Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
ACS Nano ; 5(7): 5987-94, 2011 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21671628

RESUMO

ZnO is a wide band gap metal oxide with a very interesting combination of semiconducting, transparent optical and catalytic properties. Recently, an amplified interest in ZnO has appeared due to the impressive progress made in nanofabrication of tailored ZnO nanostructures and functional surfaces. However, the fundamental principles governing the structure of even the clean low-index ZnO surfaces have not been adequately explained. From an interplay of high-resolution scanning probe microscopy (SPM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy experiments, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we identify here a group of hitherto unresolved surface structures which stabilize the clean polar O-terminated ZnO(0001) surface. The found honeycomb structures are truly remarkable since their existence deviates from expectations using a conventional electrostatic model which applies to the opposite Zn-terminated (0001) surface. As a common principle, the differences for the clean polar ZnO surfaces are explained by a higher bonding flexibility of the exposed 3-fold coordinated surface Zn atoms as compared to O atoms.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2(1): 53-8, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18654208

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulphide nanostructures are of interest for a wide variety of nanotechnological applications ranging from the potential use of inorganic nanotubes in nanoelectronics to the active use of nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we use atom-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy to systematically map and classify the atomic-scale structure of triangular MoS2 nanocrystals as a function of size. Instead of a smooth variation as expected from the bulk structure of MoS2, we observe a very strong size dependence for the cluster morphology and electronic structure driven by the tendency to optimize the sulphur excess present at the cluster edges. By analysing of the atomic-scale structure of clusters, we identify the origin of the structural transitions occurring at unique cluster sizes. The novel findings suggest that good size control during the synthesis of MoS2 nanostructures may be used for the production of chemically or optically active MoS2 nanomaterials with superior performance.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Dissulfetos/química , Molibdênio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Enxofre/química , Catálise , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(42): 13950-8, 2006 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17044723

RESUMO

Supported MoS(2) nanoparticles constitute the active component of the important hydrotreating catalysts used for industrial upgrading and purification of the oil feedstock for the production of fossil fuels with a low environmental load. We have synthesized and studied a model system of the hydrotreating catalyst consisting of MoS(2) nanoclusters supported on a graphite surface in order to resolve a number of very fundamental questions related to the atomic-scale structure and morphology of the active clusters and in particular the effect of a substrate used in some types of hydrotreating catalysts. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is used to image the atomic-scale structure of graphite-supported MoS(2) nanoclusters in real space. It is found that the pristine graphite (0001) surface does not support a high dispersion of MoS(2), but by introducing a small density of defects in the surface, highly dispersed MoS(2) nanoclusters could be synthesized on the graphite. From high-resolution STM images it is found that MoS(2) nanoclusters synthesized at low temperature in a sulfiding atmosphere preferentially grow as single-layer clusters, whereas clusters synthesized at 1200 K grow as multilayer slabs oriented with the MoS(2)(0001) basal plane parallel to the graphite surface. The morphology of both single-layer and multilayer MoS(2) nanoclusters is found to be preferentially hexagonal, and atom-resolved images of the top facet of the clusters provide new atomic-scale information on the MoS(2)-HOPG bonding. The structure of the two types of catalytically interesting edges terminating the hexagonal MoS(2) nanoclusters is also resolved in atomic detail in STM images, and from these images it is possible to reveal the atomic structure of both edges and the location and coverage of sulfur and hydrogen adsorbates.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 17(14): 3436-41, 2006 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19661587

RESUMO

Atomic force microscopy in the non-contact mode (nc-AFM) can provide atom-resolved images of the surface of, in principle, any material independent of its conductivity. Due to the complex mechanisms involved in the contrast formation in nc-AFM imaging, it is, however, far from trivial to identify individual surface atoms or adsorbates from AFM images. In this work, we successfully demonstrate how to extract detailed information about defects and the chemical identity of adsorbates on a metal oxide surface from nc-AFM images. We make use of the observation that the apex of the AFM tip can be altered to expose either a positive or negative tip termination. The complementary set of images recorded with the two tip terminations unambiguously define the ionic sub-lattices and reveal the exact positions of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl (OH) defects on a TiO(2) surface. Chemical specificity is extracted by comparing the characteristic contrast patterns of the defects with results from comprehensive AFM simulations. Our methodology of analysis is generally applicable and may be pivotal for uncovering surface defects and adsorbates on other transition metal oxides designed for heterogeneous catalysis, photo-electrolysis or biocompatibility.

5.
Nat Mater ; 4(2): 160-2, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15665835

RESUMO

The reactivity of catalytic surfaces is often dominated by very reactive low-coordinated atoms such as step-edge sites. However, very little knowledge exists concerning the influence of step edges on the selectivity in reactions involving multiple reaction pathways. Such detailed information could be very valuable in rational design of new catalysts with improved selectivity. Here we show, from an interplay between scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments and density functional theory calculations, that the activation of ethylene on Ni(111) follows the trend of higher reactivity for decomposition at step edges as compared with the higher-coordinated terrace sites. The step-edge effect is considerably more pronounced for the C-C bond breaking than for the C-H bond breaking, and thus steps play an important role in the bond-breaking selectivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the number of reactive step sites can be controlled by blocking the steps with Ag. This approach to nanoscale design of catalysts is exploited in the synthesis of a new high-surface-area AgNi alloy catalyst, which is tested in hydrogenolysis experiments.

6.
Nature ; 427(6973): 426-9, 2004 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14749826

RESUMO

The synthesis of carbon nanotubes with predefined structure and functionality plays a central role in the field of nanotechnology, whereas the inhibition of carbon growth is needed to prevent a breakdown of industrial catalysts for hydrogen and synthesis gas production. The growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres has therefore been widely studied. Recent advances in in situ techniques now open up the possibility of studying gas-solid interactions at the atomic level. Here we present time-resolved, high-resolution in situ transmission electron microscope observations of the formation of carbon nanofibres from methane decomposition over supported nickel nanocrystals. Carbon nanofibres are observed to develop through a reaction-induced reshaping of the nickel nanocrystals. Specifically, the nucleation and growth of graphene layers are found to be assisted by a dynamic formation and restructuring of mono-atomic step edges at the nickel surface. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that the observations are consistent with a growth mechanism involving surface diffusion of carbon and nickel atoms. The finding that metallic step edges act as spatiotemporal dynamic growth sites may be important for understanding other types of catalytic reactions and nanomaterial syntheses.

7.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 9(Pt 4): 246-53, 2002 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12091735

RESUMO

A silicon drift detector (SDD) was used for ex situ and time-resolved in situ fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) on low-concentrated catalyst samples. For a single-element and a seven-element SDD the energy resolution and the peak-to-background ratio were verified at high count rates, sufficient for fluorescence XAFS. An experimental set-up including the seven-element SDD without any cooling and an in situ cell with gas supply and on-line gas analysis was developed. With this set-up the reduction and oxidation of a zeolite supported catalyst containing 0.3 wt% platinum was followed by fluorescence near-edge scans with a time resolution of 10 min each. From ex situ experiments on low-concentrated platinum- and gold-based catalysts fluorescence XAFS scans could be obtained with sufficient statistical quality for a quantitative analysis. Structural information on the gold and platinum particles could be extracted by both the Fourier transforms and the near-edge region of the XAFS spectra. Moreover, it was found that with the seven-element SDD concentrations of the element of interest as low as 100 ppm can be examined by fluorescence XAFS.

8.
Science ; 295(5562): 2053-5, 2002 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11896271

RESUMO

In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to obtain atom-resolved images of copper nanocrystals on different supports. These are catalysts for methanol synthesis and hydrocarbon conversion processes for fuel cells. The nanocrystals undergo dynamic reversible shape changes in response to changes in the gaseous environment. For zinc oxide-supported samples, the changes are caused both by adsorbate-induced changes in surface energies and by changes in the interfacial energy. For copper nanocrystals supported on silica, the support has negligible influence on the structure. Nanoparticle dynamics must be included in the description of catalytic and other properties of nanomaterials. In situ microscopy offers possibilities for obtaining the relevant atomic-scale insight.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA