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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 122, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of nuclear receptors in both the aetiology and treatment of breast cancer is exemplified by the use of the oestrogen receptor (ER) as a prognostic marker and treatment target. Treatments targeting the oestrogen signalling pathway are initially highly effective for most patients. However, for the breast cancers that fail to respond, or become resistant, to current endocrine treatments, the long-term outlook is poor. ER is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, comprising 48 members in the human, many of which are expressed in the breast and could be used as alternative targets in cases where current treatments are ineffective. METHODS: We used sparse canonical correlation analysis to interrogate potential novel nuclear receptor expression relationships in normal breast and breast cancer. These were further explored using whole transcriptome profiling in breast cancer cells after combinations of ligand treatments. RESULTS: Using this approach, we discovered a tumour suppressive relationship between the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR), in particular RARß. Expression profiling of MR expressing breast cancer cells revealed that mineralocorticoid and retinoid co-treatment activated an expression program consistent with a reverse Warburg effect and growth inhibition, which was not observed with either ligand alone. Moreover, high expression of both MR and RARB was associated with improved breast cancer-specific survival. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals a previously unknown relationship between MR and RAR in the breast, which is dependent on menopausal state and altered in malignancy. This finding identifies potential new targets for the treatment of breast cancers that are refractory to existing therapeutic options.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 312, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949161

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Apoptose , Relógios Circadianos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 17(6): 570-576, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429584

RESUMO

Standardization and sustainability are ideals within the biobanking world, and the demand for high-quality well-annotated specimens is growing just as rapidly as the ever-increasing precision and throughput of today's high-tech scientific methods. In the state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, the state government has allocated significant funding toward this requirement in recent years, with the launch of the NSW Health Statewide Biobank in central Sydney in 2017, and the introduction of the voluntary NSW Biobank Certification Program, and Consent Toolkit. For new and established biobanks, the influence of these new resources has been twofold: first they have provided valuable guidance for moving toward standardized practices and raising the bar for biobanking quality standards; second, they have brought to the forefront the challenges of sustainability and transitioning to a certification standard of biobanking. In Westmead, ∼20 km from Sydney's central business district, the Westmead Research Hub has responded to these challenges with a collaborative biobanking project initiated in 2015. As the site of almost 30 individual biobanks, and to inform a pilot project of central biobank services, a questionnaire was developed and administered to all of the biobanks. This article reports on the results from the questionnaire and the rationale for subsequent initiation of a core biobanking facility.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/economia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Austrália , Certificação , Curadoria de Dados , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2634, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796232

RESUMO

There are currently no therapeutics to treat infection with the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which causes flu-like symptoms leading to neurological symptoms in up to 14% of cases. Large outbreaks of VEEV can result in 10,000 s of human cases and mass equine death. We previously showed that mifepristone (RU486) has anti-VEEV activity (EC50 = 20 µM) and only limited cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 µM), but a limitation in its use is its abortifacient activity resulting from its ability to antagonize the progesterone receptor (PR). Here we generate a suite of new mifepristone analogues with enhanced antiviral properties, succeeding in achieving >11-fold improvement in anti-VEEV activity with no detectable increase in toxicity. Importantly, we were able to derive a lead compound with an EC50 of 7.2 µM and no detectable PR antagonism activity. Finally, based on our SAR analysis we propose avenues for the further development of these analogues as safe and effective anti-VEEV agents.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mifepristona/análogos & derivados , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Receptores de Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mifepristona/síntese química , Mifepristona/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Cromatina/química , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Transcriptoma
17.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 35(1-2): 3-13, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214365

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive breast cancer (IBC) and lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) represent distinct stages in breast cancer progression with different clinical implications. Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression may play a role in mediating the progression of DCIS to IBC and LVI. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether differential miRNA expression could play a role in breast cancer progression. Cancer cells from DCIS, IBC and LVI were microdissected from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue of five breast cancer samples. MiRNA profiling of extracted RNA was performed using the TaqMan® Array Human MicroRNA Cards A and B v3.0. Candidate miRNAs and gene targets were validated by qPCR. 3D culture of MCF10A, MCF10DCIS.com and T47D cells were used as models for normal, DCIS and IBC. Immunohistochemistry of candidate genes was performed on FFPE 3D cell cultures as well as on tissue microarray which included cores of DCIS and IBC samples. MiR-150, miR-126 and miR-155 were found to be more highly expressed in IBC and LVI compared to DCIS. Gene targets of these miRNAs, RhoA, PEG10 and MYB, were found to be more highly expressed in DCIS compared to IBC by qPCR and in MCF10A and MCF10DCIS.com cells compared to T47D cells by immunohistochemistry. There was no difference in intensity of staining of RhoA by immunohistochemistry in DCIS versus IBC samples on tissue microarray. In this pilot study, we found evidence to support a potential role for variation in miRNA levels in the transition from DCIS to IBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Axila , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/metabolismo , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Formaldeído , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
18.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 466: 2-14, 2018 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851667

RESUMO

The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are master regulators of the development and function of a broad spectrum of human tissues, including the breast, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, brain and bone. Acting through the nuclear estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), both play complex and essential coordinated roles in the extensive development of the lobular alveolar epithelial structures of the normal breast during puberty, the normal menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The past decade has seen major advances in understanding the mechanisms of action of estrogen and progesterone in the normal breast and in the delineation of the complex hierarchy of cell types regulated by ovarian hormones in this tissue. There is evidence for a role for both ER and PR in driving breast cancer, and both are favourable prognostic markers with respect to outcome. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of ER and PR in the normal breast, and implications for the development and management of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Mama , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Estrogênicos/química , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/química , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
19.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 58(3): R169-R190, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087820

RESUMO

Nuclear receptors (NRs) have been targets of intensive drug development for decades due to their roles as key regulators of multiple developmental, physiological and disease processes. In breast cancer, expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptor remains clinically important in predicting prognosis and determining therapeutic strategies. More recently, there is growing evidence supporting the involvement of multiple nuclear receptors other than the estrogen and progesterone receptors, in the regulation of various processes important to the initiation and progression of breast cancer. We review new insights into the mechanisms of action of NRs made possible by recent advances in genomic technologies and focus on the emerging functional roles of NRs in breast cancer biology, including their involvement in circadian regulation, metabolic reprogramming and breast cancer migration and metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Progressão da Doença , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Transdução de Sinais
20.
EBioMedicine ; 6: 59-72, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27211549

RESUMO

We have previously reported that RORγ expression was decreased in ER-ve breast cancer, and increased expression improves clinical outcomes. However, the underlying RORγ dependent mechanisms that repress breast carcinogenesis have not been elucidated. Here we report that RORγ negatively regulates the oncogenic TGF-ß/EMT and mammary stem cell (MaSC) pathways, whereas RORγ positively regulates DNA-repair. We demonstrate that RORγ expression is: (i) decreased in basal-like subtype cancers, and (ii) inversely correlated with histological grade and drivers of carcinogenesis in breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, integration of RNA-seq and ChIP-chip data reveals that RORγ regulates the expression of many genes involved in TGF-ß/EMT-signaling, DNA-repair and MaSC pathways (including the non-coding RNA, LINC00511). In accordance, pharmacological studies demonstrate that an RORγ agonist suppresses breast cancer cell viability, migration, the EMT transition (microsphere outgrowth) and mammosphere-growth. In contrast, RNA-seq demonstrates an RORγ inverse agonist induces TGF-ß/EMT-signaling. These findings suggest pharmacological modulation of RORγ activity may have utility in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Reparo do DNA , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Metástase Neoplásica , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Propanóis/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais
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