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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1354-1359, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900361

RESUMO

Atmospheric sulfate aerosols have important impacts on air quality, climate, and human and ecosystem health. However, current air-quality models generally underestimate the rate of conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfate during severe haze pollution events, indicating that our understanding of sulfate formation chemistry is incomplete. This may arise because the air-quality models rely upon kinetics studies of SO2 oxidation conducted in dilute aqueous solutions, and not at the high solute strengths of atmospheric aerosol particles. Here, we utilize an aerosol flow reactor to perform direct investigation on the kinetics of aqueous oxidation of dissolved SO2 by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using pH-buffered, submicrometer, deliquesced aerosol particles at relative humidity of 73 to 90%. We find that the high solute strength of the aerosol particles significantly enhances the sulfate formation rate for the H2O2 oxidation pathway compared to the dilute solution. By taking these effects into account, our results indicate that the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in the liquid water present in atmospheric aerosol particles can contribute to the missing sulfate source during severe haze episodes.

2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(1): 52-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197267

RESUMO

Ticks have relatively complex microbiomes, but only a small proportion of the bacterial symbionts recorded from ticks are vertically transmitted. Moreover, co-cladogenesis between ticks and their symbionts, indicating an intimate relationship over evolutionary history driven by a mutualistic association, is the exception rather than the rule. One of the most widespread tick symbionts is Candidatus Midichloria, which has been detected in all of the major tick genera of medical and veterinary importance. In some species of Ixodes, such as the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (infected with Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii), the symbiont is fixed in wild adult female ticks, suggesting an obligate mutualism. However, almost no information is available on genetic variation in Candidatus M. mitochondrii or possible co-cladogenesis with its host across its geographic range. Here, we report the first survey of Candidatus M. mitochondrii in I. ricinus in Great Britain and a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of tick and symbiont between British ticks and those collected in continental Europe. We show that while the prevalence of the symbiont in nymphs collected in England is similar to that reported from the continent, a higher prevalence in nymphs and adult males is apparent in Wales. In general, Candidatus M. mitochondrii exhibits very low levels of sequence diversity, although a consistent signal of host-symbiont coevolution was apparent in Scotland. Moreover, the tick MLST scheme revealed that Scottish specimens form a clade that is partially separated from other British ticks, with almost no contribution of continental sequence types in this north-westerly border of the tick's natural range. The low diversity of Candidatus M. mitochondrii, in contrast with previously reported high rates of polymorphism in I. ricinus mitogenomes, suggests that the symbiont may have swept across Europe recently via a horizontal, rather than vertical, transmission route.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Ixodes/genética , Rickettsiales/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Europa (Continente) , Ixodes/microbiologia , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/análise , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Ninfa , Rickettsiales/fisiologia
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 67(7): 2470-2475, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721843

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, obligatory anaerobic spirochete, CHPAT, was isolated from the rectal tissue of a Holstein-Friesian cow. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, CHPAT was most closely related to the human oral spirochete, Treponema parvum, with 88.8 % sequence identity. Further characterisation on the basis of recA gene sequence analysis, cell morphology, pattern of growth and physiological profiling identified marked differences with respect to other recognised species of the genus Treponema. Microscopically, the helical cells measured approximately 1-5 µm long and 0.15-0.25 µm wide, with two to five irregular spirals. Transmission electron microscopy identified four periplasmic flagella in a 2 : 4 : 2 arrangement. CHPAT grew independently of serum, demonstrated no evidence of haemolytic activity and possessed an in vitro enzyme activity profile that is unique amongst validly named species of the genus Treponema, exhibiting C4 esterase, α-galactosidase and ß-galactosidase activity. Taken together, these data indicate that CHPAT represents a novel species of the genus Treponema, for which the name Treponema rectale is proposed. The type strain of Treponema rectale is CHPAT (=DSM 103679T=NCTC 13848T).


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reto/microbiologia , Treponema/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Esterases/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Treponema/genética , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Reino Unido , alfa-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/genética
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 67(5): 1349-1354, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28113049

RESUMO

A novel bacterium, strain Ru1T, was encountered during a survey of spirochaetes living in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that strain Ru1T clustered within the genus Treponemabut shared at most 86.1 % sequence similarity with other recognised species of the genus Treponema. Further phylogenetic analysis based on partial recombinase A (recA) gene sequence comparisons, together with phenotypic characterization, also demonstrated the divergence of strain Ru1T from other recognised species of the genus Treponema. Microscopically, strain Ru1T appeared as a very small, highly motile, helical spirochaete with eight periplasmic flagella in a 4 : 8 : 4 arrangement. It exhibited C8 esterase lipase, leucine arylamidase, ß-galactosidase and ß-glucosidase activity. A distinctive, serum-independent growth pattern was also observed, characterized by colonies with an absence of the local haemolysis that is typical of many pathogenic treponemes. On the basis of these data, strain Ru1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Treponema, for which the name Treponema ruminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ru1T (=DSM 103462T=NCTC 13847T).


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Treponema/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Treponema/genética , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Reino Unido
6.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(25): 4376-88, 2016 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27285052

RESUMO

Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1).

7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(15): 4523-4536, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208135

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Treponema species are implicated in many diseases of humans and animals. Digital dermatitis (DD) treponemes are reported to cause severe lesions in cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and wild elk, causing substantial global animal welfare issues and economic losses. The fastidiousness of these spirochetes has previously precluded studies investigating within-phylogroup genetic diversity. An archive of treponemes that we isolated enabled multilocus sequence typing to quantify the diversity and population structure of DD treponemes. Isolates (n = 121) were obtained from different animal hosts in nine countries on three continents. The analyses herein of currently isolated DD treponemes at seven housekeeping gene loci confirm the classification of the three previously designated phylogroups: the Treponema medium, Treponema phagedenis, and Treponema pedis phylogroups. Sequence analysis of seven DD treponeme housekeeping genes revealed a generally low level of diversity among the strains within each phylogroup, removing the need for the previously used "-like" suffix. Surprisingly, all isolates within each phylogroup clustered together, regardless of host or geographic origin, suggesting that the same sequence types (STs) can infect different animals. Some STs were derived from multiple animals from the same farm, highlighting probable within-farm transmissions. Several STs infected multiple hosts from similar geographic regions, identifying probable frequent between-host transmissions. Interestingly, T. pedis appears to be evolving more quickly than the T. medium or T. phagedenis DD treponeme phylogroup, by forming two unique ST complexes. The lack of phylogenetic discrimination between treponemes isolated from different hosts or geographic regions substantially contrasts with the data for other clinically relevant spirochetes. IMPORTANCE: The recent expansion of the host range of digital dermatitis (DD) treponemes from cattle to sheep, goats, pigs, and wild elk, coupled with the high level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity across hosts and with human treponemes, suggests that the same bacterial species can cause disease in multiple different hosts. This multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study further demonstrates that these bacteria isolated from different hosts are indeed very similar, raising the potential for cross-species transmission. The study also shows that infection spread occurs frequently, both locally and globally, suggesting transmission by routes other than animal-animal transmission alone. These results indicate that on-farm biosecurity is important for controlling disease spread in domesticated species. Continued surveillance and vigilance are important for ascertaining the evolution and tracking any further host range expansion of these important pathogens.


Assuntos
Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Treponema/classificação , Treponema/genética
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 104: 64-70, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26850539

RESUMO

Pig skin lesions are common significant welfare issues, and can cause large economic losses, due to culling of severely affected animals or carcass condemnation at slaughter. It was considered that the treponemal bacteria associated with digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in cattle, sheep and goats may have a role in these pig lesions. Specific diagnostic PCR assays for three cultivable DD Treponema phylogroups were used to survey relevant porcine lesion samples. Using these assays, DD treponemes were detected in 88% (22/25), 72% (8/11) and 82% (14/17) of tail, ear and flank lesions, respectively. Mouth swabs from animals kept in enclosures with high prevalence of skin lesions were positive for the DD treponemes, but not in enclosures with low lesion prevalence. Culture of treponemes from skin lesions resulted in pure isolates of all three DD-associated phylogroups. This study shows a strong association of DD treponemes with a range of pig skin lesions.


Assuntos
Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Animais , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Orelha/microbiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Pele/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Cauda/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia
9.
Vet Dermatol ; 27(2): 106-12e29, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26792149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine hock lesions present a serious welfare and production issue on dairy farms worldwide. Current theories suggest that trauma is an important factor in the formation of hock lesions, although infection may also play a role in increasing their severity and duration. HYPOTHESIS: Digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in dairy cows are strongly associated with specific treponeme bacteria which are opportunistic invaders of other skin regions. Hock lesions were tested to ascertain if they too contained treponemes. ANIMALS: Swab and tissue samples were taken from hock lesions from two farms in South West England. METHODS: Hock lesions were classified into two categories: open lesions, which were often bleeding and ulcerated, or were encrusted; and closed lesions, which were classified as hair loss with no skin breakage. PCR assays and bacterial isolation were used to detect treponemes in hock lesions. RESULTS: All three phylogroups of digital dermatitis treponemes were detectable and isolated from open hock lesions only, with closed lesions showing no evidence of treponeme infection, either by PCR or bacterial culture. When analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the cultured treponeme DNA showed complete homology or was very similar to that found in foot lesions. Additionally, skin swabs from near the open hock wounds were also positive by PCR assay and isolation for the DD treponemes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Identification of the contribution of these infectious agents will allow for more optimal treatments to be developed that reduce the prevalence and healing times of both hock and DD lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Tarso Animal/patologia , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/patologia , Treponema/classificação , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/patologia
10.
Vet Dermatol ; 26(6): 484-7, e114-5, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. ANIMALS: Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. METHODS: A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. RESULTS: The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Treponema/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Animais , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(4): 704-18, 2015 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25522920

RESUMO

Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate retrievals of component vapor pressures and hygroscopic response through examining correlated variations in size and composition for binary droplets containing water and a single organic component. Measurements are reported for a homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid, citric acid, glycerol, or 1,2,6-hexanetriol. An assessment of the inherent uncertainties in such measurements when measuring only particle size is provided to confirm the value of such a correlational approach. We also show that the method of molar refraction provides an accurate characterization of the compositional dependence of the refractive index of the solutions. In this method, the density of the pure liquid solute is the largest uncertainty and must be either known or inferred from subsaturated measurements with an error of <±2.5% to discriminate between different thermodynamic treatments.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(14): 2599-611, 2014 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24678924

RESUMO

Formation of new particles through clustering of molecules from condensable vapors is a significant source for atmospheric aerosols. The smallest clusters formed in the very first steps of the condensation process are, however, not directly observable by experimental means. We present here a comprehensive series of electronic structure calculations on the hydrates of clusters formed by up to four molecules of sulfuric acid, and up to two molecules of ammonia or dimethylamine. Though clusters containing ammonia, and certainly dimethylamine, generally exhibit lower average hydration than the pure acid clusters, populations of individual hydrates vary widely. Furthermore, we explore the predictions obtained using a thermodynamic model for the description of these hydrates. The similar magnitude and trends of hydrate formation predicted by both methods illustrate the potential of combining them to obtain more comprehensive models. The stabilization of some clusters relative to others due to their hydration is highly likely to have significant effects on the overall processes that lead to formation of new particles in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Termodinâmica , Aerossóis/química , Amônia/química , Dimetilaminas/química , Elétrons , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Água/química
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(15): 3198-213, 2013 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23566232

RESUMO

In previous studies (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 16474-16487; 2012, 116, 1850-1864), we derived equations for the Gibbs energy, solvent and solute activities, and solute concentrations in multicomponent liquid mixtures, based upon expressions for adsorption isotherms that include arbitrary numbers of hydration layers on each solute. In this work, the long-range electrostatic interactions that dominate in dilute solutions are added to the Gibbs energy expression, thus extending the range of concentrations for which the model can be used from pure liquid solute(s) to infinite dilution in the solvent, water. An equation for the conversion of the reference state for solute activity coefficients to infinite dilution in water has been derived. A number of simplifications are identified, notably the equivalence of the sorption site parameters r and the stoichiometric coefficients of the solutes, resulting in a reduction in the number of model parameters. Solute concentrations in mixtures conform to a modified Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule, and solute activity coefficients to a modified McKay-Perring relation, when the effects of the long-range (Debye-Hückel) term in the equations are taken into account. Practical applications of the equations to osmotic and activity coefficients of pure aqueous electrolyte solutions and mixtures show both satisfactory accuracy from low to high concentrations, together with a thermodynamically reasonable extrapolation (beyond the range of measurements) to extreme concentration and to the pure liquid solute(s).

15.
Prev Vet Med ; 99(2-4): 185-92, 2011 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21420191

RESUMO

Diarrhoea is a common and multi-factorial condition in dogs, the aetiology of which is often incompletely understood. A case-control study was carried out to compare the carriage of some common canine enteric pathogens (enteric coronavirus, parvovirus, distemper, endoparasites, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp.), as well as lifestyle factors such as vaccination history, diet and contact with other species, in dogs presenting at first opinion veterinary practices with and without diarrhoea. Multivariable conditional logistic regression showed that dogs in the study which scavenged or had had a recent change of diet (OR 3.5, p=0.002), had recently stayed in kennels (OR 9.5, p=0.01), or were fed a home-cooked diet (OR 4, p=0.002) were at a significantly greater risk of diarrhoea, whilst being female (OR 0.4, p=0.01), currently up to date with routine vaccinations (OR 0.4, p=0.05) and having contact with horse faeces (OR 0.4, p=0.06) were associated with a reduced risk. None of the pathogens tested for was a significant factor in the final multivariable model suggesting that in this predominantly vaccinated population, diarrhoea may be more associated with lifestyle risk factors than specific pathogens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(46): 12216-30, 2010 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21043484

RESUMO

A semiempirical model is presented that predicts surface tensions (σ) of aqueous electrolyte solutions and their mixtures, for concentrations ranging from infinitely dilute solution to molten salt. The model requires, at most, only two temperature-dependent terms to represent surface tensions of either pure aqueous solutions, or aqueous or molten mixtures, over the entire composition range. A relationship was found for the coefficients of the equation σ = c(1) + c(2)T (where T (K) is temperature) for molten salts in terms of ion valency and radius, melting temperature, and salt molar volume. Hypothetical liquid surface tensions can thus be estimated for electrolytes for which there are no data, or which do not exist in molten form. Surface tensions of molten (single) salts, when extrapolated to normal temperatures, were found to be consistent with data for aqueous solutions. This allowed surface tensions of very concentrated, supersaturated, aqueous solutions to be estimated. The model has been applied to the following single electrolytes over the entire concentration range, using data for aqueous solutions over the temperature range 233-523 K, and extrapolated surface tensions of molten salts and pure liquid electrolytes: HCl, HNO(3), H(2)SO(4), NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4), NaHSO(4), Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), NaOH, NH(4)Cl, NH(4)NO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)HCO(3), NH(4)OH, KCl, KNO(3), K(2)SO(4), K(2)CO(3), KHCO(3), KOH, CaCl(2), Ca(NO(3))(2), MgCl(2), Mg(NO(3))(2), and MgSO(4). The average absolute percentage error between calculated and experimental surface tensions is 0.80% (for 2389 data points). The model extrapolates smoothly to temperatures as low as 150 K. Also, the model successfully predicts surface tensions of ternary aqueous mixtures; the effect of salt-salt interactions in these calculations was explored.


Assuntos
Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/química , Eletrólitos/química , Sais/química , Tensão Superficial , Água/química , Modelos Químicos , Soluções , Temperatura
17.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 60(10): 1237-44, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21090551

RESUMO

A state-of-the-science thermodynamic model describing gas-particle absorption processes was used to predict the gas-particle partitioning of mixtures of approximately 60 carbonyl compounds emitted from low-emission gasoline-powered vehicles, three-way catalyst gasoline-powered vehicles, heavy-duty diesel vehicles under the idle-creep condition (HDDV idle), and heavy-duty diesel vehicles under the five-mode test (HDDV 5-mode). Exhaust was diluted by a factor of 120-580 with a residence time of approximately 43 sec. The predicted equilibrium absorption partitioning coefficients differed from the measured partitioning coefficients by several orders of magnitude. Time scales to reach equilibrium in the dilution sampling system were close to the actual residence time during the HDDV 5-mode test and much longer than the actual residence time during the other vehicle tests. It appears that insufficient residence time in the sampling system cannot uniformly explain the failure of the absorption mechanism to explain the measured partitioning. Other gas-particle partitioning mechanisms (e.g., heterogeneous reactions, capillary adsorption) beyond the simple absorption theory are needed to explain the discrepancy between calculated carbonyl partitioning coefficients and observed partitioning. Both of these alternative partitioning mechanisms imply great challenges for the measurement and modeling of semi-volatile primary organic aerosol (POA) species from motor vehicles. Furthermore, as emitted particle concentrations from newer vehicles approach atmospheric background levels, dilution sampling systems must fundamentally change their approach so that they use realistic particle concentrations in the dilution air to approximately represent real-world conditions. Samples collected with particle-free dilution air yielding total particulate matter concentrations below typical ambient concentrations will not provide a realistic picture of partitioning for semi-volatile compounds.


Assuntos
Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Algoritmos , Gases/análise , Termodinâmica
18.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(37): 10156-65, 2010 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20799753

RESUMO

The vapor pressures of two dicarboxylic acids, malonic acid and glutaric acid, are determined by the measurement of the evaporation rate of the dicarboxylic acids from single levitated particles. Two laboratory methods were used to isolate single particles, an electrodynamic balance and optical tweezers (glutaric acid only). The declining sizes of individual aerosol particles over time were followed using elastic Mie scattering or cavity enhanced Raman scattering. Experiments were conducted over the temperature range of 280-304 K and a range of relative humidities. The subcooled liquid vapor pressures of malonic and glutaric acid at 298.15 K were found to be 6.7(-1.2)(+2.6) x 10(-4) and 11.2(-4.7)(+9.6) x 10(-4) Pa, respectively, and the standard enthalpies of vaporization were respectively 141.9 ± 19.9 and 100.8 ± 23.9 kJ mol(-1). The vapor pressures of both glutaric acid and malonic acid in single particles composed of mixed inorganic/organic composition were found to be independent of salt concentration within the uncertainty of the measurements. Results are compared with previous laboratory determinations and theoretical predictions.


Assuntos
Glutaratos/química , Malonatos/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Pressão de Vapor , Aerossóis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Análise Espectral Raman
19.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(16): 5335-41, 2010 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20361768

RESUMO

We describe a newly constructed electrodynamic balance with which to measure the relative mass of single aerosol particles at varying relative humidity. Measurements of changing mass with respect to the relative humidity allow mass (m) growth factors (m(aqueous)/m(dry)) and diameter (d) growth factors (d(aqueous)/d(dry)) of the aerosol to be determined. Four aerosol types were investigated: malonic acid, glutaric acid, mixtures of malonic acid and sodium chloride, and mixtures of glutaric acid and sodium chloride. The mass growth factors of the malonic acid and glutaric acid aqueous phase aerosols, at 85% relative humidity, were 2.11 +/- 0.08 and 1.73 +/- 0.19, respectively. The mass growth factors of the mixed organic/inorganic aerosols are dependent upon the molar fraction of the individual components. Results are compared with previous laboratory determinations and theoretical predictions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Glutaratos/química , Malonatos/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Molhabilidade
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 3(8): e503, 2009 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19688042

RESUMO

Given the importance that the evolution of cooperation bears in evolutionary biology and the social sciences, extensive theoretical work has focused on identifying conditions that promote cooperation among individuals. In insects, cooperative or altruistic interactions typically occur amongst social insects and are thus explained by kin selection. Here we provide evidence that in Lutzomia longipalpis, a small biting fly and an important vector of leishmaniasis in the New World, cooperative blood-feeding in groups of non-kin individuals results in a strong decrease in saliva expenditure. Feeding in groups also strongly affected the time taken to initiate a bloodmeal and its duration and ultimately resulted in greater fecundity. The benefits of feeding aggregations were particularly strong when flies fed on older hosts pre-exposed to sand fly bites, suggesting that flies feeding in groups may be better able to overcome their stronger immune response. These results demonstrate that, in L. longipalpis, feeding cooperatively maximizes the effects of salivary components injected into hosts to facilitate blood intake and to counteract the host immune defences. As a result, cooperating sand flies enjoy enormous fitness gains. This constitutes, to our knowledge, the first functional explanation for feeding aggregations in this species and potentially in other hematophagous insects and a rare example of cooperation amongst individuals of a non-social insects species. The evolution of cooperative group feeding in sand flies may have important implications for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis.

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