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1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 77, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Claudin-2 expression is upregulated in multiple cancers and promotes cancer malignancy. Remarkably, the regulation of claudin-2 expression in kidney cell lines contrasts its reported regulation in other organs. However, claudin-2 role in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown despite its predominant expression in the proximal tubular epithelium (PTE), the site of RCC origin. METHODS: Publicly available and independent patient databases were examined for claudin-2 association with RCC. The novel protein function was validated in vitro and in vivo by gain or loss of function assays. Mechanistic results were concluded by Mass spectroscopy, immunoprecipitation and mutational studies, and functional evaluations. RESULTS: We show that the significant decrease in claudin-2 expression characterized PTE cells and Ex-vivo cultured mouse kidney subjected to dedifferentiation. Inhibition of claudin-2 was enough to induce mesenchymal plasticity and invasive mobility in these models. Further, a progressive loss of claudin-2 expression associated with the RCC progression and poor patient survival. Overexpression of claudin-2 in RCC-derived cancer cells inhibited tumorigenic abilities and xenograft tumor growth. These data supported a novel tumor-suppressive role of claudin-2 in RCC. Mechanistic insights further revealed that claudin-2 associates with YAP-protein and modulates its phosphorylation (S127) and nuclear expression. The tumor suppressive effects of claudin-2 expression were lost upon deletion of its PDZ-binding motif emphasizing the critical role of the PDZ-domain in claudin-2 interaction with YAP in regulating RCC malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a novel kidney specific tumor suppressive role for claudin-2 protein and further demonstrate that claudin-2 co-operates with the YAP signaling in regulating the RCC malignancy.

2.
Urology ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of socioeconomic parameters on urinary stone surgeries. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study analyzed patients undergoing urolithiasis surgery in our community network hospital in North Carolina from 2005-2018. RESULTS: Of 7731 patients, 2160 (28%), 5,174 (67%), and 397 (5%) underwent SWL, URS, and PCNL, respectively. A higher proportion of Whites underwent URS (67%) and SWL (74%) than PCNL (56%); whereas a larger percentage of Blacks underwent PCNL (24%) than URS (20%) and SWL (15%) groups (P <.001). Private insurance payers were greater in the SWL (95%) group than URS (80%) and PCNL (81%) (P <.001). The distribution of median income was significantly different amongst the 3 surgeries with higher income classes overutilizing SWL and underutilizing PCNL compared to lower income classes (P <.001). In linear regression modeling, the proportion of SWL in a postal code was positively associated with median income (R2=0.55, P <.001); URS and PCNL were negatively associated with median income (R2=0.40, P <.001 and R2=0.41, P <.001, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression modeling, Blacks were significantly more likely to undergo PCNL than Whites (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.74 P <.050). Private insurance payers were more likely to undergo SWL (aOR 11.0, 95% CI 7.26-16.8, P <.0001) than public insurance payers. Patients in higher median income brackets are significantly less likely to undergo PCNL than those in the <$40,000 income bracket (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that socioeconomic status impacts urolithiasis surgical management, underscoring disparity recognition importance in endourologic care and ensuring appropriate surgical care regardless of socioeconomic status.

3.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298586

RESUMO

Castration-resistant prostate cancer can be treated with the anti-androgen enzalutamide, but responses and duration of response are variable. To identify genes that support enzalutamide resistance, we performed a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen in the bone-homing, castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line, C4-2B. We identified eleven genes (TFAP2C, CAD, SPDEF, EIF6, GABRG2, CDC37, PSMD12, COL5A2, AR, MAP3K11, and ACAT1), whose loss resulted in decreased cell survival in response to enzalutamide. To validate our screen, we performed transient knockdowns in C4-2B and 22Rv1 cells and evaluated cell survival in response to enzalutamide. Through these studies, we validated three genes (ACAT1, MAP3K11, and PSMD12) as supporters of enzalutamide resistance in vitro. Although ACAT1 expression is lower in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer samples versus primary prostate cancer samples, knockdown of ACAT1 was sufficient to reduce cell survival in C4-2B and 22Rv1 cells. MAP3K11 expression increases with Gleason grade, and the highest expression is observed in metastatic castration-resistant disease. Knockdown of MAP3K11 reduced cell survival and pharmacologic inhibition of MAP3K11 with CEP-1347 in combination with enzalutamide resulted in a dramatic increase in cell death. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of AR-Serine650, which is required for maximal AR activation. Finally, while PSMD12 expression did not change during disease progression, knockdown of PSMD12 resulted in decreased AR and AR splice variant expression, likely contributing to the C4-2B and 22Rv1 decrease in cell survival. Our study has therefore identified at least three new supporters of enzalutamide resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro.

4.
Hum Pathol ; 107: 96-103, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121981

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression occurs in 5-10% of primary urothelial carcinomas (UCs) but has not reliably predicted benefit from HER2-targeted agents in the metastatic setting. HER2 testing of primary tumors may not reflect the HER2 status of distant metastases. We assessed the concordance of HER2 expression in paired primary and distant metastatic UC lesions. Specimens from 149 patients with metastatic UC underwent immunohistochemical staining for HER2, including 79 paired primary and distant metastatic tumors. HER2 status was defined using 2018 ASCO/CAP guidelines. HER2 intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) was defined as HER2 3+ expression in 5-50% of tumor cells. The HER2-positive, -equivocal, and -negative rates observed were 10.6%, 24.7%, and 64.7% for primary tumors and 9.8%, 12.6%, and 77.6% for metastatic tumors, respectively. HER2 ITH occurred in 44% of HER2-positive primary tumors. Low agreement of HER2-positive status between primary and metastatic tumors was observed (к = 0.193, P = 0.079). Loss of HER2 overexpression in the metastatic lesion was observed in 55% (5 of 9 cases) of HER2-positive primary cases and was associated with the presence of HER2 ITH in the primary tumor (Fisher's exact P = 0.048). Change from negative primary to positive metastasis was seen in 2% (1 of 50) of cases. No differences in metastasis-free survival or overall survival were observed in accordance with HER2 status defined by either the primary or metastatic lesion. These findings are likely to impact patient selection for HER2 targeted therapies in UC. Confirmation and evaluation of the clinical significance of HER2 discordance is warranted, preferably in the context of a clinical trial.

5.
Arab J Urol ; 18(3): 163-168, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029426

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate complications and treatment failure rates of percutaneous renal cryoablation (PRC) for small renal masses under local anaesthesia and conscious sedation (LACS), to assess the safety and effectiveness of this approach, as PRC is typically performed under general anaesthesia (GA). Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed PRC under LACS from 2003 to 2017. We analysed perioperative parameters between patients who successfully underwent PRC under LACS and patients with post-procedural complications or treatment failure (renal mass enhancement after successful intraoperative tumour ablation). Two-sided non-parametric and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare uncomplicated or disease-free PRC with the complication or treatment failure group, respectively. Results: A total of 100 PRCs under LACS were performed during the study period. Of these patients, six patients had at least one postoperative complication (6%), and treatment failure was diagnosed in nine patients (9%) after PRC [mean (SD) follow-up of 42.7 (26.6) months]. The procedural failure rate was 1%. No ablations were converted to GA. The mean tumour size was smaller in patients who had no complications during PRC compared to those who did, at a mean (SD) of 2.2 (0.6) cm vs 3.0 (1.0) cm (P = 0.039). The use of more intraoperative probes during the PRC was also associated with complications, at a mean (SD) 3.0 (1.4) vs 1.8 (0.8) (P = 0.021). Conclusions: PRC under LACS is an effective and safe procedural approach for managing small renal masses with low complication, treatment failure, and procedural failure rates. Larger renal masses and intraoperative use of multiple probes is associated with an increased risk of PRC complications. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; CCI: Charlson Comorbidity Index; GA: general anaesthesia; LACS: local anaesthesia and conscious sedation; PRC: percutaneous renal cryoablation; R.E.N.A.L.: Radius, Exophytic/Endophytic, Nearness, Anterior/Posterior, Location.

6.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(9): R357-R374, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744242

RESUMO

Substantial management changes in endocrine-related malignancies have been required as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including a draconian reduction in the screening of asymptomatic subjects, delay in planned surgery and radiotherapy for primary tumors deemed to be indolent, and dose reductions and/or delays in initiation of some systemic therapies. An added key factor has been a patient-initiated delay in the presentation because of the fear of viral infection. Patterns of clinical consultation have changed, including a greater level of virtual visits, physical spacing, masking, staffing changes to ensure a COVID-free population and significant changes in patterns of family involvement. While this has occurred to improve safety from COVID-19 infection, the implications for cancer outcomes have not yet been defined. Based on prior epidemics and financial recessions, it is likely that delayed presentation and treatment of high-grade malignancy will be associated with worse cancer outcomes. Cancer patients are also at increased risk from COVID-19 infection compared to the general population. Pandemic management strategies for patients with tumors of breast, prostate, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal gland are reviewed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias das Glândulas Endócrinas/terapia , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Endócrinas/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
7.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1058-1070, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most prostate cancers express androgen receptor (AR), and our previous studies have focused on identifying transcription factors that modify AR function. We have shown that nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) regulates AR activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, the status of NFIB in prostate cancer was unknown. METHODS: We immunostained a tissue microarray including normal, hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary prostatic adenocarcinoma, and castration-resistant prostate cancer tissue samples for NFIB, AR, and synaptophysin, a marker of neuroendocrine differentiation. We interrogated publically available data sets in cBioPortal to correlate NFIB expression and AR and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) activity scores. We analyzed prostate cancer cell lines for NFIB expression via Western blot analysis and used nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation to assess where NFIB is localized. We performed co-immunoprecipitation studies to determine if NFIB and AR interact. RESULTS: NFIB increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm of prostate cancer samples versus matched normal controls, independent of Gleason score. Similarly, cytoplasmic AR and synaptophysin increased in primary prostate cancer. We observed strong NFIB staining in primary small cell prostate cancer. The ratio of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear NFIB staining was predictive of earlier biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, once adjusted for tumor margin status. Cytoplasmic AR was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference between NFIB and synaptophysin expression in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer, but cytoplasmic AR expression was increased in castration-resistant samples. In primary prostate cancer, nuclear NFIB expression correlated with cytoplasmic NFIB and nuclear AR, while cytoplasmic NFIB correlated with synaptophysin, and nuclear and cytoplasmic AR. In castration-resistant prostate cancer samples, NFIB expression correlated positively with an AR activity score, and negatively with the NEPCa score. In prostate cancer cell lines, NFIB exists in several isoforms. We observed NFIB predominantly in the nuclear fraction of prostate cancer cells with increased cytoplasmic expression seen in castration-resistant cell lines. We observed an interaction between AR and NFIB through co-immunoprecipitation experiments. CONCLUSION: We have described the expression pattern of NFIB in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer and its positive correlation with AR. We have also demonstrated AR interacts with NFIB.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição NFI/biossíntese , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
8.
Urology ; 142: 131-132, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709439
9.
Turk J Urol ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines recommend 4 weeks of thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients who undergo major surgery for solid malignancies. However, there are limited head-to-head comparisons of risk of venous thromboembolic complications in patients with and without cancer undergoing similar surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare risk of venous thromboembolic complications following major renal surgery and cystectomy between patients with and without cancer at the time of surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the nationwide Danish National Patient Registry, which captures all hospital contacts, including surgical procedures, we identified 8,645 patients who underwent major renal surgery (4,273 without cancer and 4,372 with cancer) and 2,164 patients who underwent cystectomy (359 without cancer and 1,805 with cancer) in 2000-2009. The rate of venous thromboembolic events within 6 months from surgery was compared for patients with and without cancer after stratification on organ using Chi-squared test. RESULTS: There was no difference in the rate of venous thromboembolic complications within the first 6 months after major renal surgery (0.4% and 0.3% [p=0.91]) or cystectomy (1.3% and 0.8% [p=0.44]) for patients with and without cancer. The cost for 28 days of Tinzaparin 4.500 IE administered by the patient was €112, whereas the cost if administered by a community nurse was €1.988. CONCLUSIONS: Our study questions the different recommendations in thromboembolic prophylaxis between patients with and without cancer after major renal surgery and cystectomy.

10.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

11.
Urology ; 143: 186-193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure differences in post-operative opioid usage and pain scores between pre- and post-Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) radical cystectomy (RC) patients in an effort to optimize outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a single institution from January 1, 2015 to July 31, 2018 among 86 and 108 pre- and post-ERAS RC patients. The primary endpoints were total mean opioid usage (morphine equivalent daily dosing or MEDD) and mean pain scores (Visual Analog Scale) on postoperative days (POD) 1-3. Secondary endpoints were number of opioid pills prescribed at discharge and within 30 days of discharge. Multivariable model selection was carried out with forward selection and backward elimination to identify variables associated with key outcomes. RESULTS: Total mean usage of opioids and mean pain scores were significantly lower in post-ERAS vs pre-ERAS patients across POD 1-3, respectively (32.90 MEDD vs 99.86 MEDD, P ≤ .001; 3.51 vs 4.17, P = .003). The median number of opioid pills prescribed at discharge was significantly lower in the post-ERAS group compared to pre-ERAS (30 pills vs 45 pills, P = .046) as well as the median number opioid pills prescribed within 30 days of discharge (40 pills vs 50 pills, P = .001). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that a dedicated ERAS protocol following RC might be superior to traditional, non-ERAS methods in reducing postoperative opioid use and pain scores.

12.
World J Urol ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303901

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aim to assess the safety of decreasing ureteral stenting duration following Radical Cystectomy with Urinary Diversion (RCUD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed a prospectively and retrospectively collected dataset for cystectomy patients at our tertiary center. Adult patient who underwent RCUD for malignancy from January 2013 to February 2018 were included. Patients with a history of abdominal/pelvic radiation and continent diversions were excluded. The patient population was divided to late stent removal group (LSR-POD 14) and early stent removal group (ESR-POD5). Our endpoints were total stent duration, 90-day readmission, 90-day total-UTI, 90-day urinary-readmissions, complications and Ureteroenteric Stricture (UES) rates. Statistical methods included t test, Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were included in the final analysis after inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied. The LSR (n = 74) and ESR (n = 104) groups were similar in preoperative characteristics except higher intracorporeal ileal conduit formation in ESR. The duration of stenting decreased significantly from approximately 15.5-5 days (P < 0.001). The LSR had higher 90-day overall readmission rates (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.19-5.53, P = 0.016) and total-UTIs (OR = 2.36, 95%CI 1.11-5.04, P = 0.026). With a median follow-up of 9.8 months, UES was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Shorter ureteral stent duration is a safe and non-inferior option following RCUD. It allows for stent removal prior to discharge and less outpatient visits. In addition, decreasing stent duration was linked decreased readmissions and total-UTIs without increased risk of UES. However, future studies are needed to establish causality and promote stent duration change.

13.
Urol Oncol ; 37(12): 900-906, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) confers a poor prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The prognostic value of high aurora kinase B (AURKB) expression in local bladder cancer is not well defined, and whether the prognostic value of either AURKA or AURKB is affected by the use of chemotherapy is unknown. We sought to characterize the impact of high AURKA and AURKB expression on clinical outcome in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for AURKA and AURKB was performed on pretreatment diagnostic transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and matched cystectomy specimens in 50 subjects with MIBC who received NAC. Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) were calculated to assess the impact of AURKA and AURKB expression on pathologic response rate. Kaplan-Meier techniques and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Twenty-two of 50 [44%] patients had residual muscle-invasive (ypT2-4) urothelial carcinoma after NAC. Neither baseline tumor expression of AURKA (ROC = 0.57, P = 0.46) nor AURKB (ROC = 0.56, P = 0.87) predicted for ypT2-4 status. However, baseline expression of AURKA above the 75th percentile for this cohort was associated with an inferior RFS, (HR = 3.88, P = 0.008) and OS, (HR = 6.10, P < 0.001). Similar trends for worse survival outcomes were also observed for high AURKB levels (RFS, [HR = 2.2, P = 0.13] and OS, (HR = 2.25, P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: High baseline tumor AURKA and AURKB expression identified MIBC patients with inferior RFS and OS despite the use of NAC and may identify patients who should be prioritized for clinical trial enrollment rather than standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Aurora Quinase B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Cistectomia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
Urol Oncol ; 37(5): 299.e19-299.e25, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660491

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting PD-(L)1 are effective in select patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). High PD-L1 expression enriches for response to ICIs; however, the predictive value of PD-L1 expression is limited, which may be due in part to dynamic expression of PD-L1 in the tumor environment. We sought to characterize PD-L1 expression in primary UC and paired metastatic lesions to gain insight into the potential discordance of tumor PD-L1 expression during the metastatic process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for PD-L1 using the SP-142 antibody was performed on primary tumors and matched metastatic specimens in 77 evaluable subjects with advanced UC. Immunohistochemical staining was scored for the percentage of cells positive (<5%, ≥5%) in tumor cell (TC) and immune cell (IC) compartments. Correlation of PD-L1 expression in TCs and ICs was estimated using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rho, ρ). Cohen's kappa statistics (κ) were utilized to assess the agreement in PD-L1 expression between groups. RESULTS: High (≥5%) PD-L1 expression in primary and metastatic biopsies, respectively, was observed in 6.0% and 7.7% of TCs and in 14.5% and 11.5% of ICs. IC PD-L1 expression in primary tumors was not correlated with IC PD-L1 expression in paired metastatic lesions (ρ = 0.05, P = 0.67) and there was poor agreement in high expression rates between primary and metastatic lesions in the IC compartment (κ= 0.086). CONCLUSION: High PD-L1 IC expression is temporally and spatially discordant between primary and metastatic UC lesions. Future studies of PD-(L)1 targeted therapies in patients with metastatic UC may benefit from use of fresh biopsies of metastatic lesions to define PD-L1 expression when feasible.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/secundário , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(4): 785-790, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579967

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common and important complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Reactivation of BK virus is its most common cause. The more intense immunosuppressive regimens administered to recipients of grafts from alternative donors have been reported to account for the increased susceptibility to HC in this population. This study compares patients undergoing HCT with either a haploidentical donor or a matched related donor, all of whom received identical immunosuppression with a post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based regimen. The incidence of HC was significantly higher in the patients receiving a haploidentical graft (P = .01). The higher incidence of HC in haploidentical graft recipients is therefore directly related to the inherent immune deficiency that follows HLA-mismatched transplantation, independent of the intensity of pharmacologic immunosuppression. This finding carries significant clinical impact for the prevention and treatment of HC in haploidentical graft recipients.


Assuntos
Cistite/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Haploidêntico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Urol ; 201(3): 470-477, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We designed a prospective randomized, controlled pilot trial to investigate the effects of an enriched oral nutrition supplement on body composition and clinical outcomes following radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 61 patients were randomized to an oral nutrition supplement or a multivitamin multimineral supplement twice daily during an 8-week perioperative period. Body composition was determined by analyzing abdominal computerized tomography images at the L3 vertebra. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index of less than 55 cm/m in males and less than 39 cm/m in females. The primary outcome was the difference in 30-day hospital free days. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, complications, readmissions and mortality. RESULTS: The oral nutrition supplement group lost less weight (-5 vs -6.5 kg, p = 0.04) compared to the multivitamin multimineral supplement group. The proportion of patients with sarcopenia did not change in the oral nutrition supplement group but increased 20% in the multivitamin multimineral supplement group (p = 0.01). Mean length of stay and 30-day hospital free days were similar in the groups. The oral nutrition supplement group had a lower rate of overall and major (Clavien grade 3 or greater) complications (48% vs 67% and 19% vs 25%, respectively) and a lower readmission rate (7% vs 17%) but the differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo radical cystectomy after consuming an oral nutrition supplement perioperatively have a reduced prevalence of sarcopenia and may also experience fewer and less severe complications and readmissions. A larger blinded, randomized, controlled trial is necessary to determine whether oral nutrition supplement interventions can improve outcomes following radical cystectomy.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Assistência Perioperatória , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
World J Urol ; 37(1): 3-13, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105454

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To update current recommendations on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of bladder cancer (BC) based on a thorough assessment of the most recent literature on these topics. METHODS: A non-systematic review was performed, including articles until June 2017. A variety of original articles, reviews, and editorials were selected according to their epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical relevance. Assessment of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations was performed according to the International Consultation on Urological Diseases grading system. RESULTS: BC is the ninth most common cancer worldwide with 430,000 new cases in 2012. Currently, approximately 165,000 people die from the disease annually. Absolute incidence and prevalence of BC are expected to rise significantly during the next decades because of population ageing. Tobacco smoking is still the main risk factor, accounting for about 50% of cases. Smoking cessation is, therefore, the most relevant recommendation in terms of prevention, as the risk of developing BC drops almost 40% within 5 years of cessation. BC screening is not recommended for the general population. BC diagnosis remains mainly based on cystoscopy, but development of new endoscopic and imaging technologies may rapidly change the diagnosis algorithm. The same applies for local, regional, and distant staging modalities. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough understanding of epidemiology, risk factors, early detection strategies, diagnosis, and evaluation is essential for correct, evidence-based management of BC patients. Recent developments in endoscopic techniques and imaging raise the hope for providing better risk-adopted approaches and thereby improving clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Cistoscopia , Dinâmica Populacional , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Incidência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle , Urologia
18.
Res Rep Urol ; 10: 181-187, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464929

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the variation in venous thromboembolism prophylactic treatment (VTEP) among renal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Materials and methods: An Internet-based questionnaire on renal tumor management before and after surgery was mailed to all Nordic departments of urology. The questions focused on the use of VTEP and were subdivided into different surgical modalities. Results: Questionnaires were mailed to 91 institutions (response rate 53%). None of the centers used VTEP before surgery, unless the patient had a vena caval tumor thrombus. Overall, the VTEP utilized during hospitalization for patients undergoing renal surgery included early mobilization (45%), compression stockings (52%) and low-molecular-weight heparin (89%). In patients undergoing open radical Nx, 80% of institutions used VTEP during their hospitalization (23% compression stockings and 94% low-molecular-weight heparin). After leaving the hospital, the proportion and type of VTEP received varied considerably across institutions. The most common interval, used in 60% of the institutions, was for a period of 4 weeks. The restriction to the Nordic countries was a limitation and, therefore, may not reflect the practice patterns elsewhere. It is a survey study and, therefore, cannot measure the behaviors of those institutions that did not participate. Conclusion: We found variation in the type and duration of VTEP use for each type of local intervention for renal cancer. These widely disparate variations in care strongly argue for the establishment of national and international guidelines regarding VTEP in renal surgery.

20.
Prostate ; 78(8): 616-622, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI2) promotes the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of this signaling pathway has a role in prostate carcinogenesis. Our study aims to determine the prognostic significance of MAGI2 expression in prostate cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays from 51 radical prostatectomy cases including benign prostatic tissue, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma were constructed. Immunohistochemistry with double staining for MAGI2 and p63 was performed and analyzed by image analysis as percent of analyzed area (%AREA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to correlate MAGI2 expression with clinical outcomes. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) with linear and logistic regression was used to correlate MAGI2 with intrapatient histology. RESULTS: MAGI2 %AREA was inversely associated with progression from HGPIN to adenocarcinoma of low to high Gleason score (OR, 0.980; slope, -0.02; P = 0.005) and HGPIN to cancer of any Gleason score (OR, 0.969; P = 0.007). After adjusting for grade, stage, and margin status, MAGI2 %AREA was a significant independent predictor of biochemical recurrence (BCR) (OR, 0.936; 95%CI, 0.880-0.996; P = 0.037; bootstrap P = 0.017). The addition of MAGI2 %AREA to these standard clinical parameters improved accuracy of predicting BCR by 2.9% (91.0% vs 88.1%). CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that MAGI2 expression is reduced during prostate cancer progression and that retention of MAGI2 signal reduces odds of BCR. The study results further suggest a possible role of MAGI2 in prostate neoplasia. Decreased MAGI2 expression may help predict prostate cancer aggressiveness and provide new insight for treatment decisions and post-operative surveillance intervals.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Expressão Gênica , Guanilato Quinases , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
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