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1.
J Environ Radioact ; 211: 106071, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for childhood central nervous system tumors (CNST) but the role of low doses remains debated. In particular, there are few studies of natural background radiation (NBR, gamma radiation and radon) and childhood CNST, and their results are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the ecological association between NBR exposure and childhood CNST incidence in France, considering childhood CNST overall and by subgroups. METHODS: Incidence data were provided by the French national registry of childhood cancers, which has high completeness. We included 5471 childhood CNST cases registered over the period 2000-2012, and their municipality of residence at diagnosis was recorded. Municipality NBR exposures were estimated by cokriging models, using NBR measurements and additional geographic data. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) per unit variation of exposure was estimated with Poisson regression models. NBR exposures were considered at the time of diagnosis, and cumulatively from birth to diagnosis. In an exploratory analysis, the total brain dose due to NBR was used. RESULTS: Overall, there was no association between NBR exposure and childhood CNST incidence (IRR = 1.03 (0.98,1.09) per 50 nSv/h for gamma radiation, and IRR = 1.02 (0,96,1.07) per 100 Bq/m3 for radon). An association was suggested between pilocytic astrocytomas and gamma radiation (IRR = 1.12 (1.00,1.24) per 50 nSv/h) but not with radon (IRR = 1.07 (0.95,1.20) per 100 Bq/m3). Upward trends for this CNST subtype were also suggested with the cumulative exposures to gamma radiation and the total brain dose. NBR exposure was not associated with other CNST subgroups (ependymomas, embryonal tumors, and gliomas other than pilocytic astrocytomas). Adjustment for socio-demographic factors did not change the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our study was based on high quality incidence data, large numbers of CNST cases, and validated models of NBR exposure assessment. Results suggest an association between gamma radiation, as a component of NBR, and pilocytic astrocytomas incidence in France.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(10): 1075-1085, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although some specific genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis (NF) have been identified as risk factor of childhood brain tumors (CBT), the potential role of inherited susceptibility in CBT has yet to be elucidated. METHODS: To further investigate this, we conducted a pooled analysis of two nationwide case-control studies ESCALE and ESTELLE. The mothers of 509 CBT cases and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years who resided in France at diagnosis/interview, frequency-matched by age and gender, responded to a telephone interview conducted by trained interviewers. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: CBT was significantly associated with the family history of cancer in relatives (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). The OR was slightly higher for maternal relatives than for paternal relatives, and when at least two relatives had a history of cancer. CBT was significantly associated with a family history of brain tumor (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.7). This association seemed stronger for first-degree relatives (mother, father, and siblings), for whom, by contrast, no association was seen for cancers other than CBT. No specificity by CBT subtypes or by age of the children were found for any of these findings. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis of a familial susceptibility of CBT, not due to being a known NF carrier.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 62: 101581, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary habits during pregnancy have been inconsistently linked to childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), given the putative intrauterine onset of the disease as a result of triggering events during the critical period of fetal hematopoiesis. We investigated the potential association of maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy with childhood AML risk, pooling primary data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHODS: Information on coffee and/or tea consumption was available for 444 cases and 1255 age- and sex-matched controls, on coffee consumption for 318 cases and 971 controls and on tea consumption for 388 cases and 932 controls. Categories for cups of daily coffee/tea consumption were created in order to explore potential dose-response associations. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Associations were found neither in the analysis on coffee or tea nor in the analysis on coffee only consumption (any versus no). A positive association with increasing coffee intake was observed (>1 cup per day; OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.92, increment of one cup per day; OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39). No associations were observed with tea consumption. Interaction analyses showed non-significant associations between coffee/tea and smoking. Hyperdiploidy was inversely associated with tea consumption, with other cytogenetic markers having no association with coffee/tea. CONCLUSION: Given the widespread consumption of caffeinated beverages among pregnant women, our finding is of important public health relevance, suggesting adverse effects of maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy in the offspring.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(10): 746-753, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously published studies on parental occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in their offspring were inconsistent. We therefore evaluated this question within the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHODS: We pooled 11 case-control studies including 9723 childhood leukaemia cases and 17 099 controls. Parental occupational ELF-MF exposure was estimated by linking jobs to an ELF-MF job-exposure matrix (JEM). Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs in pooled analyses and meta-analyses. RESULTS: ORs from pooled analyses for paternal ELF-MF exposure >0.2 microtesla (µT) at conception were 1.04 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.13) for ALL and 1.06 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.29) for AML, compared with ≤0.2 µT. Corresponding ORs for maternal ELF-MF exposure during pregnancy were 1.00 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.12) for ALL and 0.85 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.16) for AML. No trends of increasing ORs with increasing exposure level were evident. Furthermore, no associations were observed in the meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this large international dataset applying a comprehensive quantitative JEM, we did not find any associations between parental occupational ELF-MF exposure and childhood leukaemia.

6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 2907-2916, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697705

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial tumour in children. Little is known about the aetiology of NB. The early age at onset and the embryonic nature suggest a role for perinatal exposures. We conducted a pooled analysis of two French national population-based case-control studies to explore whether there was an association between parental smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of NB. The mothers of 357 NB cases and 1,783 controls from general population, frequency matched by age and sex, were interviewed on demographic, socioeconomic and perinatal characteristics, maternal reproductive story, and life-style and childhood environment. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis of our findings with those of previous studies was also conducted. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was slightly more often reported for the cases (24.1%) than for the controls (19.7%) (OR 1.3 [95% CI 0.9-1.7]; summary OR from meta-analysis 1.1 [95% CI 1.0-1.3]. Paternal smoking in the year before child's birth were not associated with NB as independent exposure (OR 1.1 [95% CI 0.9-1.4] but the association was stronger when both parents reported having smoked during pregnancy (OR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]. No association was observed with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.8-1.4], summary OR from meta-analysis 1.0 [95% CI 0.9-1.2]. Our findings provide some evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and NB and add another reason to recommend that women refrain from smoking during pregnancy.

8.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4182, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305637

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10-54) and 14q32.13 (rs117410836, near TCL1; OR = 4.90, 95% CI: 3.45-6.96, P = 8.75 × 10-19). Both risk alleles are observed at a low frequency among controls (~2-3%) and occur in excess in affected cases within families. In silico data suggest that rs116446171 may have functional importance, and in functional studies, we demonstrate increased reporter transcription and proliferation in cells transduced with the 6p25.3 risk allele. Although further studies are needed to fully elucidate underlying biological mechanisms, together these loci explain 4% of the familial risk and provide insights into genetic susceptibility to this malignancy.

10.
Cancer Med ; 7(10): 5299-5314, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant increases in childhood cancer incidence since the 1970s have been consistently reported worldwide, but the persistence of the increase on recent periods is discussed. No conclusion can be drawn concerning the spatial variations of childhood cancer, either. This study is an in-depth investigation of the spatial and temporal variations of childhood cancer in France. An extensive review of all the studies published since 2000 on those issues is provided. METHODS: The study included 25 877 cases of childhood cancer registered nationwide over 2000-2014. The spatial heterogeneity (overdispersion, autocorrelation, overall heterogeneity) was tested, on two geographic scales, and two spatial scan methods were used to detect clusters of cases. The annual average percent change (AAPC) in incidence rate was estimated with Poisson regression models, and joinpoint analyses were considered. RESULTS: Glioma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases exhibited some spatial heterogeneity and two large clusters were detected. Overall, the incidence rate of childhood cancer was stable over 2000-2014 (AAPC = -0.1% [-0.3%; 0.2%]). A log-linear positive trend was significantly evidenced for gliomas other than pilocytic astrocytomas (AAPC = 1.8% [0.9%; 2.7%]), with some suggestion of a leveling-off at the end of the period, while Burkitt lymphoma and germ cell tumor incidence rates decreased (AAPC = -2.2% [-3.8%; -0.5%] and AAPC = -1.9% [-3.4%; -0.3%], respectively). No spatial heterogeneity or significant time variation was evidenced for other cancers. CONCLUSION: Several types of childhood cancer displayed some spatial heterogeneity and two large clusters were detected, the origins of which are to be investigated and might include differences in case ascertainment. Overall, the results do not support a sustained increase in incidence rates of childhood cancer in recent years.

11.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(11): 798-806, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon solvents and risk of multiple myeloma (MM) in a large, consortium-based study. METHODS: We pooled data on 2854 cases and 10 743 controls from nine studies participating in the InterLymph consortium. Occupational exposures to benzene, toluene and xylene were assigned by a job-exposure matrix, coupled with 'correction' of exposure probability by self-reported or expert-assessed exposure from the individual studies. Cumulative intensity was calculated as the job-specific exposure intensity multiplied by job duration, summed across jobs. Associations were estimated using logistic regression, with inclusion of covariates for study matching factors and other potential confounders. We repeated our main analysis using random-effects meta-analysis to evaluate heterogeneity of effect. RESULTS: Benzene, toluene and xylene were each associated with MM. For the three solvents, the highest quartile of high-probability cumulative intensity exposure (vs unexposed) was associated with 42% to 63% increased risks of MM. Associations with toluene and xylene exposures were fairly consistent and robust to sensitivity analyses. The estimated effect for benzene was moderately heterogeneous between the studies. Each solvent's association with MM was stronger for exposure occurring within 20 years of diagnosis than with exposure lagged by more than 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds important evidence for a role of aromatic hydrocarbon solvents in causation of MM. The difficulty in disentangling individual compounds in this group and a lack of data on potential carcinogenicity of toluene and xylene, in widespread current use, underscore a need for further epidemiological evaluation.

12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(9): e27235, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate at the population level the impact of the actions developed in France since 2004 to organize the care of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we conducted the present study to provide an unbiased view of the pathway of care of these patients. METHODS: Using a population-based registry, we conducted a review of all cases of cancer diagnosed during 2012 and 2013 in 15- to 24-year-old patients living in nineteen French administrative areas. RESULTS: The median times for diagnosis and treatment of the 993 included AYAs were 9 weeks (3-22) and 1 day (0-20), respectively. Delays in diagnosis were significantly longer in young adults than in adolescents, especially for soft-tissue sarcomas (48.7 weeks vs. 15.4 weeks, P = 0.04) and bone tumors (21.4 weeks vs. 10.1 weeks, P = 0.04). The first physicians seen by patients were mostly general practitioners (67.4%). Most patients (77.5%) were treated in adult units. Management decisions were taken within the context of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in 85.3% of cases. MDT meetings that involved both pediatric and adult oncologists were uncommon (15.7% of patients). Twenty-six percent of patients were included in randomized or nonrandomized clinical studies. The proportion of inclusion was significantly higher in adolescents (39.5%) than in young adults (16.8%). CONCLUSION: In France, pathways of care for AYAs are heterogeneous. It is necessary to organize a national network of expert centers with adequate medical skills and specific psychosocial support and facilities to provide the best possible care for these patients.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 119(3): 364-373, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although studies have consistently found an association between childhood leukaemia risk and magnetic fields, the associations between childhood leukaemia and distance to overhead power lines have been inconsistent. We pooled data from multiple studies to assess the association with distance and evaluate whether it is due to magnetic fields or other factors associated with distance from lines. METHODS: We present a pooled analysis combining individual-level data (29,049 cases and 68,231 controls) from 11 record-based studies. RESULTS: There was no material association between childhood leukaemia and distance to nearest overhead power line of any voltage. Among children living < 50 m from 200 + kV power lines, the adjusted odds ratio for childhood leukaemia was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.92-1.93). The odds ratio was higher among children diagnosed before age 5 years. There was no association with calculated magnetic fields. Odds ratios remained unchanged with adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In this first comprehensive pooled analysis of childhood leukaemia and distance to power lines, we found a small and imprecise risk for residences < 50 m of 200 + kV lines that was not explained by high magnetic fields. Reasons for the increased risk, found in this and many other studies, remains to be elucidated.

14.
Cancer Med ; 7(6): 2665-2681, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663688

RESUMO

The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several factors related to early stimulation of the immune system, that is, farm residence and regular contacts with farm animals (livestock, poultry) or pets in early childhood, were investigated using data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. The sample included 7847 ALL cases and 11,667 controls aged 1-14 years. In all studies, the data were obtained from case and control parents using standardized questionnaires. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Contact with livestock in the first year of life was inversely associated with ALL (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85). Inverse associations were also observed for contact with dogs (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and cats (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94) in the first year of life. There was no evidence of a significant association with farm residence in the first year of life. The findings of these large pooled and meta-analyses add additional evidence to the hypothesis that regular contact with animals in early childhood is inversely associated with childhood ALL occurrence which is consistent with Greaves' delayed infection hypothesis.

15.
Blood ; 131(23): 2541-2551, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674426

RESUMO

Inherited loci have been found to be associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A combined polygenic risk score (PRS) of representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these loci may improve risk prediction over individual SNPs. Herein, we evaluated the association of a PRS with CLL risk and its precursor, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). We assessed its validity and discriminative ability in an independent sample and evaluated effect modification and confounding by family history (FH) of hematological cancers. For discovery, we pooled genotype data on 41 representative SNPs from 1499 CLL and 2459 controls from the InterLymph Consortium. For validation, we used data from 1267 controls from Mayo Clinic and 201 CLL, 95 MBL, and 144 controls with a FH of CLL from the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium. We used odds ratios (ORs) to estimate disease associations with PRS and c-statistics to assess discriminatory accuracy. In InterLymph, the continuous PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk (OR, 2.49; P = 4.4 × 10-94). We replicated these findings in the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium and Mayo controls (OR, 3.02; P = 7.8 × 10-30) and observed high discrimination (c-statistic = 0.78). When jointly modeled with FH, PRS retained its significance, along with FH status. Finally, we found a highly significant association of the continuous PRS with MBL risk (OR, 2.81; P = 9.8 × 10-16). In conclusion, our validated PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk, adding information beyond FH. The PRS provides a means of identifying those individuals at greater risk for CLL as well as those at increased risk of MBL, a condition that has potential clinical impact beyond CLL.

16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(6): 539-550, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The early onset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) suggests that critical exposures occurring during pregnancy may increase risk. We investigated the effects of maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy on ALL risk by pooling data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHOD: Data on maternal coffee intake were available for 2,552 cases and 4,876 controls, and data on tea intake were available for 2,982 cases and 5,367 controls. Coffee and tea intake was categorized into 0, > 0-1, > 1-2, and > 2 cups/day, and covariates were combined and harmonized. Data on genetic variants in NAT2, CYP1A1, and NQO1 were also available in a subset. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, and linear trends across categories were assessed. RESULTS: No association was seen with 'any' maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy, but there was evidence of a positive exposure-response; the pooled OR for > 2 cups/day versus none was 1.27 (95% CI 1.09-1.43), p trend = 0.005. No associations were observed with tea consumption. No interactions were seen between coffee or tea intake and age, maternal smoking or genotype, and there was little or no evidence that associations with coffee or tea differed among cases with and without chromosomal translocations. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, our findings suggest that high coffee intake during pregnancy may increase risk of childhood ALL. Thus, current advice to limit caffeine intake during pregnancy to reduce risk of preterm birth may have additional benefits.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 142(3): 489-497, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949017

RESUMO

Some previous epidemiological studies have suggested that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may have a possible role in the development of childhood brain tumors (CBT). We pooled data from two French national population-based, case-control studies to investigate the association between maternal residential use of pesticides during pregnancy and the risk of CBT. The mothers of 437 CBT cases and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years who resided in France at diagnosis/interview, frequency-matched by age and gender, answered a structured telephone interview conducted by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). CBT was significantly associated with the maternal home use of pesticides during pregnancy (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.8) and, more specifically, with insecticide (OR 1.4, 1.2-1.8). We could not draw any conclusions about herbicides and/or fungicides because few women used them during pregnancy and most of these mothers also used insecticides. Although potential recall bias cannot be excluded, our findings of this pooled analysis support the hypothesis that residential maternal use of pesticides during pregnancy and particularly insecticides may increase the risk of CBT. Future investigations to verify these findings and to explore for CBT subtypes and dose-response are necessary to have a better understanding of the possible role of pesticides in etiology of CBT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 52: 1-9, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated whether early infections and factors potentially related to early immune stimulation might be involved in the aetiology of childhood brain tumours (CBT). In this study, we investigated the associations between CBT with early day-care attendance, history of early common infections, atopic conditions (asthma/wheezing, eczema, allergic rhinitis), early farm residence/visits and contact with animals. METHODS: We pooled data from two nationwide French case-control studies, the ESCALE and ESTELLE studies. Children with a CBT diagnosed between 1 and 14 years of age were identified directly from the French National Registry of Childhood Cancers, while population controls were recruited from telephone subscribers. Odds-ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The analyses included 469 cases and 2719 controls. We found no association between attending a day-care centre (OR: 0.9, 95%CI: 0.7-1.2) or having had repeated common infections (OR: 0.9, 95%CI: 0.7-1.2) in the first year of life and the risk of CBT. There was also no association with a history of asthma/wheezing (OR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.56-1.1). Farm visits (OR: 0.6, 95%CI: 0.5-0.8) as well as contact with pets (OR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.6-1.0) in the first year of life were inversely associated with CBT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a protective effect of early farm visits and contact with pets, but not with other markers of early immune stimulation. This might be related to immune stimulation but needs further investigation.

19.
Lupus Sci Med ; 4(1): e000187, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214033

RESUMO

Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL. Methods: GWAS data on European Caucasians from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) provided a total of 3857 DLBCL cases and 7666 general-population controls. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among the 28 SLE-related SNPs investigated, the two most convincingly associated with risk of DLBCL included the CD40 SLE risk allele rs4810485 on chromosome 20q13 (OR per risk allele=1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16, p=0.0134), and the HLA SLE risk allele rs1270942 on chromosome 6p21.33 (OR per risk allele=1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, p=0.0362). Of additional possible interest were rs2205960 and rs12537284. The rs2205960 SNP, related to a cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily TNFSF4, was associated with an OR per risk allele of 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.0549. The OR for the rs12537284 (chromosome 7q32, IRF5 gene) risk allele was 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.18, p=0.0765. Conclusions: These data suggest several plausible genetic links between DLBCL and SLE.

20.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206312

RESUMO

All nucleoside analogues for treating HIV infection, due to their capacity to integrate into and alter human DNA, are experimentally genotoxic to some extent. The long-term oncogenic risk after in utero exposure remains to be determined. Cancer incidence in uninfected children exposed to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) was evaluated, by cross-checking against the National Cancer Registry, in the French perinatal study of children born to HIV+ mothers. Twenty-one cancers were identified in 15,163 children (median age: 9.9 years [interquartile range (IQR): 5.8-14.2]) exposed to at least one NRTI in utero between 1990 and 2014. Five of these children were exposed to zidovudine monotherapy, and 15 to various combinations, seven of which included didanosine. Overall, the total number of cases was not significantly different from that expected for the general population (SIR = 0.8[0.47-1.24]), but the number of cases after didanosine exposure was twice that expected (SIR = 2.5 [1.01-5.19]). Didanosine accounted for only 10% of prescriptions but was associated with one-third of cancers. In multivariate analysis, didanosine exposure was significantly associated with higher risk (HR = 3.0 [0.9-9.8]). This risk was specifically linked to first-trimester exposure (HR = 5.5 [2.1-14.4]). Three cases of pineoblastoma, a very rare cancer, were observed, whereas 0.03 were expected. Two were associated with didanosine exposure. Despite reassuring data overall, there is strong evidence to suggest that didanosine displays transplacental oncogenicity. These findings cannot be extrapolated to other NRTIs, but they highlight the need for comprehensive evaluations of the transplacental genotoxicity of this antiretroviral class. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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