2 trial enrolled patients with histologically confirmed advanced EG cancer with progression on at least one line of systemic therapy. Patients received Ganetespib 200 mg/m2 IV on Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included: Progression Free Survival (PFS); to correlate the presence of HSP clients with ORR and PFS; evaluating the safety, tolerability and adverse events profile. In this study 26 eligible patients mainly: male 77%, median age 64 years were enrolled. The most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (77%), fatigue (65%), elevated ALKP (42%), and elevated AST (38%). The most common grade 3/4 AEs included: leucopenia (12%), fatigue (12%), diarrhea (8%), and elevated ALKP (8%). The ORR of 4% reflects the single patient of 26 who had a complete response and stayed on treatment for more than seventy (70) months. Median PFS and OS was 61 days (2.0 months), 94 days (3.1 months) respectively. Ganetespib showed manageable toxicity. While the study was terminated early due to insufficient evidence of single-agent activity, the durable CR and 2 minor responses suggest that there may be a subset of EG patients who could benefit from this drug.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1877-1885, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941831

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ctDNA offers a promising, noninvasive approach to monitor therapeutic efficacy in real-time. We explored whether the quantitative percent change in ctDNA early after therapy initiation can predict treatment response and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 138 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers and tumor profiling by next-generation sequencing had serial blood draws pretreatment and at scheduled intervals during therapy. ctDNA was assessed using individualized droplet digital PCR measuring the mutant allele fraction in plasma of mutations identified in tumor biopsies. ctDNA changes were correlated with tumor markers and radiographic response. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients enrolled. A total of 101 patients were evaluable for ctDNA and 68 for tumor markers at 4 weeks. Percent change of ctDNA by 4 weeks predicted partial response (PR, P < 0.0001) and clinical benefit [CB: PR and stable disease (SD), P < 0.0001]. ctDNA decreased by 98% (median) and >30% for all PR patients. ctDNA change at 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks, also predicted CB (P < 0.0001). Four-week change in tumor markers also predicted response (P = 0.0026) and CB (P = 0.022). However, at a clinically relevant specificity threshold of 90%, 4-week ctDNA change more effectively predicted CB versus tumor markers, with a sensitivity of 60% versus 24%, respectively (P = 0.0109). Patients whose 4-week ctDNA decreased beyond this threshold (≥30% decrease) had a median PFS of 175 days versus 59.5 days (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.55-7.00; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Serial ctDNA monitoring may provide early indication of response to systemic therapy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer prior to radiographic assessments and may outperform standard tumor markers, warranting further evaluation.

5.
Nat Med ; 26(1): 47-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932802

RESUMO

MET exon 14 alterations are oncogenic drivers of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs)1. These alterations are associated with increased MET activity and preclinical sensitivity to MET inhibition2. Crizotinib is a multikinase inhibitor with potent activity against MET3. The antitumor activity and safety of crizotinib were assessed in 69 patients with advanced NSCLCs harboring MET exon 14 alterations. Objective response rate was 32% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21-45) among 65 response-evaluable patients. Objective responses were observed independent of the molecular heterogeneity that characterizes these cancers and did not vary by splice-site region and mutation type of the MET exon 14 alteration, concurrent increased MET copy number or the detection of a MET exon 14 alteration in circulating tumor DNA. The median duration of response was 9.1 months (95% CI, 6.4-12.7). The median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% CI, 5.4-9.1). MET exon 14 alteration defines a molecular subgroup of NSCLCs for which MET inhibition with crizotinib is active. These results address an unmet need for targeted therapy in people with lung cancers with MET exon 14 alterations and adds to an expanding list of genomically driven therapies for oncogenic subsets of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Éxons/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Future Oncol ; 16(1): 4289-4301, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778074

RESUMO

Aim: This first-in-human, dose-finding study evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of crizotinib and established a recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) among patients with advanced solid malignancies. Patients & methods: Patients received oral crizotinib in a 3 + 3 dose escalation design. Results: Thirty-six patients received crizotinib (50 mg once daily-300 mg twice daily); maximum tolerated dose (and RP2D) was 250 mg twice daily. Most patients (89%) experienced ≥1 treatment-related adverse event. Three patients had grade 3 dose-limiting toxicities: alanine aminotransferase increased (n = 1) and fatigue (n = 2). Generally, an increase in soluble MET was found with increasing crizotinib concentrations. Conclusion: Crizotinib demonstrated a favorable safety profile. The observed pharmacodynamic effect on soluble MET provide evidence for targeted MET inhibition by crizotinib. Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT00585195.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define short-term and long-term outcomes of IORT for the management of BR/LA PDAC in the era of modern neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). BACKGROUND: In the era of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX, many patients with borderline resectable/locally advanced (BR/LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) become candidates for surgical exploration with curative intent. IORT may be used to consolidate treatment for successfully resected patients with close or positive margins or administered in unresectable patients without distant metastases. METHODS: A retrospective review of 158 patients who received IORT in the setting of biopsy-proven BR/LA PDAC following NAT between 2008 and 2017 was performed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of FOLFIRINOX treated patients. RESULTS: Most patients (83%) received FOLFIRINOX, and 95% underwent consolidative chemoradiation therapy (50.4-58.8 Gy). Among FOLFIRINOX-treated patients, 86 underwent combined surgical resection with IORT (10 Gy) while 46 received IORT alone (15-20 Gy). The median PFS and OS were 21.5 and 46.7 months for patients who underwent resection with IORT and 14.7 and 23 months in the IORT alone group. Local progression occurred in 12.7% of patients after resection with IORT, and in 15% of patients who received IORT alone. Major complications occurred in 13% of patients following resection, and 5% of patients after IORT alone, including one death. CONCLUSION: IORT combined with surgical resection appears to be associated with improved survival and minimal morbidity in patients with positive or close margins. IORT is also associated with improved survival in patients with unresectable, non-metastatic disease.

9.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1415-1421, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501609

RESUMO

During cancer therapy, tumor heterogeneity can drive the evolution of multiple tumor subclones harboring unique resistance mechanisms in an individual patient1-3. Previous case reports and small case series have suggested that liquid biopsy (specifically, cell-free DNA (cfDNA)) may better capture the heterogeneity of acquired resistance4-8. However, the effectiveness of cfDNA versus standard single-lesion tumor biopsies has not been directly compared in larger-scale prospective cohorts of patients following progression on targeted therapy. Here, in a prospective cohort of 42 patients with molecularly defined gastrointestinal cancers and acquired resistance to targeted therapy, direct comparison of postprogression cfDNA versus tumor biopsy revealed that cfDNA more frequently identified clinically relevant resistance alterations and multiple resistance mechanisms, detecting resistance alterations not found in the matched tumor biopsy in 78% of cases. Whole-exome sequencing of serial cfDNA, tumor biopsies and rapid autopsy specimens elucidated substantial geographic and evolutionary differences across lesions. Our data suggest that acquired resistance is frequently characterized by profound tumor heterogeneity, and that the emergence of multiple resistance alterations in an individual patient may represent the 'rule' rather than the 'exception'. These findings have profound therapeutic implications and highlight the potential advantages of cfDNA over tissue biopsy in the setting of acquired resistance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/sangue , Biópsia Líquida , Autopsia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Estudos de Coortes , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(11): 2260-2269, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359108

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PET/MR induced management changes versus standard of care imaging (SCI) in treated colorectal cancer patients. The secondary aim was to assess the staging performance of PET/MR and of SCI versus the final oncologic stage. METHODS: Treated CRC patients who underwent PET/MR with 18F-FDG and SCI between January 2016 and October 2018 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their medical records were evaluated to ascertain if PET/MR had impacted on their clinical management versus SCI. The final oncologic stage, as reported in the electronic medical record, was considered the true stage of disease. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients who underwent 42 PET/MR studies were included, mean age 56.7 years (range 39-75 years), 26 males, and 13 females. PET/MR changed clinical management 15/42 times (35.7%, standard error ± 7.4%); these 15 changes in management were due to upstaging in 9/42 (21.5%) and downstaging in 6/42 (14.2%). The differences in management prompted by SCI versus PET/MR were statistically significant, and PET/MR outperformed SCI (P value < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.8). In relation to the secondary outcome, PET/MR outperformed the SCI in accuracy of oncologic staging (P value = 0.016; odds ratio = 4.6). CONCLUSIONS: PET/MR is a promising imaging tool in the evaluation of treated CRC and might change the management in these patients. However, multicenter prospective studies with larger patient samples are required in order to confirm these preliminary results.

11.
Lung Cancer ; 133: 96-102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although dramatic responses to MET inhibitors have been reported in patients with MET exon 14 (METex14) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the impact of these treatments on overall survival in this population is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with METex14 NSCLC to determine if treatment with MET inhibitors impacts median overall survival (mOS). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: We identified 148 patients with METex14 NSCLC; the median age was 72; 57% were women and 39% were never smokers. Of the 34 metastatic patients who never received a MET inhibitor, the mOS was 8.1 months; those in this group with concurrent MET amplification had a trend toward worse survival compared to cancers without MET amplification (5.2 months vs 10.5 months, P = 0.06). Of the 27 metastatic patients who received at least one MET inhibitor the mOS was 24.6 months. A model adjusting for receipt of a MET inhibitor as first- or second-line therapy as a time-dependent covariate demonstrated that treatment with a MET inhibitor was associated with a significant prolongation in survival (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.92, P = 0.04) compared to patients who did not receive any MET inhibitor. Among 22 patients treated with crizotinib, the median progression-free survival was 7.4 months. DISCUSSION: For patients with METex14 NSCLC, treatment with a MET inhibitor is associated with an improvement in overall survival.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(7): 1020-1027, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145418

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have historically poor outcomes. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach is warranted. Objective: To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) and losartan followed by chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-arm phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital from August 22, 2013, to May 22, 2018, among 49 patients with previously untreated locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer as determined by multidisciplinary review. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 17.1 months (range, 5.0-53.7) among 27 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions: Patients received FOLFIRINOX and losartan for 8 cycles. Patients with radiographically resectable tumor after chemotherapy received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 GyE × 5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy with a vascular boost to 58.8 Gy) with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures: R0 resection rate. Results: Of the 49 patients (26 women and 23 men; median age 63 years [range, 42-78 years]), 39 completed 8 cycles of FOLFIRINOX and losartan; 10 patients had fewer than 8 cycles due to progression (5 patients), losartan intolerance (3 patients), and toxicity (2 patients). Seven patients (16%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy while 38 (84%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two (86%) patients underwent attempted surgery, with R0 resection achieved in 34 of 49 patients (69%; 95% CI, 55%-82%). Overall median progression-free survival was 17.5 months (95% CI: 13.9-22.7) and median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 18.1-38.5). Among patients who underwent resection, median progression-free survival was 21.3 months (95% CI, 16.6-28.2), and median overall survival was 33.0 months (95% CI, 31.4 to not reached). Conclusions and Relevance: Total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, losartan, and chemoradiotherapy provides downstaging of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is associated with an R0 resection rate of 61%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01821729.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia , Losartan/administração & dosagem , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Losartan/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(1): 90-95, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Definitive chemoradiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/mitomycin C (MMC) is an effective treatment for localized anal cancer, but it is associated with significant acute long-term treatment-related toxicity. Pencil beam scanning proton beam (PBS-PT) radiation therapy may potentially reduce this toxicity. This is a multi-institutional pilot study evaluating the feasibility of definitive concurrent chemoradiation with PBS-PT in combination with 5-FU and MMC for carcinoma of the anal canal. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients were enrolled on a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, prospective, multi-institutional, single-arm pilot study (NCT01858025). Key eligibility criteria included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 2, age ≥18 years, histologically confirmed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and clinically staged T1-4, N0-3 disease. Patients were treated with PBS-PT per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0529 dose schema and concurrent 5-FU/MMC on day 1 and 29. The primary objective of this study was to determine feasibility of PBS-PT with concurrent 5-FU/MMC, defined as grade 3+ dermatologic toxicity less than 48% (reported grade 3+ dermatologic toxicity from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11). Secondary objectives were to determine the rates of overall grade 3+ toxicities, clinical complete response rate, and disease outcomes. RESULTS: Between February 2014 and April 2017, we enrolled 25 patients into our study, all of whom were analyzed. Twenty-three patients (92%) completed treatment per protocol, and 2 patients died on treatment. Median time to completion of treatment was 42 days (range, 38-49). The grade 3+ radiation dermatitis rate was 24%. Median follow-up is 27 months (range, 21-50) among the 21 patients still alive. The overall rate of clinical complete response was 88%. The 2-year local failure, colostomy-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival are 12%, 72%, 80%, and 84%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our prospective, multi-institutional pilot study of PBS-PT with concurrent 5-FU/MMC, PBS-PT was found to be feasible. A phase 2 study of proton beam radiation therapy is currently underway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Radiodermatite/patologia , Idoso , Canal Anal , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Colostomia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitomicina/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
14.
Cancer ; 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiangiogenic therapy is a proven therapeutic modality for refractory gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. This trial assessed whether the addition of a high affinity angiogenesis inhibitor, ziv-aflibercept, could improve the efficacy of first-line mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and bolus plus infusional 5- fluorouracil) in metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Patients with treatment-naive metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to receive first-line mFOLFOX6 with or without ziv-aflibercept (4 mg/kg) every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were randomized to receive mFOLFOX6 and ziv-aflibercept (43 patients) or mFOLFOX6 and a placebo (21 patients). There was no difference in the PFS, overall survival, or response rate. Patients treated with mFOLFOX6/ziv-aflibercept tended to be more likely to discontinue study treatment for reasons other than progressive disease (P = .06). The relative dose intensity of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil was lower in the mFOLFOX6/ziv-aflibercept arm during the first 12 and 24 weeks of the trial. There were 2 treatment-related deaths due to cerebral hemorrhage and bowel perforation in the mFOLFOX6/ziv-aflibercept cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Ziv-aflibercept did not increase the anti-tumor activity of first-line mFOLFOX6 in metastatic esophagogastric cancer, potentially because of decreased dose intensity of FOLFOX. Further evaluation of ziv-aflibercept in unselected, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma is not warranted.

15.
Oncologist ; 24(6): e275-e283, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the tumor-immune microenvironment in pretreatment, localized anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC), including two markers that have not previously been studied in ASCC: indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review identified 63 patients with ASCC receiving definitive chemoradiation between 2005 and 2016 with pretreatment tissue available. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8), programmed cell death protein 1, programmed death-ligand 1, HLA class I, and IDO1. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between outcomes and immune markers, controlling for clinical characteristics. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 35 months, 3-year overall survival was 78%. The only marker found to have a robust association with outcome was tumor IDO1. In general, the percentage of tumor cells expressing IDO1 was low (median 1%, interquartile range 0%-20%); however, patients with >50% of tumor cells expressing IDO1 had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 4.7, p = .007) as well as higher local recurrence (HR 8.6, p = .0005) and distant metastasis (HR 12.7, p = .0002). Tumors with >50% IDO1 were also more likely to have the lowest quartile of CD8 infiltrate (<40 per high-power field, p = .024). CONCLUSION: ASCC has a diverse immune milieu. Although patients generally do well with standard therapy, IDO1 may serve as a prognostic indicator of poor outcome and could help identify a patient population that might benefit from IDO-targeted therapies. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: After definitive chemoradiation, patients with locally advanced anal cancer may experience significant treatment morbidity and high risk of recurrence. The goal of the current study is to identify novel prognostic factors in the tumor-immune microenvironment that predict for poor outcomes after definitive chemoradiation. This study characterizes the tumor-immune microenvironment in pre-treatment, localized anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC), including two markers which have not previously been studied in ASCC: indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and HLA class I. With a median follow-up of 3 years, this study demonstrated that high IDO1 expression is correlated with significantly worse 3-year overall survival (88% vs. 25%). Whereas recent studies of IDO1 inhibitors have shown mixed results, this study suggests that patients with anal cancer with high IDO1 expression have dismal prognosis and may represent a patient population primed for response to targeted IDO1 inhibition.

16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(1): 64-72, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684667

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ablative radiation therapy is increasingly being used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resulting in excellent local control rates; however, patients without evidence of disease progression often die from liver failure. The clinical benefit of proton- over photon-based radiation therapy is unclear. We therefore sought to compare clinical outcomes of proton versus photon ablative radiation therapy in patients with unresectable HCC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This is a single-institution retrospective study of patients treated during 2008 to 2017 with nonmetastatic, unresectable HCC not previously treated with liver-directed radiation therapy and who did not receive further liver-directed radiation therapy within 12 months after completion of index treatment. The primary outcome, overall survival (OS), was assessed using Cox regression. Secondary endpoints included incidence of non-classic radiation-induced liver disease (defined as increase in baseline Child-Pugh score by ≥2 points at 3 months posttreatment), assessed using logistic regression, and locoregional recurrence, assessed using Fine-Gray regression for competing risks. All outcomes were measured from radiation start date. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 14 months. Of 133 patients with median age 68 years and 75% male, 49 (37%) were treated with proton radiation therapy. Proton radiation therapy was associated with improved OS (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.47; P = .008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.82). The median OS for proton and photon patients was 31 and 14 months, respectively, and the 24-month OS for proton and photon patients was 59.1% and 28.6%, respectively. Proton radiation therapy was also associated with a decreased risk of non-classic radiation-induced liver disease (odds ratio, 0.26; P = .03; 95% CI, 0.08-0.86). Development of nonclassic RILD at 3 months was associated with worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.83; P < .001; 95% CI, 2.12-6.92). There was no difference in locoregional recurrence, including local failure, between protons and photons. CONCLUSIONS: Proton radiation therapy was associated with improved survival, which may be driven by decreased incidence of posttreatment liver decompensation. Our findings support prospective investigations comparing proton versus photon ablative radiation therapy for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Falência Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Hepática/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fótons/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Prótons/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cancer ; 125(2): 278-289, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)/mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) show a significant response to checkpoint inhibitor therapies, but the economic impact of these therapies is unknown. A decision analytic model was used to explore the effectiveness and cost burden of MSI-H/dMMR mCRC treatment. METHODS: The treatment of hypothetical patients with MSI-H/dMMR mCRC was simulated in 2 treatment scenarios: a third-line treatment and an exploratory first-line treatment. The treatments compared were nivolumab, ipilimumab and nivolumab, trifluridine and tipiracil (third-line treatment), and mFOLFOX6 and cetuximab (first-line treatment). Disease progression, drug toxicity, and survival rates were based on the CheckMate 142, study of TAS-102 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapies (RECOURSE), and Cancer and Leukemia Group B/Southwest Oncology Group 80405 trials. The analyzed outcomes included survival (life-years), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS: Ipilimumab with nivolumab was the most effective strategy (10.69 life-years and 9.25 QALYs for the third line; 10.69 life-years and 9.44 QALYs for the first line) in comparison with nivolumab (8.21 life-years and 6.76 QALYs for the third line; 8.21 life-years and 7.00 QALYs for the first line), trifluridine and tipiracil (0.74 life-years and 0.07 QALYs), and mFOLFOX6 and cetuximab (2.72 life-years and 1.63 QALYs). However, neither checkpoint inhibitor therapy was cost-effective in comparison with trifluridine and tipiracil (nivolumab ICER, $153,000; ipilimumab and nivolumab ICER, $162,700) or mFOLFOX6 and cetuximab (nivolumab ICER, $150,700; ipilimumab and nivolumab ICER, $158,700). CONCLUSIONS: This modeling analysis found that both single and dual checkpoint blockade could be significantly more effective for MSI-H/dMMR mCRC than chemotherapy, but they were not cost-effective, largely because of drug costs. Decreases in drug pricing and/or the duration of maintenance nivolumab could make ipilimumab and nivolumab cost-effective. Prospective clinical trials should be performed to explore the optimal duration of maintenance nivolumab.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/economia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/economia , Leucovorina/economia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/economia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/economia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
18.
Oncologist ; 24(2): 193-201, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In nongastric gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, HER2-positive (HER2+) disease is not common. In breast cancer, HER2 status is associated with increased risk of brain metastases and response to HER2-targeted therapy. The purpose of this project was to compare HER2 status in GI cancer brain metastases versus matched prior sites of disease in order to determine if HER2+ disease is more common intracranially. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 28 patients with GI cancer who had craniotomy for brain metastases between 1999 and 2017 with intracranial metastatic tissue available at Massachusetts General Hospital. Twenty-four patients also had tissue from a prior site of disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2 were performed on all samples. A tumor was defined as HER2+ if it had 3+ staining by IHC or amplification by FISH. RESULTS: A prior site of disease (including intracranial metastases) was HER2+ for 13% of evaluable patients: 3 of 11 patients with colorectal cancer and no patients with esophageal or pancreatic cancer. The most recent brain metastases were HER2+ for 32% of patients: 2 of 3 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 3 of 10 esophageal adenocarcinomas (ACs), 3 of 14 colorectal ACs, and 1 of 1 pancreatic AC. Only 37.5% of patients with HER2+ brain metastasis had concordant HER2+ prior tissue (κ = 0.38, p = .017). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients with GI cancer with brain metastases, HER2+ status was more common intracranially compared with prior sites of disease. These findings suggest that testing HER2 in patients with GI cancer with brain metastases may lead to additional therapeutic options, regardless of HER2 status in previously examined tissue. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: HER2 amplification is a well-known driver of oncogenesis in breast cancer, with associated increased risk of brain metastases and response to HER2-directed therapy. In nongastric gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, HER2 amplification is not common and consequently is infrequently tested. The current study shows that brain metastases in patients with GI primary malignancies have a relatively high likelihood of being HER2 positive despite HER2 amplification or overexpression being less commonly found in matched tissue from prior sites of disease. This suggests that regardless of prior molecular testing, patients with GI cancer with brain metastases who have tissue available are likely to benefit from HER2 assessment to identify potential novel therapeutic options.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(1): 80-89, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190369

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sorafenib is a standard first-line treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The phase III SHARP trial showed a median time-to-progression (mTTP) of 5.5 months, overall response rate (ORR) of 2%, and median overall survival (mOS) of 10.7 months with sorafenib. FOLFOX4 has shown modest activity in advanced HCC. We evaluated the combination of sorafenib and modified (m)FOLFOX in a single-arm, multicenter phase II study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included Child-Pugh A patients with advanced HCC and no prior systemic therapies. Patients received sorafenib 400 mg twice a day for 2 weeks, followed by concurrent mFOLFOX [5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 1,200 mg/m2/day for 46 hours, leucovorin 200 mg/m2, and oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 biweekly]. The primary endpoint was mTTP with an alternative hypothesis of 7 months, and secondary endpoints included ORR, mOS, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: The study enrolled 40 patients: HCV/EtOH/HBV, 43%/28%/13%; Child-Pugh A5, 70%. Notable grade 3/4 adverse events (AE) included AST/ALT elevation (28%/15%), diarrhea (13%), hyperbilirubinemia (10%), hand-foot syndrome (8%), and bleeding (8%). mTTP was 7.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4-8.9], ORR 18%, and mOS 15.1 months (7.9-16.9). Sorafenib + mFOLFOX increased plasma PlGF, VEGF-D, sVEGFR1, IL12p70, and CAIX and CD4+ and CD8+ effector T lymphocytes and decreased plasma sVEGFR2 and s-c-KIT and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Shorter TTP was associated with high baseline sVEGFR1. Shorter TTP and OS were associated with increases in Tregs and CD56Dim natural killer (NK) cells after sorafenib alone and plasma sMET after combination treatment (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib + mFOLFOX met the prespecified endpoint with encouraging efficacy but moderate hepatotoxicity. Thus, this regimen may be effective in select patients with adequate liver reserve. Biomarker evaluations suggested a correlation between time-to-progression (TTP) and angiogenic biomarkers and circulating Tregs.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CD56 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
20.
Ann Surg ; 269(4): 733-740, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether preoperative factors can predict resectability of borderline resectable (BR) and locally advanced (LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX, (2) which patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy, and (3) survival differences between resected BR/LA patients who received neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and upfront resected patients. BACKGROUND: Patients with BR/LA PDAC are often treated with FOLFIRINOX to obtain a margin-negative resection, yet selection of patients for resection remains challenging. METHODS: Clinicopathologic data of PDAC patients surgically explored between 04/2011-11/2016 in a single institution were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Following neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX, 141 patients were surgically explored (BR: 49%, LA: 51%) and 110 (78%) were resected. Resected patients had lower preoperative CA 19-9 levels (21 vs 40 U/mL, P = 0.03) and smaller tumors on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan (2.3 vs 3.0 cm, P = 0.03), but no predictors of resectability were identified. Median overall survival (OS) was 34.2 months from diagnosis for all FOLFIRINOX patients and 37.7 months for resected patients. Among resected patients, preoperative CA 19-9 >100 U/mL and >8 months between diagnosis and surgery predicted a shorter postoperative disease-free survival (DFS); Charlson comorbidity index >1, preoperative CA 19-9 >100 U/mL and tumor size (>3.0 cm on CT or >2.5 cm on pathology) predicted decreased OS. DFS and OS were significantly better for BR/LA PDAC patients treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX compared with upfront resected patients (DFS: 29.1 vs 13.7, P < 0.001; OS: 37.7 vs 25.1 months from diagnosis, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: BR/LA PDAC patients with no progression on neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX should be offered surgical exploration. Except size, traditional pathological parameters fail to predict survival among resected FOLFIRINOX patients. Resected FOLFIRINOX patients have survival that appears to be superior than that of resectable patients who go directly to surgery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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