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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595648

RESUMO

We report 281 individuals carrying a pathogenic recurrent NF1 missense variant at p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423, representing three nontruncating NF1 hotspots in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort, together identified in 1.8% of unrelated NF1 individuals. About 25% (95% confidence interval: 20.5-31.2%) of individuals heterozygous for a pathogenic NF1 p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423 missense variant had a Noonan-like phenotype, which is significantly more compared with the "classic" NF1-affected cohorts (all p < .0001). Furthermore, p.Arg1276 and p.Lys1423 pathogenic missense variants were associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities, including pulmonic stenosis (all p < .0001), while p.Arg1276 variants had a high prevalence of symptomatic spinal neurofibromas (p < .0001) compared with "classic" NF1-affected cohorts. However, p.Met1149-positive individuals had a mild phenotype, characterized mainly by pigmentary manifestations without externally visible plexiform neurofibromas, symptomatic spinal neurofibromas or symptomatic optic pathway gliomas. As up to 0.4% of unrelated individuals in the UAB cohort carries a p.Met1149 missense variant, this finding will contribute to more accurate stratification of a significant number of NF1 individuals. Although clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations are rare in NF1, each affecting only a small percentage of individuals, together they impact counseling and management of a significant number of the NF1 population.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic variants of the NF1 gene. A markedly increased risk of breast cancer is associated with NF1. We have determined the breast cancer survival and risk of contralateral breast cancer in NF1. METHODS: We included 142 women with NF1 and breast cancer from five cohorts in Europe and 335 women without NF1 screened for other familial breast cancers. Risk of contralateral breast cancer and death were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis with delayed entry. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two women with NF1 were diagnosed for breast cancer at a median age of 46.9 years (range 27.0-84.3 years) and then followed up for 1235 person-years (mean = 8.70 years). Twelve women had contralateral breast cancer with a rate of 10.5 per 1000 years. Cumulative risk for contralateral breast cancer was 26.5% in 20 years. Five and 10-year all-cause survival was 64.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 54.8-76.8) and 49.8% (95%CI = 39.3-63.0). Breast cancer-specific 10-year survival was 64.2% (95% CI = 53.5-77.0%) compared with 91.2% (95% CI = 87.3-95.2%) in the non-NF1 age-matched population at increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Women with NF1 have a substantial contralateral breast cancer incidence and poor survival. Early start of breast cancer screening may be a way to improve the survival.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1207-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308545

RESUMO

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness1, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men2-4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%5. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders6, and outcomes are unacceptably poor7. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)8,9 and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.

5.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(10): 1998-2003, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are the most frequent congenital intestinal anomalies. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of anorectal defects between 1981 and 2014 and to evaluate patients' survival. METHODS: A population-based study using data collected by an Italian, regional registry of birth defects and by the local Pediatric Surgery Units. RESULTS: A total of 428 individuals with ARM were identified, with an overall prevalence of 3.09 per 10,000 births. Characteristics associated with decreased survival were low birth weight (<2500 g) (HR 6.4; 95% CI, 2.3-17.9), the presence of two or more additional major defects (HR 7.9; 95% CI, 2.2-27.8), and birth before year 2000 (HR 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8-11.8). The 10-year survival probability was 100% for individuals with isolated ARM, regardless of their birth weight. Survival of patients with non-isolated ARM varied according to their year of birth and birth weight: 73.3% (≥2500 g) and 23.8% (<2500 g) in children born before 2000; 97.9% (≥2500 g) and 68.8% (<2500 g) in children born after year 2000. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a significant improvement in the survival of individuals with anorectal malformations over the past decades and identified the strongest predictors of mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE (PROGNOSIS STUDY): Level II.

6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(5): e616, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by inactivating mutations of the NF1 gene. The wide allelic heterogeneity of this condition, with more than 3,000 pathogenic variants reported so far, is paralleled by its high clinical variability, which is observed even within the same family. The definition of genotype-phenotype correlations has been hampered by the complexity of the NF1 gene and, although a few exceptions have been recognized, the clinical course remains unpredictable in most patients. METHODS: Sequencing of NF1 in patients with cafè-au-lait spots identified the c.3112A>G variant. RNA analysis and a minigene assay were employed to investigate splicing. RESULTS: Here we report a novel genotype-phenotype correlation in NF1: the identification of the missense variant NM_000267.3:c.3112A>G p.(Arg1038Gly) in seven individuals from two unrelated families with a mild phenotype. All the patients manifest cafè-au-lait spots without neurofibromas or other NF1-associated complications, and Noonan syndrome features in most cases. The missense variant was not previously reported in available databases, segregates with the phenotype and involves a highly conserved residue. Both a minigene assay and patient's RNA analysis excluded an effect on splicing. CONCLUSION: Our data support the correlation of the p.Arg1038Gly missense substitution with the cutaneous phenotype without neurofibromas or other complications. This finding may have relevant implications for patients and genetic counseling, but also to get insights into the function of neurofibromin.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Neurofibromina 1/metabolismo , Linhagem
7.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 96(8): e1004-e1009, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), as a surrogate of visual function in a population of paediatric patients affected by optic pathway glioma (OPG) associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: A total of 38 paediatric patients (66 eyes) affected by MRI-proven OPG were included. Each patient underwent complete ophthalmological examination, including age-appropriate visual acuity (VA) assessment and RNFL analysis by SD-OCT. Visual acuity was classified as normal or pathologic using age-based normative data. Visual acuity was correlated to mean RNFL thickness of the whole peripapillary area and of each single analyzed sector (nasal, superior, temporal, inferior). RESULTS: Visual acuity was normal in 43 (65%) and pathologic in 23 (35%) eyes. Mean parapapillary RNFL thickness of each analyzed sector was significantly lower in eyes with abnormal VA (p < 0.05). The best balanced cut-off value of global RNFL thickness allowing to discriminate between eyes with normal and pathologic VA was 76.25 µm (91%, 76%, 67% and 94% of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicting value, respectively). Considering best balanced cut-off values of other analyzed RNFL sectors, the superior (p = 0.0029) and the inferior (p = 0.0024) sectors reached the higher sensitivity (87% and 87%, respectively) and specificity (81% and 79%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness is directly related to VA in children affected by NF1-related OPG, and should be considered as a potential surrogate marker of VA. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness cut-off values can be used in paediatric patients to discriminate false-positive results obtained by VA measurement.

8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 221: 23-27, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the outcome of a series of individuals with prenatal detection of trisomy 8 mosaicism by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and/or amniocentesis. STUDY DESIGN: The databases of two Italian genetics units were reviewed to identify all consultations requested during pregnancy because of trisomy 8 mosaicism. To evaluate the pregnancy outcome, the regional registry of congenital malformations (including terminations of pregnancies) was consulted; additional follow-up data were collected by a telephone interview. The following outcomes were analysed: delivery, pre- and post-natal growth, psychomotor development, major malformations, other diseases/complications. RESULTS: A total of 17 consecutive cases of trisomy 8 mosaicism were identified. Fourteen cases were first detected among women undergoing prenatal diagnosis by CVS; the remaining ones were identified among women who underwent amniocentesis. In most cases diagnosed by CVS, the chromosomal anomaly was only detected in long-term cell cultures (10/14) and was not confirmed by amniocentesis (11/13). There were two terminations of pregnancy and 15 live births; no major birth defects were observed among live born infants and only a case with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation was observed (mean age at follow-up interview was 5.9 years). CONCLUSION: Our data showed an overall positive prognosis for cases with an apparent confined placental mosaicism and those with low-level mosaicism in amniotic fluid if no congenital anomalies were detected by foetal ultrasound examinations. However, larger studies are warranted to better define the associated risk of neurodevelopmental anomalies.


Assuntos
Amniocentese , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Dissomia Uniparental/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(4): 382-389, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OFD1 syndrome is a rare ciliopathy inherited on a dominant X-linked mode, typically lethal in males in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. It is characterized by oral cavity and digital anomalies possibly associated with cerebral and renal signs. Its prevalence is between 1/250,000 and 1/50,000 births. It is due to heterozygous mutations of OFD1 and mutations are often de novo (75%). Familial forms show highly variable phenotypic expression. OFD1 encodes a protein involved in centriole growth, distal appendix formation, and ciliogenesis. CASES: We report the investigation of three female fetuses in which corpus callosum agenesis was detected by ultrasound during the second trimester of pregnancy. In all three fetuses, fetopathological examination allowed the diagnosis of OFD1 syndrome, which was confirmed by molecular analysis. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of antenatal diagnosis of OFD1 syndrome in the absence of familial history, revealed following detection of agenesis of the corpus callosum. They highlight the impact of fetal examination following termination of pregnancy for brain malformations. They also highlight the contribution of ciliary genes to corpus callosum development.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
10.
Retina ; 38(3): 585-593, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence, the vascular features, and the clinical diagnostic implication of retinal vascular abnormalities (RVAs) associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-four patients affected by NF1 were consecutively enrolled. The presence of RVAs was detected by means of infrared confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images. Three hundred age- and race-matched healthy subjects were enrolled as a healthy control group. Fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography were also performed in patients with RVAs. RESULTS: Retinal vascular abnormalities were detected in 18 patients with NF1 (6.1%) and in none of the healthy subjects. Retinal vascular abnormalities appeared in all cases as well-defined, small, tortuous retinal vessels with a spiral aspect, originating from small tributaries of retinal veins. The presence of RVAs did not correlate with the presence of other specific ocular or systemic NF1 features (P > 0.05). On optical coherence tomography angiography, RVAs appeared as an isolated tortuous vessel of the superficial vascular plexus in all cases, associated with localized anomalous crowded and congested capillary network of the deep vascular plexus in 75% of cases. CONCLUSION: Retinal vascular abnormalities are present in a limited proportion of patients affected by NF1 and can be considered an additional distinctive sign of the disease.


Assuntos
Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Oftalmoscopia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Retinianas/epidemiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2(8): 827-835, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the pathophysiologic interrelations between retinal neural and vascular changes, detected by spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA), resulting from optic nerve axonal degeneration. DESIGN: Institutional, observational, case-control study with prospective enrollment. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six patients affected by optic nerve axonal degeneration secondary to posterior optic pathway glioma (OPG) involving the chiasma, the postchiasmatic visual pathway, or both (but not involving optic nerves) and 24 gender- and age-matched healthy participants were included consecutively. METHODS: Best-corrected visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study score) was measured and SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) and OCTA (Nidek RS-3000 Advance device; Nidek, Gamagori, Japan) were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), and inner nuclear layer (INL) were analyzed using SD-OCT. The radial peripapillary capillary plexus, full-thickness peripapillary retina vascularization, and the macular superficial plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were analyzed using OCTA. RESULTS: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and GCC thickness were reduced in eyes affected by OPG (P < 0.0001). Radial peripapillary capillary plexus perfusion also was reduced, as well as full-thickness peripapillary retina vascularization (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Macular DCP perfusion was reduced in eyes affected by OPG, whereas macular SCP perfusion did not differ between the 2 groups (P < 0.05 and P > 0.05, respectively). Global pRNFL thickness reduction correlated with the reduction of peripapillary perfusion (P < 0.01). Macular GCC thickness reduction did not correlate with SCP reduction (P > 0.05). The reduction of macular DCP perfusion did not correlate with inner nuclear layer thickness (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Retinal neural remodeling secondary to optic nerve axonal degeneration resulting from OPG located at or posterior to the chiasm is accompanied by a secondary retinal vascular remodeling involving not only the peripapillary area, but also the macular area (DCP).

12.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 25(6): 524-532, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with eating disorders (EDs). METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of studies published until 15 January 2017 and added data from the Italian 'Biobanca Veneta per i Disturbi Alimentari' biobank, performing a meta-analysis comparing COMT Val158Met genotype and allele frequencies in EDs and anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) patients versus controls. RESULTS: Ten studies plus Biobanca Veneta per i Disturbi Alimentari (ED: n = 920, controls: n = 261 controls) with 3541 ED patients (AN = 2388; BN = 233) and 3684 controls were included. There were no significant group differences in COMT Val158Met alleles and genotype frequencies between patients and controls, for all EDs pooled together [range of odds ratios (ORs): 0.96-1.04, p-values: 0.46-0.97, I2 = 0%] and when analysing separately patients with AN (ORs: 0.94-1.04, p-values: 0.31-0.61, I2 = 0%) or BN (ORs: 0.80-1.09, p-values: 0.28-0.64, I2 = 0-44%). CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysing data results from 11 studies and 7225 subjects show that COMT Val158Met polymorphism is not associated with EDs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Bulimia Nervosa/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos
13.
J Neurooncol ; 134(2): 279-287, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577031

RESUMO

Optic pathway glioma (OPG) represents the most common central nervous system tumor in children with Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1). Although overall survival is usually good, no clear prognostic factors have been identified so far. We assessed the natural history of OPG in a cohort of unselected patients affected by NF1. We retrospectively evaluated 414 consecutive patients affected by NF1 and referred to our NF1 clinic before age 6. Average follow-up was 11.9 years: 52 out of 414 patients had OPG with a total cumulative incidence of 15.4% at age 15 (Kaplan-Meier estimate) and a statistically significant difference according to sex. Brain and orbit MRI was performed in 44.7% of patients: 34.6% for screening purposes and 65.4% because of the presence of neurological, ocular or other symptoms. OPG was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases in the first group, whereas in 36.4% in the latter group (p = 0.001). Clinical management was conservative in most patients, while 8 of them underwent therapy mainly because of visual deterioration. OPG was diagnosed earlier in treated patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conversely, all patients who underwent screening MRI had normal visual outcome. In conclusion, OPG location does not correlate with need for treatment; female patients were more frequently affected by OPG but not more frequently treated. OPG diagnosis by screening MRI does not affect the natural history of the tumor.


Assuntos
Neurofibromatose 1/fisiopatologia , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibromatose 1/epidemiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/terapia , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/epidemiologia , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(1): 22-31, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27639441

RESUMO

Exposure to teratogenic drugs during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of embryo-fetal anomalies and sometimes results in recurrent and recognizable patterns of malformations; however, the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of drug-induced birth defects is difficult, since teratogenesis is a multifactorial process which is always the result of a complex interaction between several environmental factors and the genetic background of both the mother and the fetus. Animal models have been extensively used to assess the teratogenic potential of pharmacological agents and to study their teratogenic mechanisms; however, a still open issue concerns how the information gained through animal models can be translated to humans. Instead, significant information can be obtained by the identification and analysis of human genetic syndromes characterized by clinical features overlapping with those observed in drug-induced embryopathies. Until now, genetic phenocopies have been reported for the embryopathies/fetopathies associated with prenatal exposure to warfarin, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, fluconazole, thalidomide and ACE inhibitors. In most cases, genetic phenocopies are caused by mutations in genes encoding for the main targets of teratogens or for proteins belonging to the same molecular pathways. The aim of this paper is to review the proposed teratogenic mechanisms of these drugs, by the analysis of human monogenic disorders and their molecular pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/patologia , Doenças Fetais/patologia , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/patologia , Fluconazol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Leflunomida , Mutação , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(3): 371-375, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966544

RESUMO

Nager syndrome is a rare preaxial acrofacial dysostosis that is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SF3B4. This gene encodes for a protein required for the assembly of spliceosomal complexes, being a master gene for splicing regulation. The main clinical features of Nager syndrome include facial-mandibular and preaxial limb malformations, with normal cognitive functioning. Most Nager patients are sporadic, but few familial cases with a highly variable phenotype have been reported. In this work, we report a novel synonymous variant within exon 3 of the SF3B4 gene in a family with three members affected by Nager syndrome. No pathogenic variants have been detected in other 24 genes associated with syndromes characterized by mandibulo-facial anomalies. The pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated through a hybrid minigene assay, which confirmed an aberrant splicing with the creation of a cryptic splice site, and showed that this allele is hypomorphic. Our findings emphasize the importance to perform functional analyses to assess the possible consequences of synonymous variants and confirmed that hybrid minigenes represent an effective tool to evaluate the effects of variants on splicing, particularly when RNA is not available.


Assuntos
Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Processamento de RNA
17.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(7): 542-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital malformation of the upper gastrointestinal tract with an estimated prevalence varying from 1 in 2500 to 1 in 4500 births. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of EA between 1981 and 2012 and evaluate patients' survival. METHODS: This study used data from a population-based Italian Congenital Malformation Registry. The survival status was ascertained by linking the registry records, vital records and the regional registries of patients. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival probabilities up to 25 years and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate factors that affected survival. RESULTS: A total of 407 cases of EA were identified among 1,417,724 total births. After the exclusion of cases with chromosomal anomalies, 49.9% of the patients presented with at least one associated congenital anomaly. The 25-year survival probability was 85.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.8-89.4), with most deaths occurring during the first months of life. Patients' characteristics associated with decreased survival probability were low birth weight (hazard ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.7-8.3) and presence of additional major defects (hazard ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-6.0). A significant improvement in survival over the decades was observed for patients with nonisolated EA. CONCLUSION: This study detected a significant improvement in survival of individuals with EA over the past decades and identified the strongest predictors of mortality. These results will be important for the planning of the clinical management and formulation of prognosis when EA is diagnosed in a newborn. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:542-548, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Atresia Esofágica/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 8: 23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26933465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple (epi)genetic defects affecting the expression of the imprinted genes within the 11p15.5 chromosomal region underlie Silver-Russell (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) syndromes. The molecular diagnosis of these opposite growth disorders requires a multi-approach flowchart to disclose known primary and secondary (epi)genetic alterations; however, up to 20 and 30 % of clinically diagnosed BWS and SRS cases remain without molecular diagnosis. The complex structure of the 11p15 region with variable CpG methylation and low-rate mosaicism may account for missed diagnoses. Here, we demonstrate the relevance of complementary techniques for the assessment of different CpGs and the importance of testing multiple tissues to increase the SRS and BWS detection rate. RESULTS: Molecular testing of 147 and 450 clinically diagnosed SRS and BWS cases provided diagnosis in 34 SRS and 185 BWS patients, with 9 SRS and 21 BWS cases remaining undiagnosed and herein referred to as "borderline." A flowchart including complementary techniques and, when applicable, the analysis of buccal swabs, allowed confirmation of the molecular diagnosis in all borderline cases. Comparison of methylation levels by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) in borderline and control cases defined an interval of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR loss of methylation that was distinct between "easy to diagnose" and "borderline" cases, which were characterized by values ≤mean -3 standard deviations (SDs) compared to controls. Values ≥mean +1 SD at H19/IGF2: IG-DMR were assigned to borderline hypermethylated BWS cases and those ≤mean -2 SD at KCNQ1OT1: TSS-DMR to hypomethylated BWS cases; these were supported by quantitative pyrosequencing or Southern blot analysis. Six BWS cases suspected to carry mosaic paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 11 were confirmed by SNP array, which detected mosaicism till 10 %. Regarding the clinical presentation, borderline SRS were representative of the syndromic phenotype, with exception of one patient, whereas BWS cases showed low frequency of the most common features except hemihyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: A conclusive molecular diagnosis was reached in borderline methylation cases, increasing the detection rate by 6 % for SRS and 5 % for BWS cases. The introduction of complementary techniques and additional tissue analyses into routine diagnostic work-up should facilitate the identification of cases undiagnosed because of mosaicism, a distinctive feature of epigenetic disorders.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/diagnóstico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Southern Blotting/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética
19.
J Hum Lact ; 32(1): 15-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173811

RESUMO

The use of medications by the nursing mother is a common reason for interrupting breastfeeding. Few drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during breastfeeding. Excessive caution may lead health professionals to unnecessarily advise to interrupt breastfeeding, without assessing the latest evidence or considering the risk-benefit ratio of taking a medication versus terminating breastfeeding. To foster an appropriate approach toward the use of medications in breastfeeding women, the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine created the following policy statement.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento Diretivo/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Contraindicações , Aconselhamento Diretivo/normas , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Itália , Política Organizacional , Perinatologia , Sociedades Médicas
20.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 38(3): 327-37, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26713494

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Decision-making (DM) abilities have been found to be impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN), but few data are available about the characteristics and correlates of this cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to provide data on DM functioning in AN using both veridical and adaptive paradigms. While in veridical DM tasks, the individual's ability to predict a true/false response is measured, adaptive DM is the ability to consider both internal and external demands in order to make a good choice, in the absence of a single true "correct" answer. METHOD: The participants were 189 women, of whom 91 were eating-disordered patients with a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, and 98 were healthy women. All the participants underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and genetic assessment. The cognitive evaluation included a set of neuropsychological tasks and two decision-making tests: The Iowa Gambling Task and the Cognitive Bias Task. RESULTS: Anorexia nervosa patients showed significantly poorer performances on both decision-making tasks than healthy women. The Cognitive Bias Task revealed that anorexia nervosa patients employed significantly more context-independent decision-making strategies, which were independent from diagnostic subtype, handedness, education, and psychopathology. In the whole sample (patients and controls), Cognitive Bias Task performance was independently predicted by lifetime anorexia nervosa diagnosis, body mass index at assessment, and 5-HTTLPR genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Patients displayed poor decision-making functioning in both veridical and adaptive situations. The difficulties detected in anorexia nervosa individuals may affect not only the ability to consider the future outcomes of their actions (leading to "myopia for the future"), but also the capacity to update and review one's own mindset according to new environmental stimuli.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Escolaridade , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Jogos Experimentais , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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