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1.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 24, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability. Although the genetic mechanisms underlying the disorder have been identified, description of its behavioural phenotype is in its infancy. In this study, reported behavioural and psychological characteristics of individuals with PTHS were investigated in comparison with the reported behaviour of age-matched individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) and Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from parents/caregivers of individuals with PTHS (n = 24), assessing behaviours associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), sociability, mood, repetitive behaviour, sensory processing, challenging behaviours and overactivity and impulsivity. For most measures, data were compared to data for people with AS (n = 24) and CdLS (n = 24) individually matched by adaptive ability, age and sex. RESULTS: Individuals with PTHS evidenced significantly higher levels of difficulties with social communication and reciprocal social interaction than individuals with AS, with 21 of 22 participants with PTHS meeting criteria indicative of ASD on a screening instrument. Individuals with PTHS were reported to be less sociable with familiar and unfamiliar people than individuals with AS, but more sociable with unfamiliar people than individuals with CdLS. Data also suggested areas of atypicality in sensory experiences. Challenging behaviours were reported frequently in PTHS, with self-injury (70.8%) occurring at significantly higher rates than in AS (41.7%) and aggression (54.2%) occurring at significantly higher rates than in CdLS (25%). Individuals with PTHS also evidenced lower reported mood than individuals with AS. CONCLUSIONS: Behaviours which may be characteristic of PTHS include those associated with ASD, including deficits in social communication and reciprocal social interaction. High rates of aggression and self-injurious behaviour compared to other genetic syndrome groups are of potential clinical significance and warrant further investigation. An atypical sensory profile may also be evident in PTHS. The specific aetiology of and relationships between different behavioural and psychological atypicalities in PTHS, and effective clinical management of these, present potential topics for future research.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

3.
Arch Dis Child ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fetal anticonvulsant syndrome (FACS) describes the pattern of physical and developmental problems seen in those children exposed to certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero. The diagnosis of FACS is a clinical one and so excluding alternative diagnoses such as genetic disorders is essential. METHODS: We reviewed the pathogenicity of reported variants identified on exome sequencing in the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) Study in 42 children exposed to AEDs in utero, but where a diagnosis other than FACS was suspected. In addition, we analysed chromosome microarray data from 10 patients with FACS seen in a Regional Genetics Service. RESULTS: Seven children (17%) from the DDD Study had a copy number variant or pathogenic variant in a developmental disorder gene which was considered to explain or partially explain their phenotype. Across the AED exposure types, variants were found in 2/15 (13%) valproate exposed cases and 3/14 (21%) carbamazepine exposed cases. No pathogenic copy number variants were identified in our local sample (n=10). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first of its kind to analyse the exomes of children with developmental disorders who were exposed to AEDs in utero. Though we acknowledge that the results are subject to bias, a significant number of children were identified with alternate diagnoses which had an impact on counselling and management. We suggest that consideration is given to performing whole exome sequencing as part of the diagnostic work-up for children exposed to AEDs in utero.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029780, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cleft palate is among the most common birth abnormalities. The success of primary surgery in the early months of life is crucial for successful feeding, speech, hearing, dental development and facial growth. Over recent decades, age at palatal surgery in infancy has reduced. This has led to palatal closure in one-stage procedures being carried out around the age of 12 months, but in some cases as early as 6 months. The primary objective of the Timing Of Primary Surgery for Cleft Palate (TOPS)trial is to determine whether surgery for cleft palate performed at 6 or 12 months of age is most beneficial for speech outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Infants with a diagnosis of non-syndromic isolated cleft palate will be randomised to receive standardised primary surgery (Sommerlad technique) for closure of the cleft at either 6 months or 12 months, corrected for gestational age. The primary outcome will be perceived insufficient velopharyngeal function at 5 years of age. Secondary outcomes measured across 12 months, 3 years and 5 years will include growth, safety of the procedure, dentofacial development, speech, hearing level and middle ear function. Video and audio recordings of speech will be collected in a standardised age-appropriate manner and analysed independently by multiple speech and language therapists. The trial aims to recruit and follow-up 300 participants per arm. Data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle using a 5% significance level. All analyses will be prespecified within a full and detailed statistical analysis plan. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been sought in each participating country according to country-specific procedures. Trial results will be presented at conferences, published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated through relevant patient support groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00993551; Pre-results.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 180, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pattern of major and minor congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphic features, and neurodevelopmental difficulties, including cognitive and social impairments has been reported in some children exposed to sodium valproate (VPA) during pregnancy. Recognition of the increased risks of in utero exposure to VPA for congenital malformations, and for the neurodevelopmental effects in particular, has taken many years but these are now acknowledged following the publication of the outcomes of several prospective studies and registries. As with other teratogens, exposure to VPA can have variable effects, ranging from a characteristic pattern of major malformations and significant intellectual disability to the other end of the continuum, characterised by facial dysmorphism which is often difficult to discern and a more moderate effect on neurodevelopment and general health. It has become clear that some individuals with FVSD have complex needs requiring multidisciplinary care but information regarding management is currently lacking in the medical literature. METHODS: An expert group was convened by ERN-ITHACA, the European Reference Network for Congenital Malformations and Intellectual Disability comprised of professionals involved in the care of individuals with FVSD and with patient representation. Review of published and unpublished literature concerning management of FVSD was undertaken and the level of evidence from these sources graded. Management recommendations were made based on strength of evidence and consensus expert opinion, in the setting of an expert consensus meeting. These were then refined using an iterative process and wider consultation. RESULTS: Whilst there was strong evidence regarding the increase in risk for major congenital malformations and neurodevelopmental difficulties there was a lack of high level evidence in other areas and in particular in terms of optimal clinical management.. The expert consensus approach facilitated the formulation of management recommendations, based on literature evidence and best practice. The outcome of the review and group discussions leads us to propose the term Fetal Valproate Spectrum Disorder (FVSD) as we feel this better encompasses the broad range of effects seen following VPA exposure in utero. CONCLUSION: The expert consensus approach can be used to define the best available clinical guidance for the diagnosis and management of rare disorders such as FVSD. FVSD can have medical, developmental and neuropsychological impacts with life-long consequences and affected individuals benefit from the input of a number of different health professionals.

7.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(4): 184-189, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274573

RESUMO

Traboulsi syndrome is an extremely rare ophthalmological disorder characterised by facial dysmorphism, lens dislocation, anterior segment abnormalities and spontaneous filtering blebs. It is caused by pathogenic variants in the ASPH gene. To date, only 13 individuals with Traboulsi syndrome from three families have been reported in the literature. We report the first UK family with Traboulsi syndrome associated with two novel ASPH variants. This condition, which has some phenotypic overlap with both Marfan syndrome and homocystinuria, is most likely under ascertained, and we further delineate the clinical features to aid its recognition.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1326-1340, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235867

RESUMO

This article is an update of the best practice guidelines for the molecular analysis of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes published in 2010 in BMC Medical Genetics [1]. The update takes into account developments in terms of techniques, differential diagnoses and (especially) reporting standards. It highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each method and moreover, is meant to facilitate the interpretation of the obtained results - leading to improved standardised reports.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 948-956, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982612

RESUMO

The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1058-1062, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892814

RESUMO

CREBBP loss-of function variants cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). There have been two separate reports of patients with missense variants in exon 30 or 31 of CREBBP in individuals lacking the characteristic facial and limb dysmorphism associated with RTS. Frequent features in this condition include variable intellectual disability, short stature, autistic behavior, microcephaly, feeding problems, epilepsy, recurrent upper airway infections, and mild hearing impairment. We report three further patients with de novo exon 31 CREBBP missense variants. The first individual has a c.5357G>A p. (Arg1786His) variant affecting the same codon as one of the previously described patients. Both these patients could be recognized by clinicians as mild RTS. Our second patient has a c.5602C>T p.(Arg1868Trp) variant that has been described in five other individuals who all share a strikingly similar phenotype. The third individual has a novel c.5354G>A p.(Cys1785Try) variant. Our reports expand the clinical spectrum to include ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, staphyloma, cochlear malformations, and exomphalos. These additional cases also help to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in this disorder. After the first and last authors of the previous two reports, we propose to call this disorder "Menke-Hennekam syndrome" to establish it as a clinical entity distinct from RTS and to provide a satisfactory name for adoption by parents and professionals, thus facilitating appropriate clinical management and research.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 570-578, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734472

RESUMO

DDX3X (Xp11.4) encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase that escapes X chromosome inactivation. Pathogenic variants in DDX3X have been shown to cause X-linked intellectual disability (ID) (MRX102, MIM: 300958). The phenotypes associated with DDX3X variants are heterogeneous and include brain and behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, hypotonia, and movement disorders and/or spasticity. The majority of DDX3X variants described are de novo mutations in females with ID. In contrast, most male DDX3X variants are inherited from an unaffected mother, with one documented exception being a recently identified de novo splice site variant. It has been suggested, therefore, that DDX3X exerts its effects through haploinsufficiency in females, and that affected males carry hypomorphic alleles that retain partial function. Given the lack of male de novo DDX3X variants, loss-of-function variants in this gene are suspected to be male lethal. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identified three unrelated males with hemizygous missense DDX3X variants and ID. All three variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, with two established as de novo. In silico analyses were supportive of pathogenicity. We report the male phenotypes and compare them to phenotypes observed in previously reported male and female patients. In conclusion, we propose that de novo DDX3X variants are not necessarily male lethal and should be considered as a cause of syndromic ID in both males and females.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1018-1025, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683926

RESUMO

Genetic services for individuals affected by cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) and their families are an important aspect of clinical care; yet debate exists as to how this service should be offered. This study explored the utility, acceptability, and delivery of genetic services from the perspectives of cleft-specialist clinicians, genetic counsellors, and affected families. Analysis of data collected from three focus groups and eleven individual interviews identified two overarching themes "Referring patients and families to genetic services" and "The role of a genetic specialist in the context of CL/P". The first examines the common reasons for referral to the genetics service, how best to judge the timing of a referral, and the optimal approach to the delivery of sensitive genetic information. The second theme discusses the role of the genetic specialist in the context of cleft care, including the optimal management of affected individuals and their families, and the delivery of basic genetics training and support for health professionals working in other disciplines. A model for the effective delivery of genetic services in CL/P is subsequently proposed. Coordination and financial implications of the proposed model ultimately require further consideration and evaluation to determine its effectiveness.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 92: 154-164, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660966

RESUMO

The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study was a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on learning and memory functions in 221 six-year-old children (including four sets of twins) whose mothers took one of these AEDs during pregnancy. Their performance was compared with that of a national sample of normally developing six year olds from the standardization sample of the Children's Memory Scale (CMS). The major results of this study indicate that the mean performance levels of children exposed to valproate were significantly below that of the children in the normal comparison group across all seven of the CMS Indexes. With one exception, this finding held up at the subtest level as well. These findings taken together with nonsignificant verbal and nonverbal forgetting scores appear to indicate that, as a group, children exposed to valproate experienced significant difficulty in their ability to process, encode, and learn both auditory/verbal as well as visual/nonverbal material. In addition, they exhibited significant difficulty holding and manipulating information in immediate auditory working memory. However, once the information was learned and stored, the valproate-exposed children appeared to be able to retrieve the information they did learn at normal levels. Finally, the processing, working memory, and learning deficits demonstrated by the valproate-exposed children are dose-related. In contrast to valproate, the findings pertaining to the children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and phenytoin in monotherapy are less clear. Therefore, further research will be required to delineate the potential risks to learning and memory functions in children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and phenytoin in monotherapy during pregnancy. Additional research employing larger prospective studies will be required to confirm the long-term cognitive and behavioral risks to children of mothers who are prescribed these four AEDs during pregnancy as well as to delineate any potential risks of newer AEDs and to understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain.

14.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 496-506, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666632

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing has established IQSEC2 as a neurodevelopmental disability gene. The IQSEC2 variant phenotype includes developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, hypotonia, autism, developmental regression, microcephaly and stereotypies but is yet to be fully described. Presented here are 14 new patients with IQSEC2 variants. In addition to the established features, we observed: gait ataxia in 7 of 9 (77.8%), drooling in 9 of 14 (64.2%), early feeding difficulties in 7 of 14 (50%), structural brain abnormalities in 6 of 13 (46.2%), brachycephaly in 5 of 14 (35.7%), and scoliosis and paroxysms of laughter each in 4 of 14 (28.6%). We suggest that these are features of the IQSEC2-related disorder. Gastrostomy requirement, plagiocephaly, strabismus and cortical blindness, each seen in 2 of 14 (14.3%), may also be associated. Shared facial features were noted in 8 of 14 patients, and shared hair patterning was identified in 5 of 14 patients. This study further delineates the IQSEC2 phenotypic spectrum and supports the notion of an emerging IQSEC2 syndrome. We draw parallels between the IQSEC2-related disorder and the Angelman-/Rett-/Pitt-Hopkins syndrome group of conditions and recommend the addition of IQSEC2 to epilepsy and developmental delay gene panels. We observed discordant phenotypes in monozygotic twins and apparent gonadal mosaicism, which has implications for recurrence risk counselling in the IQSEC2-related disorder.

15.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 462-478, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677142

RESUMO

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, specific facial features, and marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction, especially with disturbances of regulating respiration and intestinal mobility. It is caused by variants in the transcription factor TCF4. Heterogeneity in the clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria and care practices has prompted a group of international experts to establish guidelines for diagnostics and care. For issues, for which there was limited information available in international literature, we collaborated with national support groups and the participants of a syndrome specific international conference to obtain further information. Here, we discuss the resultant consensus, including the clinical definition of PTHS and a molecular diagnostic pathway. Recommendations for managing particular health problems such as dysregulated respiration are provided. We emphasize the need for integration of care for physical and behavioral issues. The recommendations as presented here will need to be evaluated for improvements to allow for continued optimization of diagnostics and care.

16.
Genome Res ; 29(2): 159-170, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587507

RESUMO

Mutations that perturb normal pre-mRNA splicing are significant contributors to human disease. We used exome sequencing data from 7833 probands with developmental disorders (DDs) and their unaffected parents, as well as more than 60,000 aggregated exomes from the Exome Aggregation Consortium, to investigate selection around the splice sites and quantify the contribution of splicing mutations to DDs. Patterns of purifying selection, a deficit of variants in highly constrained genes in healthy subjects, and excess de novo mutations in patients highlighted particular positions within and around the consensus splice site of greater functional relevance. By using mutational burden analyses in this large cohort of proband-parent trios, we could estimate in an unbiased manner the relative contributions of mutations at canonical dinucleotides (73%) and flanking noncanonical positions (27%), and calculate the positive predictive value of pathogenicity for different classes of mutations. We identified 18 patients with likely diagnostic de novo mutations in dominant DD-associated genes at noncanonical positions in splice sites. We estimate 35%-40% of pathogenic variants in noncanonical splice site positions are missing from public databases.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Exoma , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 71: 16-21, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased risk of impaired intelligence (IQ) has been documented in valproate-exposed children, but investigations have not previously focused on those with a clinical diagnosis of Fetal Valproate Syndrome (FVS). METHODS: This cross sectional observational study recruited individuals with a diagnosis of FVS and completed standardized assessments of intellectual abilities making comparisons to a normative comparison group. Both mean difference (MD) and prevalence of scores below the lower average range were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean full-scale IQ in 31 individuals with FVS (mean age 14.97; range 6-27 years) was 19 points lower (19.55, 95% CI -24.94 to 14.15), and IQ scores <70 were present in 26%. The mean differences for verbal comprehension (21.07, 95% CI -25.84 to -16.29), working memory (19.77, 95% CI -25.00 to -14.55) and processing speed (16.87, 95% CI -22.24 to -11.50) performances were poorer than expected with the mean differences over one standard deviation from the comparison group. Sixty one percent of cases demonstrated disproportionately lower verbal comprehension ability. There were no significant group differences for IQ in high vs. moderate dose valproate or mono vs. polytherapy. There were no differences in IQ between those with and those without a major congenital malformation. The requirement for educational intervention was high at 74%. CONCLUSION: Intellectual difficulties are a central feature of FVS and are more severe in their presentation in individuals with a diagnosis of valproate embryopathy. Individuals with FVS who present with the characteristic facial presentation should be considered at high risk of cognitive difficulties regardless of the dose of valproate exposure or the presence of a major congenital malformation.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217753

RESUMO

Melkersson Rosenthal syndromes (MRS) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by a triad of facial (seventh cranial) nerve palsy, recurrent orofacial swelling and fissuring of the tongue. A recent report implicated a heterozygous missense variant in SLC27A1 (FATP1) as the cause of this condition in members of an affected Chinese family. We undertook Sanger sequencing of this gene in 14 affected unrelated individuals affected by MRS. We did not detect any putative pathogenic variants. Our data indicates that there is both clinical and genetic heterogeneity in this condition and that the causative gene remains to be identified for the majority of cases.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

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