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1.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002110

RESUMO

AIMS: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. We aim to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF potentially leading to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a panel of 363 cardiovascular biomarkers available in 1,611 patients with HFrEF in the BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort and cross-validated in 823 patients in the BIOSTAT-CHF validation cohort, we tested which biomarkers were dysregulated in patients aged > 75yr versus <65yr. Secondly, pathway overrepresentation analyses were performed to identify biological pathways linked to higher plasma concentrations of biomarkers in elderly versus younger patients. After adjustment, multiple test correction (FDR 1%), and cross-validation, 27/363 biomarkers were associated with older age, 22 positively, and 5 negatively. The biomarkers that were positively associated with older age were associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas biomarkers negatively associated with older age were associated with pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Among the 27 biomarkers, WFDC2 (WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2) - that broadly functions as a protease inhibitor - was associated with older age and had the strongest association with all outcomes. No protein-by-sex interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly HFrEF patients, pathways associated with extra-cellular matrix organization, inflammatory processes, and tumor cell regulation were activated, while pathways associated with tumor proliferation functions were down-regulated. These findings may help in a better understanding of the aging processes in HFrEF and identify potential therapeutic targets. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. Using a large set of circulating proteins, elderly patients had higher concentrations of proteins associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were down-regulated. WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2 was associated with older age and had the strongest association with an increased risk of all outcomes. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF may potentially lead to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985088

RESUMO

AIMS: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC-HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC-HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≥ II, EF ≤35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for HF or history of hospitalization/ emergency department visit for HF within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic-guided dosing: 25, 37.5 or 50 mg bid). 8256 patients [male (79%), non-white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean EF 27%, ischemic etiology in 54%, NYHA II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median NT-proBNP 1971 pg/mL. HF therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary HF trials. GALACTIC-HF randomized patients representative of recent HF registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril-valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). CONCLUSIONS: GALACTIC-HF enrolled a well-treated, high-risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959502

RESUMO

AIMS: D-dimer is a marker of fibrin degradation that reflects intravascular coagulation. Therefore, plasma concentrations of D-dimer might predict thromboembolic risk and rivaroxaban treatment effect. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between D-dimer levels and the risk of stroke and other thrombotic, bleeding and fatal events, and whether D-dimer concentrations could predict rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (vs. placebo) effect in patients enrolled in the COMMANDER-HF trial who were in sinus rhythm, had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival models with treatment-by-plasma D-dimer interaction. Baseline measurement of D-dimer was available in 4107 (82%) of 5022 patients enrolled. Median (percentile25-75 ) follow-up was 21 (12.9-32.8) months. The median (percentile25-75 ) plasma concentration of D-dimer was 360 (215-665) ng/mL. The D-dimer tertiles were: (i) ≤255 ng/mL; (ii) 256-515 ng/mL; and (iii) >515 ng/mL. Patients within the tertile 3 were older, and had lower body mass index, blood pressure, haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Higher plasma D-dimer concentrations were independently associated with higher rates of death, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. For example, the all-cause death adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) of tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 was 1.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.11; P < 0.001]. The effect of rivaroxaban was similar in each tertile of D-dimer for all outcomes except stroke. Patients within the tertile 3 had the greatest absolute and relative stroke reduction (tertile 1: HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.49-2.74; tertile 2: HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.77-2.73; tertile 3: HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18-0.70; P for interaction = 0.008). The number-needed-to-treat to prevent one stroke in tertile 3 was 36. CONCLUSIONS: In COMMANDER-HF, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of stroke but the benefit may be confined to patients with D-dimer concentrations above 515 ng/mL. Prospective trials are warranted to confirm these findings.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840930

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of serum uric acid (SUA) on outcomes in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and whether sacubitril-valsartan reduces SUA and use of SUA-related therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 4795 participants from the Prospective Comparison of ARNI [angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor] with ARB [angiotensin-receptor blockers] Global Outcomes in HF with Preserved Ejection Fraction (PARAGON-HF) trial. We related baseline hyperuricaemia (using age and gender adjusted assay definitions) to the primary outcome [cardiovascular (CV) death and total HF hospitalizations]. We assessed the associations between changes in SUA and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score (KCCQ-OSS) and other cardiac biomarkers from baseline to 4 months. We simultaneously adjusted for baseline and time-updated SUA to determine whether lowering SUA was associated with clinical benefit. The mean (± standard deviation) age of patients was 73 ± 8 years and 52% were women. After multivariable adjustment, hyperuricaemia was associated with increased risk for the primary outcome [rate ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-1.90]. The treatment effect of sacubitril-valsartan for the primary endpoint was not significantly modified by hyperuricaemia (P-value for interaction = 0.14). Sacubitril-valsartan reduced SUA by 0.38 mg/dL (95% CI 0.31-0.45) compared with valsartan at 4 months, with greater effect in those with elevated SUA vs. normal SUA (-0.51 mg/dL vs. -0.32 mg/dL) (P-value for interaction = 0.031). Sacubitril-valsartan reduced the odds of initiating SUA-related treatments by 32% during follow-up (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, change in SUA was inversely associated with change in KCCQ-OSS and directly associated with high-sensitivity troponin T (P < 0.05). Time-updated SUA was a stronger predictor of adverse outcomes than baseline SUA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum uric acid independently predicted adverse outcomes in HFpEF. Sacubitril-valsartan reduced SUA and the initiation of related therapy compared with valsartan. Reductions in SUA were associated with improved outcomes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle wasting is an extremely common feature in patients with heart failure, affecting approximately 20% of ambulatory patients with even higher values during acute decompensation. Its occurrence is associated with reduced exercise capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life. We sought to investigate if the presence of muscle wasting carries prognostic information. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-eight ambulatory patients with heart failure (age 67.1 ± 10.9 years, New York Heart Association class 2.3 ± 0.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 39 ± 13.3%, and 21% female) were prospectively enrolled as part of the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure. Muscle wasting as assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was present in 47 patients (17.5%). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 67.2 ± 28.02 months, 95 patients (35.4%) died from any cause. After adjusting for age, New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and iron deficiency, muscle wasting remained an independent predictor of death (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.19, P = 0.04). This effect was more pronounced in patients with heart failure with reduced than in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle wasting is an independent predictor of death in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Clinical trials are needed to identify treatment approaches to this co-morbidity.

6.
10.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2109-2117, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526858

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética
11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558989

RESUMO

AIMS: Both left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) dysfunction and remodelling contribute to adverse outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Danicamtiv is a novel, cardiac myosin activator that enhances cardiomyocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effects of danicamtiv on LV and LA function in non-clinical studies (ex vivo: skinned muscle fibres and myofibrils; in vivo: dogs with heart failure) and in a randomized, double-blind, single- and multiple-dose phase 2a trial in patients with stable HFrEF (placebo, n = 10; danicamtiv, n = 30; 50-100 mg twice daily for 7 days). Danicamtiv increased ATPase activity and calcium sensitivity in LV and LA myofibrils/muscle fibres. In dogs with heart failure, danicamtiv improved LV stroke volume (+10.6 mL, P < 0.05) and LA emptying fraction (+10.7%, P < 0.05). In patients with HFrEF (mean age 60 years, 25% women, ischaemic heart disease 48%, mean LV ejection fraction 32%), treatment-emergent adverse events, mostly mild, were reported in 17 patients (57%) receiving danicamtiv and 4 patients (40%) receiving placebo. Danicamtiv (at plasma concentrations ≥2000 ng/mL) increased stroke volume (up to +7.8 mL, P < 0.01), improved global longitudinal (up to -1.0%, P < 0.05) and circumferential strain (up to -3.3%, P < 0.01), decreased LA minimal volume index (up to -2.4 mL/m2 , P < 0.01) and increased LA function index (up to 6.1, P < 0.01), when compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Danicamtiv was well tolerated and improved LV systolic function in patients with HFrEF. A marked improvement in LA volume and function was also observed in patients with HFrEF, consistent with pre-clinical findings of direct activation of LA contractility.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2109-2117, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498081

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética
13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ß-blockers are guideline-recommended first-line therapies in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Previous studies showed that individual drug classes were under-dosed in many parts of Europe and Asia. In this study, we investigated the association of combined up-titration of ACEi/ARBs and ß-blockers with all-cause mortality and its combination with hospitalization for HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 6787 HFrEF patients (mean age 62.6 ± 13.2 years, 77.7% men, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 27.7 ± 7.2%) were enrolled in the prospective multinational European (BIOSTAT-CHF; n = 2100) and Asian (ASIAN-HF; n = 4687) studies. Outcomes were analysed according to achieved percentage of guideline-recommended target doses (GRTD) of combination ACEi/ARB and ß-blocker therapy, adjusted for indication bias. Only 14% (n = 981) patients achieved ≥50% GRTD for both ACEi/ARB and ß-blocker. The best outcomes were observed in patients who achieved 100% GRTD of both ACEi/ARB and ß-blocker [hazard ratio (HR) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.39 vs. none]. Lower dose of combined therapy was associated with better outcomes than 100% GRTD of either monotherapy. Up-titrating ß-blockers was associated with a consistent and greater reduction in hazards of all-cause mortality (HR for 100% GRTD: 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63) than corresponding ACEi/ARB up-titration (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53-1.07). CONCLUSION: This study shows that best outcomes were observed in patients attaining GRTD for both ACEi/ARB and ß-blockers, unfortunately this was rarely achieved. Achieving >50% GRTD of both drug classes was associated with better outcome than target dose of monotherapy. Up-titrating ß-blockers to target dose was associated with greater mortality reduction than up-titrating ACEi/ARB.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1810-1817, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209633

RESUMO

AIMS: The current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infects a wide age group but predominantly elderly individuals, especially men and those with cardiovascular disease. Recent reports suggest an association with use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for coronaviruses. Higher ACE2 concentrations might lead to increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 in patients on RAAS inhibitors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured ACE2 concentrations in 1485 men and 537 women with heart failure (index cohort). Results were validated in 1123 men and 575 women (validation cohort).The median age was 69 years for men and 75 years for women. The strongest predictor of elevated concentrations of ACE2 in both cohorts was male sex (estimate = 0.26, P < 0.001; and 0.19, P < 0.001, respectively). In the index cohort, use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) was not an independent predictor of plasma ACE2. In the validation cohort, ACE inhibitor (estimate = -0.17, P = 0.002) and ARB use (estimate = -0.15, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of lower plasma ACE2, while use of an MRA (estimate = 0.11, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor of higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. CONCLUSION: In two independent cohorts of patients with heart failure, plasma concentrations of ACE2 were higher in men than in women, but use of neither an ACE inhibitor nor an ARB was associated with higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. These data might explain the higher incidence and fatality rate of COVID-19 in men, but do not support previous reports suggesting that ACE inhibitors or ARBs increase the vulnerability for COVID-19 through increased plasma ACE2 concentrations.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1810-1817, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388565

RESUMO

AIMS: The current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infects a wide age group but predominantly elderly individuals, especially men and those with cardiovascular disease. Recent reports suggest an association with use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for coronaviruses. Higher ACE2 concentrations might lead to increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 in patients on RAAS inhibitors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured ACE2 concentrations in 1485 men and 537 women with heart failure (index cohort). Results were validated in 1123 men and 575 women (validation cohort).The median age was 69 years for men and 75 years for women. The strongest predictor of elevated concentrations of ACE2 in both cohorts was male sex (estimate = 0.26, P < 0.001; and 0.19, P < 0.001, respectively). In the index cohort, use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) was not an independent predictor of plasma ACE2. In the validation cohort, ACE inhibitor (estimate = -0.17, P = 0.002) and ARB use (estimate = -0.15, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of lower plasma ACE2, while use of an MRA (estimate = 0.11, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor of higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. CONCLUSION: In two independent cohorts of patients with heart failure, plasma concentrations of ACE2 were higher in men than in women, but use of neither an ACE inhibitor nor an ARB was associated with higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. These data might explain the higher incidence and fatality rate of COVID-19 in men, but do not support previous reports suggesting that ACE inhibitors or ARBs increase the vulnerability for COVID-19 through increased plasma ACE2 concentrations.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314085

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The comparative efficacy of individual SGLT2i remains unclear. We searched PubMed, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials exploring the use of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin or ertugliflozin in patients with T2D. Comparators included placebo or any other active treatment. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality and worsening heart failure (HF). Evidence was synthesised using network meta-analysis (NMA). Sixty-four trials reporting on 74,874 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence was high. When compared with placebo, empagliflozin and canagliflozin improved all three endpoints, whereas dapagliflozin improved worsening HF. When compared with other SGLT2i, empagliflozin was superior for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality reduction. Empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin had similar effects on improving worsening HF. Ertugliflozin had no effect on any of the three endpoints investigated. Sensitivity analyses including extension periods of trials or excluding studies with a treatment duration of < 52 weeks confirmed the main results. Similar results were obtained when restricting mortality analyses to patients included in cardiovascular outcome trials (n = 38,719). Empagliflozin and canagliflozin improved survival with empagliflozin being superior to the other SGLT2i. Empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin had similar effects on improving worsening HF. Prospective head-to-head comparisons would be needed to confirm these results.

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