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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479100

RESUMO

Importance: Despite considerable improvements in heart failure care, mortality rates among patients in high-income countries have changed little since the early 2000s. Understanding the reasons underlying these trends may provide valuable clues for developing more targeted therapies and public health strategies. Objective: To investigate mortality rates following a new diagnosis of heart failure and examine changes over time and by cause of death and important patient features. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed anonymized electronic health records of individuals who received a new diagnosis of heart failure between January 2002 and December 2013 who were followed up until December 2014 from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, which links information from primary care, secondary care, and the national death registry from a subset of the UK population. The data were analyzed from January 2018 to February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates at 1 year following diagnosis. Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals comparing 2013 with 2002, adjusting for age, sex, region, socioeconomic status, and 17 major comorbidities. Results: Of 86 833 participants, 42 581 (49%) were women, 51 215 (88%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 76.6 (12.6) years. While all-cause mortality rates declined only modestly over time (RR comparing 2013 with 2002, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-1.00), underlying patterns presented explicit trends. A decline in cardiovascular mortality (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67-0.80) was offset by an increase in noncardiovascular deaths (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11-1.33). Subgroup analyses further showed that overall mortality rates declined among patients younger than 80 years (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.88) but not among those older than 80 years (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.06). After cardiovascular causes (898 [43%]), the major causes of death in 2013 were neoplasms (311 [15%]), respiratory conditions (243 [12%]), and infections (13%), the latter 2 explaining most of the observed increase in noncardiovascular mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with a new heart failure diagnosis, considerable progress has been achieved in reducing mortality in young and middle-aged patients and cardiovascular mortality across all age groups. Improvements to overall mortality are hindered by high and increasing rates of noncardiovascular events. These findings challenge current research priorities and management strategies and call for a greater emphasis on associated comorbidities. Specifically, infection prevention presents as a major opportunity to improve prognosis.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389157

RESUMO

AIMS: Morphine is shown to relieve chronic breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There are no definitive data in people with heart failure. We aimed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 12 weeks morphine therapy for the relief of chronic breathlessness in people with chronic heart failure compared with placebo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of 20 mg daily oral modified release morphine was conducted in 13 sites in England and Scotland: hospital/community cardiology or palliative care outpatients. The primary analysis compared between-group numerical rating scale average breathlessness/24 hours at week 4 using a covariance pattern linear mixed model. Secondary outcomes included treatment-emergent harms (worse or new). The trial closed early due to slow recruitment, randomizing 45 participants [average age 72 (range 39-89) years; 84% men; 98% New York Heart Association class III]. For the primary analysis, the adjusted mean difference was 0.26 (95% confidence interval, -0.86 to 1.37) in favour of placebo. All other breathlessness measures improved in both groups (week 4 change-from-baseline) but by more in those assigned to morphine. Neither group was excessively drowsy at baseline or week 4. There were no between-group differences in quality of life (Kansas) or cognition (Montreal) at any time point. There was no exercise-related desaturation and no change between baseline and week 4 in either group. There was no change in vital signs at week 4. The natriuretic peptide measures fell in both groups but by more in the morphine group [morphine 2169 (1092, 3851) pg/mL vs. placebo 2851 (1694, 5437)] pg/mL. There was no excess serious adverse events in the morphine group. Treatment-emergent harms during the first week were more common in the morphine group; all apart from 1 were ≤ grade 2. CONCLUSIONS: We could not answer our primary objectives due to inadequate power. However, we provide novel placebo-controlled medium-term benefit and safety data useful for clinical practice and future trial design. Morphine should only be prescribed in this population when other measures are unhelpful and with early management of side effects.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461239

RESUMO

Aims: Stroke is often a devastating event among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF). In COMMANDER HF, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. did not reduce the composite of first occurrence of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction compared with placebo in patients with HFrEF, coronary artery disease (CAD), and sinus rhythm. We now examine the incidence, timing, type, severity, and predictors of stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and seek to establish the net clinical benefit of treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban. Methods and results: In this double-blind, randomized trial, 5022 patients who had HFrEF(≤40%), elevated natriuretic peptides, CAD, and who were in sinus rhythm were treated with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. or placebo in addition to antiplatelet therapy, after an episode of worsening HF. The primary neurological outcome for this post hoc analysis was time to first event of any stroke or TIA. Over a median follow-up of 20.5 (25th­75th percentiles 20.0­20.9) months, 150 all-cause stroke (127) or TIA (23) events occurred (ischaemic stroke in 82% and haemorrhagic stroke in 11% of stroke events). Overall, 47.5% of first-time strokes were either disabling (16.5%) or fatal (31%). Prior stroke, low body mass index, geographic region, and the CHA2DS2-VASc score were predictors of stroke/TIA. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary neurological endpoint of all-cause stroke or TIA compared with placebo by 32% (1.29 events vs. 1.90 events per 100 patient-years), adjusted for the time from index HF event to randomization and stratified by geographic region (adjusted hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49­0.94), with a number needed to treat of 164 patients per year to prevent one stroke/TIA event. The principal safety endpoint of fatal bleeding or bleeding into a critical space, occurred at a similar rate on rivaroxaban and placebo (0.44 events vs. 0.55 events per 100 patient-years). Conclusion: Patients with HFrEF and CAD are at risk for stroke or TIA in the period following an episode of worsening heart failure in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Most strokes are of ischaemic origin and nearly half are either disabling or fatal. Rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg b.i.d. reduced rates of stroke or TIA compared with placebo in this population. Trial Registration: COMMANDER HF (A Study to Assess the Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Death, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke in Participants with Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease Following an Episode of Decompensated Heart Failure); ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01877915.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386109

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the relationship between clinically assessed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and survival in a large, heterogeneous clinical cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Physician-reported LVEF on 403 977 echocardiograms from 203 135 patients were linked to all-cause mortality using electronic health records (1998-2018) from US regional healthcare system. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for analyses while adjusting for many patient characteristics including age, sex, and relevant comorbidities. A dataset including 45 531 echocardiograms and 35 976 patients from New Zealand was used to provide independent validation of analyses. During follow-up of the US cohort, 46 258 (23%) patients who had undergone 108 578 (27%) echocardiograms died. Overall, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for mortality showed a u-shaped relationship for LVEF with a nadir of risk at an LVEF of 60-65%, a HR of 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-1.77] when ≥70% and a HR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.66-1.80) at LVEF of 35-40%. Similar relationships with a nadir at 60-65% were observed in the validation dataset as well as for each age group and both sexes. The results were similar after further adjustments for conditions associated with an elevated LVEF, including mitral regurgitation, increased wall thickness, and anaemia and when restricted to patients reported to have heart failure at the time of the echocardiogram. CONCLUSION: Deviation of LVEF from 60% to 65% is associated with poorer survival regardless of age, sex, or other relevant comorbidities such as heart failure. These results may herald the recognition of a new phenotype characterized by supra-normal LVEF.

6.
Lancet ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guideline-recommended doses of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and ß blockers are similar for men and women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), even though there are known sex differences in pharmacokinetics of these drugs. We hypothesised that there might be sex differences in the optimal dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of BIOSTAT-CHF, a prospective study in 11 European countries of patients with heart failure in whom initiation and up-titration of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers was encouraged by protocol. We included only patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, and excluded those who died within the first 3 months. Primary outcome was a composite of time to all-cause mortality or hospitalisation for heart failure. Findings were validated in ASIAN-HF, an independent cohort of 3539 men and 961 women with HFrEF. FINDINGS: Among 1308 men and 402 women with HFrEF from BIOSTAT-CHF, women were older (74 [12] years vs 70 [12] years, p<0·0001) and had lower bodyweights (72 [16] kg vs 85 [18] kg, p<0·0001) and heights (162 [7] cm vs 174 [8] cm, p<0·0001) than did men, although body-mass index did not differ significantly. A similar number of men and women reached guideline-recommended target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs (99 [25%] vs 304 [23%], p=0·61) and ß blockers (57 [14%] vs 168 [13%], p=0·54). In men, the lowest hazards of death or hospitalisation for heart failure occurred at 100% of the recommended dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, but women showed approximately 30% lower risk at only 50% of the recommended doses, with no further decrease in risk at higher dose levels. These sex differences were still present after adjusting for clinical covariates, including age and body surface area. In the ASIAN-HF registry, similar patterns were observed for both ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, with women having approximately 30% lower risk at 50% of the recommended doses, with no further benefit at higher dose levels. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that women with HFrEF might need lower doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers than men, and brings into question what the true optimal medical therapy is for women versus men. FUNDING: European Commission.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
9.
Heart ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts mortality and the development of heart failure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) is a stable by-product of production of atrial natriuretic peptide. We sought to compare the prognostic value of MR-proANP and NT-proBNP in HCM. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of patients with HCM from different European centres and followed them. All patients had clinical, ECG and echocardiographic evaluation and measurement of MR-proANP and NT-proBNP at inclusion. RESULTS: Of 357 patients enrolled, the median age was 52 (IQR: 36-65) years. MR-proANP and NT-proBNP were both independently associated with age, weight, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), wall thickness and left atrial dimension. During a median follow-up of 23 months, 32 patients had a primary end point defined as death (n=6), heart transplantation (n=8), left ventricular assist device implantation (n=1) or heart failure hospitalisation (n=17). Both NT-proBNP and MR-proANP (p<10-4) were strongly associated with the primary endpoint, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for both peptides were not significantly different. However, in a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the best model for predicting outcome was NYHA 1-2 vs 3-4 (HR=0.35, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77, p<0.01), LVEF (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.98, p=0.0005) and MR-proANP (HR=3.77, 95% CI 2.01 to 7.08, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: MR-proANP emerges as a valuable biomarker for the prediction of death and heart failure related events in patients with HCM.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350553

RESUMO

AIMS: Plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are often raised in chronic heart failure (CHF) and might indicate inflammatory processes that could be a therapeutic target. We aimed to study the associations between hsCRP, mode and cause of death in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 4,423 patients referred to a heart failure clinic serving a local population. CHF was defined as relevant symptoms or signs with either a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% or raised plasma concentrations of amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP >125 pg/ml).The median (IQR) plasma hsCRP for patients diagnosed with CHF (n = 3,756) was 3.9 (1.6-8.5) mg/L and 2.7 (1.3-5.1) mg/L for those who were not (n = 667; p < 0.001). Patients with hsCRP ≥10 mg/L (N = 809; 22%) were older and more congested than those with hsCRP <2 mg/L (N = 1,117, 30%).During a median follow up of 53 (IQR: 28-93) months, 1,784 (48%) patients with CHF died. Higher plasma hsCRP was associated with greater mortality, independent of age, symptom severity, creatinine and NT-proBNP. Comparing a hsCRP ≥10mg/L to < 2mg/L, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.19-2.84); P < 0.001), for cardiovascular (CV) mortality was 2.26 (1.91-2.68; p < 0.001) and for non-CV mortality was 2.96 (2.40-3.65; p < 0.001). . CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CHF, a raised plasma hsCRP is associated with more congestion and a worse prognosis. The proportion of deaths that are non-CV also increases with higher hsCRP.

11.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in renal function have been associated with differential outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (HF). However, individual trajectories of changes in renal function are unknown, and it is unclear whether they relate to different clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic importance of individual trajectories of change in renal function in acute HF. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational analysis from the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled PROTECT trial in patients with acute HF. We identified and internally validated 8 different renal trajectories among 1897 patients by visual inspection of inhospital serum creatinine changes. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 180 days. Mean age was 70 ± 12 years; 70% were male, and mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49.0 mL/min/1.73m2. RESULTS: A total of 8 different trajectories was established. The most prevalent trajectories were an inhospital bump (19.0%), a sustained increase (17.6%) and a dip (14.5%) in serum creatinine. Overall, the clinical characteristics of patients in different trajectories were remarkably similar. Crude 180-day mortality rates ranged from 12.0% in the trajectory, with no significant changes to 18.3% in the trajectory of sustained increase without significant differences. Overall, after multivariable adjustment, there was no trajectory of changes in renal function that was associated with significantly better or worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of changes in renal function in acute HF differ considerably on the patient level. Despite these differences, clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar, therefore, questioning the prognostic importance of changes in renal function in acute HF.

14.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327116

RESUMO

The management of heart failure has changed significantly over the last 30 years, leading to improvements in the quality of life and outcomes, at least for patients with a substantially reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). This has been made possible by the identification of various pathways leading to the development and progression of heart failure, which have been successfully targeted with effective therapies. Meanwhile, many other potential targets of treatment have been identified, and the list is constantly expanding. In this review, we summarise planned and ongoing trials exploring the potential benefit, or harm, of old and new pharmacological interventions that might offer further improvements in treatment for those with HFrEF and extend success to the treatment of patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) and other heart failure phenotypes.

15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), levels of NT-proBNP are influenced by the presence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), making it difficult to distinguish between HF versus AF in patients with raised NT-proBNP. It is unknown whether levels of GDF-15 are also influenced by AF in patients with HF. In this study we compared the plasma levels of NT-proBNP versus GDF-15 in patients with HF in AF versus sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 2516), we studied patients with HF categorized into three groups: (1) AF at baseline (n = 733), (2) SR at baseline with a history of AF (n = 183), and (3) SR at baseline and no history of AF (n = 1025). The findings were validated in the validation cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 1738). RESULTS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of patients who had AF at baseline were higher than those of patients in SR (both with and without a history of AF), even after multivariable adjustment (3417 [25th-75th percentile 1897-6486] versus 1788 [682-3870], adjusted p < 0.001, versus 2231 pg/mL [902-5270], adjusted p < 0.001). In contrast, after adjusting for clinical confounders, the levels of GDF-15 were comparable between the three groups (3179 [2062-5253] versus 2545 [1686-4337], adjusted p = 0.36, versus 2294 [1471-3855] pg/mL, adjusted p = 0.08). Similar patterns of both NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were found in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: These data show that in patients with HF, NT-proBNP is significantly influenced by underlying AF at time of measurement and not by previous episodes of AF, whereas the levels of GDF-15 are not influenced by the presence of AF. Therefore, GDF-15 might have additive value combined with NT-proBNP in the assessment of patients with HF and concomitant AF.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 1022-1031, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168885

RESUMO

Hospitalisation for acute heart failure remains a major public health problem with high prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and cost. Prior attempts to develop new therapies for this condition have not been successful. Nitroxyl (HNO) plays a unique role in cardiovascular physiology by direct post-translational modification of thiol residues on target proteins, specifically SERCA2a, phospholamban, the ryanodine receptor and myofilament proteins in cardiomyocytes. In animal models, these biological effects lead to vasodilatation, increased inotropy and lusitropy, but without tachyphylaxis, pro-arrhythmia or evidence of increased myocardial oxygen demand. BMS-986231 is an HNO donor being developed as a therapy for heart failure, and initial studies in patients with heart failure support the potential clinical value of these physiological effects. In this manuscript, we describe the ongoing phase II development programme for BMS-986231, which consists of three related randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials, StandUP-AHF, StandUP-Imaging and StandUP-Kidney, which are designed to provide evidence of tolerability and efficacy as well as confirm the anticipated physiological effects in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. These studies will set the stage for the further study of BMS-986231 in future phase III clinical trials.

19.
Circulation ; 140(7): 542-552, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements are central to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment, but there is continuing debate around the utility of other lipids for risk prediction. METHODS: Participants from UK Biobank without baseline CVD and not taking statins, with relevant lipid measurements (n=346 686), were included in the primary analysis. An incident fatal or nonfatal CVD event occurred in 6216 participants (1656 fatal) over a median of 8.9 years. Associations of nonfasting lipid measurements (total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, direct and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and apolipoproteins [Apo] A1 and B) with CVD were compared using Cox models adjusting for classical risk factors, and predictive utility was determined by the C-index and net reclassification index. Prediction was also tested in 68 649 participants taking a statin with or without baseline CVD (3515 CVD events). RESULTS: ApoB, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C were highly correlated (r>0.90), while HDL-C was strongly correlated with ApoA1 (r=0.92). After adjustment for classical risk factors, 1 SD increase in ApoB, direct LDL-C, and non-HDL-C had similar associations with composite fatal/nonfatal CVD events (hazard ratio, 1.23, 1.20, 1.21, respectively). Associations for 1 SD increase in HDL-C and ApoA1 were also similar (hazard ratios, 0.81 [both]). Adding either total cholesterol and HDL-C, or ApoB and ApoA, to a CVD risk prediction model (C-index, 0.7378) yielded similar improvement in discrimination (C-index change, 0.0084; 95% CI, 0.0065, 0.0104, and 0.0089; 95% CI, 0.0069, 0.0109, respectively). Once total and HDL-C were in the model, no further substantive improvement was achieved with the addition of ApoB (C-index change, 0.0004; 95% CI, 0.0000, 0.0008) or any measure of LDL-C. Results for predictive utility were similar for a fatal CVD outcome, and in a discordance analysis. In participants taking a statin, classical risk factors (C-index, 0.7118) were improved by non-HDL-C (C-index change, 0.0030; 95% CI, 0.0012, 0.0048) or ApoB (C-index change, 0.0030; 95% CI, 0.0011, 0.0048). However, adding ApoB or LDL-C to a model already containing non-HDL-C did not further improve discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of total cholesterol and HDL-C in the nonfasted state is sufficient to capture the lipid-associated risk in CVD prediction, with no meaningful improvement from addition of apolipoproteins, direct or calculated LDL-C.

20.
Lancet ; 393(10186): 2155-2167, 2019 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226053

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs worldwide and is generally considered effective for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. Early trials evaluating aspirin for primary prevention, done before the turn of the millennium, suggested reductions in myocardial infarction and stroke (although not mortality), and an increased risk of bleeding. In an effort to balance the risks and benefits of aspirin, international guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have typically recommended aspirin only when a substantial 10-year risk of cardiovascular events exists. However, in 2018, three large randomised clinical trials of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease showed little or no benefit and have even suggested net harm. In this narrative Review, we reappraise the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, contextualising data from historical and contemporary trials.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Prevenção Primária , Fatores Sexuais
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