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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may both contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to examine the association of demographic factors, SLE phenotype, therapy and vitamin D levels with MetS and insulin resistance. METHODS: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) enrolled patients recently diagnosed with SLE (<15 months) from 33 centres across 11 countries from 2000. Clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. Vitamin D level was defined according to tertiles based on distribution across this cohort, which were set at T1 (10-36 nmol/l), T2 (37-60 nmol/l) and T3 (61-174 nmol/l). MetS was defined according to the 2009 consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin resistance was determined using the HOMA-IR model. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the association of variables with vitamin D levels. RESULTS: Of the 1847 patients, 1163 (63%) had vitamin D measured and 398 (34.2%) subjects were in the lowest 25(OH)D tertile. MetS was present in 286 of 860 (33%) patients whose status could be determined. Patients with lower 25(OH)D were more likely to have MetS and higher HOMA-IR. The MetS components, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decreased HDL were all significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D. Increased average glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: MetS and insulin resistance are associated with lower vitamin D in patients with SLE. Further studies could determine whether vitamin D repletion confers better control of these cardiovascular risk factors and improve long-term outcomes in SLE.

2.
Lupus ; : 961203320988587, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Myositis is an infrequent feature of SLE and may often be overlooked. We aimed to estimate the incidence of myositis in SLE, and to determine demographic and clinical factors associated with it. METHODS: Within our lupus cohort, we identified potential myositis cases using the SLICC Damage Index for muscle atrophy or weakness, the SLEDAI-2K item for myositis, and annually measured serum creatinine kinase. Cases were confirmed through chart review. We performed descriptive analyses of prevalent myositis cases as of January 2000. From that point onward, we studies patients without myositis to determine risk of incident myositis, using cohort analyses adjusted for demographic variables (age, sex, race/ethnicity). RESULTS: As of January 2000, there were 5 prevalent myositis cases in our SLE cohort. Among 560 SLE patients with a study visit from January 2000 onward, with no history of myositis at baseline, 5 new cases (4 females, 1 male) were identified over an average follow-up of 8.5 years (incidence 1.05 cases per 1000 person-years). There was a higher proportion of Caucasians in the non-myositis group versus myositis group, with a trend for fewer females in the myositis cases. Arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and anti-Smith antibodies were common pre-existing features, occurring in all incident myositis cases. In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and sex, non-Caucasian patients had a markedly increased risk of developing myositis. CONCLUSION: We found a low incidence of myositis in our SLE cohort. A cluster of variables, particularly non-Caucasian race/ethnicity, arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and anti-Smith antibodies were associated with risk of developing myositis in SLE. These variables may aid clinicians in identifying SLE patients at highest risk for this important complication.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a key systemic lupus (SLE) drug, making concerns of drug shortages grave. We evaluated factors associated with poor outcomes after HCQ taper or discontinuation in SLE. METHODS: We studied five Canadian SLE cohorts between 1999-2019, following patients from date of HCQ tapering (cohort 1) or discontinuation (cohort 2). A composite outcome was defined as any of the following: need for therapy augmentation, increase (of at least 4 points) in SLEDAI-2K, or hospitalization for SLE. In each cohort, multivariable Cox regression was used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with time to the earliest of these events. A third cohort remaining on HCQ was also studied, to assess if the same factors influenced the outcome even when HCQ dose was unchanged. RESULTS: The poor outcome rate, per 100 person-years, was 35.7 (95% CI 31.6, 40.3) in the HCQ taper cohort (N=398), 29.0 (95% CI 25.5, 33.0) in the discontinuation cohort (N=395), and 16.1 (95%CI 13.2, 19.6) in the maintenance cohort (N=395). In patients tapering HCQ, baseline prednisone use was independently associated with greater risk of poor outcomes. In the discontinuation cohort, risk of poor outcomes was greater for blacks and those diagnosed with SLE at age ≤25 years. Among those maintaining HCQ, baseline immunosuppressive use and First Nation ethnicity were associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with poor outcomes after HCQ taper/discontinuation. This information is critical in the current setting of potential shortages, but long-term, this could inform personalized therapies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with varied and unpredictable levels of disease activity. The ability to self-manage lupus is important in controlling disease activity. Our objective was to determine levels of patient activation toward self-management in lupus. METHODS: We used baseline results from the MyLupusGuideTM study that had recruited 541 lupus patients from ten centers. We used the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), a validated self-reported tool designed to measure activation towards self-management ability, as our primary variable and examined its association with demographic, disease-related, patient-provider communication and psychosocial variables captured in our study protocol. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were performed using linear mixed models, with a random effect for centers. RESULTS: The average age was 50±14 years, 93% were female, 74% were Caucasian and the average disease duration was 17±12 years. The mean PAM score was 61.2±13.5 with 36% of participants scoring in the two lower levels, indicating low activation. Variables associated with low activation included being single, lower physical health status, lower self-reported disease activity, lower self-efficacy, use of more emotional coping and less distraction and instrumental coping strategies, and perceived lack of clarity in patient-doctor communication. CONCLUSION: Low patient activation was observed in more than one third of lupus patients indicating a large proportion of patients perceived that they are lacking in lupus self-management skills. These results highlight a modifiable gap in perceived self-management ability among patients with lupus.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

7.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 2(11): 629-639, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) made by standard diagnostic laboratory tests (SDLTs) has sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 76%, respectively. A multivariate assay panel (MAP) combining complement C4d activation products on erythrocytes and B cells with SDLTs yields a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 86%, respectively, presumably enabling earlier SLE diagnosis at lower severity, with associated lower health care costs compared with SDLT diagnoses. We compared the payer budget impact of diagnosing SLE using MAP (incremental cost of $108) versus SDLTs. METHODS: We modeled a health plan of 1 million enrollees. SLE diagnosis among suspected patients was 9.2%. The MAP arm assumed 80%/20% of patients were tested with MAP/SDLTs, versus 100% tested with SDLTs in the SDLT arm. Prediagnosis direct costs were estimated from claims data, and postdiagnosis costs were obtained from the literature. Based on improved MAP performance, the assumed hazard ratio for diagnosis rate compared with SDLTs was 1.74 (71%, 87%, 90%, and 91% of patients who develop SLE are diagnosed in years 1 to 4 compared with 53%, 75%, 84%, and 88% of patients diagnosed with SDLTs). RESULTS: Total 4-year pre- and postdiagnosis direct costs for patients with suspected SLE tested with MAP were $59 183 666 compared with $61 174 818 tested by SDLTs, with lower costs in the MAP arm due primarily to prediagnosis savings related to reduced hospital admissions. CONCLUSION: Incorporating MAP into SLE diagnosis results in estimated 4-year direct cost savings of $1 991 152 ($0.04 per member per month). By facilitating earlier diagnosis of SLE, MAP may enhance patient outcomes.

8.
CMAJ ; 192(38): E1084-E1092, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not established whether the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts or tree nuts in children increases at specific times of the year. We aimed to evaluate the risk of peanut-and tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis during certain cultural holidays in Canadian children. METHODS: We collected data on confirmed pediatric cases of anaphylaxis presenting to emergency departments in 4 Canadian provinces as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. We assessed the mean number of cases per day and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts presenting during each of 6 holidays (Halloween, Christmas, Easter, Diwali, Chinese New Year and Eid al-Adha) versus the rest of the year. We estimated IRRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Data were collected for 1390 pediatric cases of anaphylaxis between 2011 and 2020. Their median age was 5.4 years, and 864 (62.2%) of the children were boys. During Halloween and Easter, there were higher rates of anaphylaxis to unknown nuts (IRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.13-2.43 and IRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.21-2.42, respectively) and peanuts (IRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12-3.11 and IRR 1.57, 95% CI 0.94-2.63, respectively) compared to the rest of the year. No increased risk of peanut- or tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis was observed during Christmas, Diwali, Chinese New Year or Eid al-Adha. Anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts was more likely in children aged 6 years or older than in younger children. INTERPRETATION: We found an increased risk of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts and peanuts during Halloween and Easter among Canadian children. Educational tools are needed to increase awareness and vigilance in order to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts and tree nuts in children during these holidays.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer risk factors in incident SLE. METHODS: Clinical variables and cancer outcomes were assessed annually among incident SLE patients. Multivariate hazard regression models (over-all risk, and most common cancers) included demographics and time-dependent medications (corticosteroids, antimalarial drugs, immunosuppressants), smoking, and adjusted mean SLE Disease Activity Index-2K. RESULTS: Among 1668 patients (average 9 years follow-up), 65 cancers occurred: 15 breast, 10 non-melanoma skin, seven lung, six hematological, six prostate, five melanoma, three cervical, three renal, two each gastric, head and neck, and thyroid, and one each rectal, sarcoma, thymoma, and uterine cancers. Half of cancers (including all lung cancers) occurred in past/current smokers, versus one-third of patients without cancer. Multivariate analyses indicated over-all cancer risk was related primarily to male sex and older age at SLE diagnosis. In addition, smoking was associated with lung cancer. For breast cancer risk, age was positively and anti-malarial drugs were negatively associated. Anti-malarial drugs and higher disease activity were also negatively associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk, whereas age and cyclophosphamide were positively associated. Disease activity was associated positively with hematologic and negatively with NMSC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor, especially for lung cancer, in SLE. Immunosuppressive medications were not clearly associated with higher risk except for cyclophosphamide and NMSC. Antimalarials were negatively associated with breast cancer and NMSC risk. SLE activity was associated positively with hematologic cancer and negatively with NMSC. Since the absolute number of cancers was small, additional follow-up will help consolidate these findings.

10.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 46(3): 533-550, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631602

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with a small overall increased cancer risk compared with the general population. This risk includes a 4-fold increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but a decreased risk of other cancers (such as breast cancer). The pathophysiology underlying the increased risk of hematologic cancer is not fully understood, but many potential mechanisms have been proposed, including dysfunction of the tumor necrosis factor and other pathways. A decreased risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer might be driven by hormonal factors or lupus-related antibodies, but these links have not been proved.

11.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 40(7-8): 235-244, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a growing literature demonstrating the benefits of engaging knowledge-users throughout the research process. We engaged a multi-stakeholder team to undertake a hackathon as part of an integrated knowledge translation (iKT) process to develop nonpharmacological interventions to enhance the economic lives of people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aims of this research were to (1) increase understanding of the economic challenges of living with SLE through stakeholder engagement at a research hackathon; (2) investigate possible interventions to improve the economic lives of individuals affected by SLE in Canada; and (3) document the outcomes of the Waterlupus hackathon. METHODS: Waterlupus was held at the University of Waterloo in May 2019, attended by lupus advocacy organization representatives, researchers, physicians, individuals with lived experience and students. We conducted participant observation with participants' understanding and consent; notes from the hackathon were qualitatively analyzed to document hackathon outcomes. RESULTS: At the conclusion of the 28-hour hackathon event, five teams pitched nonpharmacological interventions to address the economic challenges of living with SLE. The winning team's pitch focussed on increasing accessibility of affordable sun-protective clothing. Other Waterlupus outcomes include increased awareness of SLE among participants, and professional and informal networking opportunities. CONCLUSION: This paper contributes to a limited literature on health hackathons. The successful outcomes of Waterlupus emphasize the value of hackathons as an iKT tool. Research about how knowledge-users perceive hackathons is an important next step.

12.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(5): 527-538, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that affects almost every organ system and it is treated with immunomodulation and immunosuppression. SLE patients have an intrinsically dysfunctional immune system which is exacerbated by disease activity and leaves them vulnerable to infection. Treatment with immunosuppression increases susceptibility to infection, while hydroxychloroquine use decreases this risk. Infectious diseases are a leading cause of hospitalization and death. AREAS COVERED: This narrative review provides an overview of recent epidemiology and predictors of infections in SLE, delineates the risk of infection by therapeutic agent, and provides suggestions for risk mitigation. Articles were selected from Pubmed searches conducted between September 2019 and January 2020. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the large burden of infection, effective and safe preventative care such as universal hydroxychloroquine use and vaccination are underutilized. Future efforts should be directed to quality improvement, glucocorticoid reduction, and validation of risk indices that identify patients at the highest risk of infection.

13.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(4): 759-768, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden of systematic lupus erythematous (SLE), stratified by disease severity, in commercially- and Medicaid-insured US populations. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) with SLE treated with antimalarials, selected biologics, immunosuppressants, and systemic glucocorticoids (2010-2014) were identified within the commercial and Medicaid insurance IBM MarketScan® databases (index date = first SLE medication claim). Both cohorts were stratified into mild (receiving antimalarial or glucocorticoid monotherapy ≤5 mg/day) versus moderate/severe SLE (receiving glucocorticoids >5 mg/day, biologic, immunosuppressant, or combination therapy) during a 6-month exposure period. All-cause healthcare utilization and costs were evaluated during the 12 months following the exposure period. RESULTS: Among 8231 commercially-insured patients, 32.6% had mild and 67.4% had moderate/severe SLE by our definition. Among 802 Medicaid-insured patients, 25.2% had mild and 74.8% had moderate/severe SLE. Adjusted mean total healthcare costs, excluding pharmacy, for moderate/severe SLE patients were higher than for mild SLE patients in the commercially-insured ($39,021 versus $23,519; p < 0.0001) and Medicaid-insured populations ($56,050 versus $44,932; p = 0.06). In both SLE severity populations total unadjusted costs were significantly higher among Medicaid-insured than commercially-insured patients. CONCLUSION: Commercially-insured patients with treatment suggesting moderate/severe SLE incurred significantly higher adjusted mean healthcare costs, excluding pharmacy, compared with mild SLE patients. While not reaching statistical significance, moderate/severe Medicaid-insured patients had higher costs then mild SLE patients. Total unadjusted healthcare costs were significantly higher among Medicaid-insured than commercially-insured patients. These differential costs are important to consider and monitor when implementing interventions to improve health and reduce healthcare spending for SLE.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 SLE classification criteria and the revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria are list-based, counting each SLE manifestation equally. We derived a classification rule based on giving variable weights to the SLICC criteria, and compared its performance to the revised ACR 1997, unweighted SLICC 2012 and the newly reported European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR 2019 criteria. METHODS: The physician-rated patient scenarios used to develop the SLICC 2012 classification criteria were re-employed to devise a new weighted classification rule using multiple linear regression. The performance of the rule was evaluated on an independent set of expert-diagnosed patient scenarios and compared to the performance of the previously reported classification rules. RESULTS: Weighted SLICC criteria and the EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria had less sensitivity but better specificity compared to the list-based revised ACR 1997 and SLICC 2012 classification criteria. There were no statistically significant differences between any pair of rules with respect to overall agreement with the physician diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The two new weighted classification rules did not perform better than the existing list-based rules in terms of overall agreement on a dataset originally generated to assess the SLICC criteria. Given the added complexity of summing weights, researchers may prefer the unweighted SLICC criteria. However, the performance of a classification rule will always depend on the populations from which the cases and non-cases are derived, and whether the goal is to prioritize sensitivity or specificity.

18.
Chronic Illn ; : 1742395320910490, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus experience considerable economic challenges. The aim of this research is to qualitatively investigate experiences of the lifecosts (direct and indirect economic costs and beyond) to those with systemic lupus erythematosus in Canada. METHODS: Using a biopsychosocial conceptual framework and integrated knowledge translation approach, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3 physicians, 5 representatives from systemic lupus erythematosus advocacy groups, and 29 adult systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Themes emerged deductively and inductively, and the theme code set was used to code all transcripts. RESULTS: Three dominant themes emerged: (1) impacts of systemic lupus erythematosus on quality of life, relationships, and health; (2) costs linked to healthcare; and (3) impacts of living with systemic lupus erythematosus on employment/economic standing. DISCUSSION: Whereas previous work has focused almost exclusively on the direct, individual costs of systemic lupus erythematosus, the biopsychosocial approach taken here emphasizes not only the individual and intermediate factors (such as the workplace and family), but also the system-level factors (i.e. system-level policies) that influence quality of life, healthcare, and employment/economic experiences of those with systemic lupus erythematosus. Results indicate a need to target interventions beyond the individual and their immediate context, and recognize that lifecosts are shaped significantly by systems-level action.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 356-362, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using a reversible multistate model, we prospectively examined neuropsychiatric (NP) events for attribution, outcome and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in an international, inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Annual assessments for 19 NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes, physician determination of outcome and patient HRQoL (short-form (SF)-36 scores) were measured. Time-to-event analysis and multistate modelling examined the onset, recurrence and transition between NP states. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955/1827 (52.3%) patients and 592/1910 (31.0%) unique events were attributed to SLE. In the first 2 years of follow-up the relative risk (95% CI) for SLE NP events was 6.16 (4.96, 7.66) and non-SLE events was 4.66 (4.01, 5.43) compared with thereafter. Patients without SLE NP events at initial assessment had a 74% probability of being event free at 10 years. For non-SLE NP events the estimate was 48%. The majority of NP events resolved over 10 years but mortality was higher in patients with NP events attributed to SLE (16%) versus patients with no NPSLE events (6%) while the rate was comparable in patients with non-SLE NP events (7%) compared with patients with no non-SLE events (6%). Patients with NP events had lower SF-36 summary scores compared with those without NP events and resolved NP states (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NP events occur most frequently around the diagnosis of SLE. Although the majority of events resolve they are associated with reduced HRQoL and excess mortality. Multistate modelling is well suited for the assessment of NP events in SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multinível , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
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