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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385517

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy for managing long-term hypoparathyroidism is being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available randomized controlled trials to investigate the benefits and harms of PTH therapy and conventional therapy in the management of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism. To identify eligible studies, published in English, we searched Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to May 2022. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We defined patients' important outcomes and used grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) to provide the structure for quantifying absolute effects and rating the quality of evidence. Seven randomized trials of 12 publications that enrolled a total of 386 patients proved eligible. The follow-up duration ranged from 1 to 36 months. Compared with conventional therapy, PTH therapy probably achieves a small improvement in physical health-related quality of life (mean difference [MD] 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-5.3, minimally important difference 3.0, moderate certainty). PTH therapy results in more patients reaching 50% or greater reduction in the dose of active vitamin D and calcium (relative risk [RR] = 6.5, 95% CI 2.5-16.4, 385 more per 1000 patients, high certainty). PTH therapy may increase hypercalcemia (RR =2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.04, low certainty). The findings may support the use of PTH therapy in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism. Because of limitations of short duration and small sample size, evidence from randomized trials is limited regarding important benefits of PTH therapy compared with conventional therapy. Establishing such benefits will require further studies. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

2.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(5): 604-610, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382749

RESUMO

The 2022 International Task Force guidelines for chronic hypoparathyroidism will be published within several months in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. These guidelines update the original guidelines published in 2016, and include new information from literature published since then. Chronic postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is now defined as lasting for at least 12 months after surgery, rather than 6 months. Chronic postsurgical hypoparathyroidism may be predicted by serum PTH <10 pg/mL in the first 12-24 hours after surgery. The most common symptoms and complications of chronic hypoparathyroidism based on the literature are summarized in detail. How to monitor and manage patients with hypoparathyroidism is described in detail where recommendations can be given. These guidelines are intended to frame the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism for at least the next five years.


Assuntos
Hipocalcemia , Hipoparatireoidismo , Humanos , Cálcio , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipoparatireoidismo/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/terapia , Osso e Ossos , Hormônio Paratireóideo
4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375810

RESUMO

The complications and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism remain incompletely defined. Measuring serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels early after total thyroidectomy may predict the development of chronic hypoparathyroidism. The study aimed (i) to identify symptoms and complications associated with chronic hypoparathyroidism and determine the prevalence of those symptoms and complications (Part I), and (ii) to examine the utility of early postoperative measurements of PTH and calcium in predicting chronic hypoparathyroidism (Part II). We searched Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL to identify complications and symptoms associated with chronic hypoparathyroidism. We used two predefined criteria (at least three studies reported the complication and symptom and had statistically significantly greater pooled relative estimates). To estimate prevalence, we used the median and interquartile range (IQR) of the studies reporting complications and symptoms. For testing the predictive values of early postoperative measurements of PTH and calcium, we used a bivariate model to perform diagnostic test meta-analysis. In Part I, the 93 eligible studies enrolled a total of 18,973 patients and reported on 170 complications and symptoms. We identified nine most common complications or symptoms probably associated with chronic hypoparathyroidism. The complications or symptoms and the prevalence are as follows: nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis (median prevalence among all studies 15%), renal insufficiency (12%), cataract (17%), seizures (11%), arrhythmia (7%), ischemic heart disease (7%), depression (9%), infection (11%), and all-cause mortality (6%). In Part II, 18 studies with 4325 patients proved eligible. For PTH measurement, regarding the posttest probability, PTH values above 10 pg/mL 12-24 hours postsurgery virtually exclude chronic hypoparathyroidism irrespective of pretest probability (100%). When PTH values are below 10 pg/mL, posttest probabilities range from 3% to 64%. Nine complications and symptoms are probably associated with chronic hypoparathyroidism. A PTH value above a threshold of 10 pg/mL 12-24 hours after total thyroidectomy is a strong predictor that the patients will not develop chronic hypoparathyroidism. Patients with PTH values below the threshold need careful monitoring as some will develop chronic hypoparathyroidism. © 2022 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(11): 2293-2314, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245251

RESUMO

The last international guidelines on the evaluation and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) were published in 2014. Research since that time has led to new insights into epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, measurements, genetics, outcomes, presentations, new imaging modalities, target and other organ systems, pregnancy, evaluation, and management. Advances in all these areas are demonstrated by the reference list in which the majority of listings were published after the last set of guidelines. It was thus, timely to convene an international group of over 50 experts to review these advances in our knowledge. Four Task Forces considered: 1. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Genetics; 2. Classical and Nonclassical Features; 3. Surgical Aspects; and 4. Management. For Task Force 4 on the Management of PHPT, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) methodology addressed surgical management of asymptomatic PHPT and non-surgical medical management of PHPT. The findings of this systematic review that applied GRADE methods to randomized trials are published as part of this series. Task Force 4 also reviewed a much larger body of new knowledge from observations studies that did not specifically fit the criteria of GRADE methodology. The full reports of these 4 Task Forces immediately follow this summary statement. Distilling the essence of all deliberations of all Task Force reports and Methodological reviews, we offer, in this summary statement, evidence-based recommendations and guidelines for the evaluation and management of PHPT. Different from the conclusions of the last workshop, these deliberations have led to revisions of renal guidelines and more evidence for the other recommendations. The accompanying papers present an in-depth discussion of topics summarized in this report. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/terapia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações
6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(11): 2315-2329, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245271

RESUMO

In this narrative review, we present data gathered over four decades (1980-2020) on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and genetics of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT is typically a disease of postmenopausal women, but its prevalence and incidence vary globally and depend on a number of factors, the most important being the availability to measure serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels for screening. In the Western world, the change in presentation to asymptomatic PHPT is likely to occur, over time also, in Eastern regions. The selection of the population to be screened will, of course, affect the epidemiological data (ie, general practice as opposed to tertiary center). Parathyroid hormone has a pivotal role in regulating calcium homeostasis; small changes in extracellular Ca++ concentrations are detected by parathyroid cells, which express calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs). Clonally dysregulated overgrowth of one or more parathyroid glands together with reduced expression of CaSRs is the most important pathophysiologic basis of PHPT. The spectrum of skeletal disease reflects different degrees of dysregulated bone remodeling. Intestinal calcium hyperabsorption together with increased bone resorption lead to increased filtered load of calcium that, in addition to other metabolic factors, predispose to the appearance of calcium-containing kidney stones. A genetic basis of PHPT can be identified in about 10% of all cases. These may occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN1-MEN4), or the hyperparathyroidism jaw-tumor syndrome, or it may be caused by nonsyndromic isolated endocrinopathy, such as familial isolated PHPT and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. DNA testing may have value in: confirming the clinical diagnosis in a proband; eg, by distinguishing PHPT from familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH). Mutation-specific carrier testing can be performed on a proband's relatives and identify where the proband is a mutation carrier, ruling out phenocopies that may confound the diagnosis; and potentially prevention via prenatal/preimplantation diagnosis. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/epidemiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/genética , Cálcio , Hipercalcemia/genética , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271471

RESUMO

Conventional therapy for hypoparathyroidism consisting of active vitamin D and calcium aims to alleviate hypocalcemia but fails to restore normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) physiology. PTH replacement therapy is the ideal physiologic treatment for hypoparathyroidism. The double-blind, placebo-controlled, 26-week, phase 3 PaTHway trial assessed the efficacy and safety of PTH replacement therapy for hypoparathyroidism individuals with the investigational drug TransCon PTH (palopegteriparatide). Participants (n = 84) were randomized 3:1 to once-daily TransCon PTH (initially 18 µg/d) or placebo, both co-administered with conventional therapy. The study drug and conventional therapy were titrated according to a dosing algorithm guided by serum calcium. The composite primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants at week 26 who achieved normal albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels (8.3-10.6 mg/dL), independence from conventional therapy (requiring no active vitamin D and ≤600 mg/d of calcium), and no increase in study drug over 4 weeks before week 26. Other outcomes of interest included health-related quality of life measured by the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), hypoparathyroidism-related symptoms, functioning, and well-being measured by the Hypoparathyroidism Patient Experience Scale (HPES), and urinary calcium excretion. At week 26, 79% (48/61) of participants treated with TransCon PTH versus 5% (1/21) wiplacebo met the composite primary efficacy endpoint (p < 0.0001). TransCon PTH treatment demonstrated a significant improvement in all key secondary endpoint HPES domain scores (all p < 0.01) and the SF-36 Physical Functioning subscale score (p = 0.0347) compared with placebo. Additionally, 93% (57/61) of participants treated with TransCon PTH achieved independence from conventional therapy. TransCon PTH treatment normalized mean 24-hour urine calcium. Overall, 82% (50/61) treated with TransCon PTH and 100% (21/21) wiplacebo experienced adverse events; most were mild (46%) or moderate (46%). No study drug-related withdrawals occurred. In conclusion, TransCon PTH maintained normocalcemia while permitting independence from conventional therapy and was well-tolerated in individuals with hypoparathyroidism. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

9.
Toxicology ; 482: 153355, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265524

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to cadmium via a variety of anthropogenic and natural pathways. Hypoxia, a key pathophysiological consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as anemia, induce expression of many genes, including divalent metal transporter (DMT-1) , to induce cell adaptation to decreased pO2. DMT-1 then becomes increasingly expressed in a majority of organs, specifically the duodenum and the kidney. DMT-1 serves as an iron transporter; however, it can transport other physiologically important elements, including manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), as well as highly toxic divalent cations such as cadmium (Cd2+). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent, non-communicable disease in populations > 40 years of age, and is a leading cause of death worldwide. Occurrence of comorbidities accompanying COPD, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and osteoporosis increase the mortality rate and costs of treatment. As cadmium has been shown to be significantly osteo- and nephrotoxic, its hazardous effects could deteriorate bone microarchitecture and decrease kidney function positioning it as a likely environmental contributor to comorbidity development. In this review, we highlight the important contribution of hypoxia-induced DMT-1 expression mediating a cadmium (Cd2+) overload-induced CKD and osteoporosis axes. Furthermore, individuals who suffer from chronic lung disease with hypoxic respiratory failure, such as severe COPD appear to be significantly more sensitive to cadmium toxicity than healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Hipóxia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(11): 2404-2410, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053800

RESUMO

To develop guidelines for hypoparathyroidism and primary hyperparathyroidism, the panel assembled a panel of experts in parathyroid disorders, general endocrinologists, representatives of the Hypoparathyroidism Association, and systematic review and guideline methodologists. The guideline panel referred to a formal process following the Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE) methodology to issue GRADEd recommendations. In this approach, panelists and methodologists formatted the questions, conducted systematic reviews, evaluated risk of bias, assessed certainty of evidence, and presented a summary of findings in a transparent fashion. For most recommendations, the task forces used a less structured approach largely based on narrative reviews to issue non-GRADEd recommendations. The panel issued Eight GRADEd recommendations (seven for hypoparathyroidism and one for hyperparathyroidism). Each GRADEd recommendation is linked to the underlying body of evidence and judgments regarding the certainty of evidence and strength of recommendations, values and preferences, and costs, feasibility, acceptability and equity. This article summarizes the methodology for issuing GRADEd and non-GRADEd recommendations for patients with hypoparathyroidism or hyperparathyroidism. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Hipoparatireoidismo , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/terapia , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipoparatireoidismo/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054621

RESUMO

This clinical practice guideline addresses the prevention, diagnosis, and management of hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) and provides evidence-based recommendations. The HypoPT task forces included four teams with a total of 50 international experts including representatives from the sponsoring societies. A methodologist (GG) and his team supported the taskforces and conducted the systematic reviews. A formal process following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology and the systematic reviews provided the structure for seven of the guideline recommendations. The task force used a less structured approach based on narrative reviews for 20 non-GRADEd recommendations. Clinicians may consider postsurgical HypoPT permanent if it persists for >12 months after surgery. To predict which patients will not develop permanent postsurgical HypoPT, we recommend evaluating serum PTH within 12 to 24 hours post total thyroidectomy (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). PTH > 10 pg/mL (1.05 pmol/L) virtually excludes long-term HypoPT. In individuals with nonsurgical HypoPT, genetic testing may be helpful in the presence of a positive family history of nonsurgical HypoPT, in the presence of syndromic features, or in individuals younger than 40 years. HypoPT can be associated with complications, including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, cataracts, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, depression, and an increased risk of infection. Minimizing complications of HypoPT requires careful evaluation and close monitoring of laboratory indices. In patients with chronic HypoPT, the panel suggests conventional therapy with calcium and active vitamin D metabolites as first-line therapy (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence). When conventional therapy is deemed unsatisfactory, the panel considers the use of PTH. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

13.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; : 101766, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961836

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is underrecognized and undertreated in men, even though up to 25% of fractures in patients over the age of 50 years occur in men. Men develop osteoporosis with normal aging and accumulation of comorbidities that cause bone loss. Secondary causes of bone loss may be found in up to 60% of men with osteoporosis. Mortality in men who experience major fragility fracture is greater than in women. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is similar to women, based on low-trauma or fragility fractures, and/or bone mineral density dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores at or below -2.5. Because most clinical trials with osteoporosis drugs in men were based on bone density endpoints, not fracture reduction, the antifracture efficacy of approved treatments in men is not as well documented as that in women. Men at a high risk of fracture should be offered treatment to reduce future fractures.

15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(11): 2806-2822, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine methods of assessing consent capacity in research protocols involving participants with impaired consent capacity, and examine instruments used to evaluate research consent capacity. METHODS: A retrospective review of 330 active research protocols involving participants lacking capacity to consent over a 10-year period (January 1, 2009, through March 1, 2019) was conducted to collect protocol characteristics (medical specialty, level of risk and type of study, consent and assent procedures, and type of vulnerable or protected population). Methods to assess consent capacity are described, and instruments to assess consent capacity are summarized. RESULTS: The specialties most frequently involving participants with impaired consent capacity in research were Neurology (27.3%), Critical Care (16.7%), and Surgery (10%). Type of studies are observational (43.9%), clinical trials (33%), chart review (11.5%), biobank (6.1%), and biomarker (5.5%). Minimal risk (53.3%) outnumbered greater than minimal risk (46.7%) studies. Most obtained written informed consent (77%) and assent (40.9%). The most common method to assess consent capacity was direct assessment by investigators (32.7%). Only 86 (26%) studies used instruments to assess consent capacity. Of the 13 instruments used, the most common was the Evaluation of Decision-Making Capacity for Consent to Act as a Research Subject, and is the only instrument that assesses all four components of decisional capacity: understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and choice. CONCLUSION: Generally, there was lack of uniformity in determining capacity to consent to research participation. Very few studies used instruments to assess consent capacity. Institutional review boards can provide greater guidance for research consent capacity determination.


Assuntos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Testes de Inteligência , Competência Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Protocolos Clínicos , Compreensão , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/normas , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicina/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Populações Vulneráveis
16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 232, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PARADIGHM registry of adult and pediatric patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism evaluates the long-term safety and effectiveness of treatment with recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH(1-84), and describes the clinical disease course under conditions of routine clinical practice. In this first report, we detail the registry protocol and describe the baseline characteristics of two adult patient cohorts from an interim database analysis. One cohort after study entry were prescribed rhPTH(1-84), and the other cohort received conventional therapy of calcium and active vitamin D. METHODS: An observational study of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in North America and Europe, collecting data for ≥10 years per patient. Main outcome measures were baseline patient demographics, clinical characteristics, medications, and disease outcome variables of symptoms, biochemical parameters, and health assessments. Baseline is the enrollment assessment for all variables except biochemical measurements in patients treated with rhPTH(1-84); those measurements were the most recent value before the first rhPTH(1-84) dose. Exclusion criteria applied to the analysis of specified outcomes included pediatric patients, patients who initiated rhPTH(1-84) prior to enrollment, and those who received rhPTH(1-34). Clinically implausible biochemical outlier data were excluded. RESULTS: As of 30 June 2019, data of 737 patients were analyzed from 64 centers; 587 (80%) were women, mean ± SD age 49.1±16.45 years. At enrollment, symptoms reported for patients later prescribed rhPTH(1-84) (n=60) and those who received conventional therapy (n=571), respectively, included fatigue (51.7%, 40.1%), paresthesia (51.7%, 29.6%), muscle twitching (48.3%, 21.9%), and muscle cramping (41.7%, 33.8%). Mean serum total calcium, serum phosphate, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar between cohorts. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire scores for those later prescribed rhPTH(1-84) were generally lower than those for patients in the conventional therapy cohort. CONCLUSIONS: At enrollment, based on symptoms and HRQoL, a greater percentage of patients subsequently prescribed rhPTH(1-84) appeared to have an increased burden of disease than those who received conventional therapy despite having normal biochemistry measurements. PARADIGHM will provide valuable real-world insights on the clinical course of hypoparathyroidism in patients treated with rhPTH(1-84) or conventional therapy in routine clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EUPAS16927, NCT01922440.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Médicos , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D
17.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(3): 525-535, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107603

RESUMO

Since normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NHPT) was first defined at the Third International Workshop on the Management of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism in 2008, many papers have been published describing its prevalence and possible complications. Guidelines for the management of this condition are still lacking, and making the diagnosis requires fulfillment of strict criteria. Recent studies have shown that intermittent oscillations of serum calcium just below and slightly above the normal limits are very frequent, therefore challenging the assumption that serum calcium must be consistently normal to make the diagnosis. There is debate if these variations in serum calcium outside the normal range should be included under the rubric of NHPT or, rather, a milder form of classical primary hyperparathyroidism. Innovative approaches to define NHPT have been proposed that still need to be validated in prospective studies. Non-classical complications, especially cardiovascular complications, have been associated with NHPT, indicating that hyperparathyroidism may be a cardiovascular risk factor. New associations between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and several other comorbidities have also been reported from observational studies, suggesting that excessive PTH secretion might cause tissue dysfunction independent of serum calcium. Heterogeneous studies using different definitions of NHPT, however, make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions regarding the role of PTH excess when complications other than osteoporosis or kidney stones are described. This review will focus on clinical aspects and suggest an approach to NHPT.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Osteoporose , Cálcio , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 50(2): 251-273, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023042

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis; nonetheless, it remains an undertreated condition. Transplantation-induced osteoporosis encompasses a broad range of unique pathogenetic features with distinct characteristics dependent on the transplanted organ. Understanding the pathogenesis of bone loss is key to recommending osteoporosis therapy in these patients. This review summarizes recent advances and addresses current issues in these fields.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): 1900-1917, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788935

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by low serum calcium, increased serum phosphorus, and inappropriately low or decreased serum parathyroid hormone, which may be associated with soft tissue calcification in the basal ganglia of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors involved in the pathophysiology of basal ganglia calcification (BGC) in the brain in chronic hypoparathyroidism and to evaluate proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. DESIGN: Case-control study with retrospective review of medical records over 20 years. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PATIENTS: 142 patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism and computed tomography (CT) head scans followed between January 1, 2000 and July 9, 2020, and 426 age- and sex-matched controls with CT head scans over the same interval. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, biochemical, and CT head imaging findings, with semiquantitative assessment of volumetric BGC. RESULTS: The study found that 25.4% of 142 patients followed for a median of 17 years after diagnosis of chronic hypoparathyroidism had BGC, which developed at a younger age than in controls. BGC was 5.1-fold more common in nonsurgical patients and less common in postsurgical patients. Low serum calcium and low calcium/phosphate ratio correlated with BGC. Neither serum phosphorus nor calcium × phosphate product predicted BGC. Lower serum calcium was associated with greater volume of BGC. The extent of BGC varied widely, with nonsurgical patients generally having a greater volume and distribution of calcification. CONCLUSIONS: BGC is associated with low serum calcium and low serum calcium/phosphate ratio, which may be related to severity of the disease, its etiology, or duration of treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/epidemiologia , Calcinose , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 165-173, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413815

RESUMO

Biospecimen research is a prominent investigative strategy that aims to provide novel insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), inform clinical trials, and develop effective, life-saving treatments. However, COVID-19 biospecimen research raises accompanying ethical concerns and practical challenges for investigators and participants. In this special article, we discuss the ethical issues that are associated with autonomy, beneficence, and justice in COVID-19 biospecimen research and describe strategies to manage the practical challenges, with an emphasis on protecting the rights and welfare of human research participants during a pandemic response. Appropriate institutional review board oversight and bioethics guidance for COVID-19 biospecimen research must maintain their focus on protecting the rights and welfare of research participants, despite the urgent need for more knowledge about the virus and the threat it poses to communities and nations.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , COVID-19/virologia , Eticistas , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Ética em Pesquisa , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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