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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009021, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease globally, with a 30-fold increase in global incidence over the last 50 years. In Bhutan, dengue incidence has been on the rise since 2004, with numerous outbreaks reported across the country. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are vulnerable to dengue in Bhutan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) using a weighted linear combination (WLC) to obtain a vulnerability map of dengue. Risk factors (criteria) were identified and assigned with membership values for vulnerability according to the available literature. Sensitivity analysis and validation of the model was conducted to improve the robustness and predictive ability of the map. Our study revealed marked differences in geographical vulnerability to dengue by location and season. Low-lying areas and those located along the southern border were consistently found to be at higher risk of dengue. The vulnerability extended to higher elevation areas including some areas in the Capital city Thimphu during the summer season. The higher risk was mostly associated with relatively high population density, agricultural and built-up landscapes and relatively good road connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Using MCDA, our study identified vulnerable areas in Bhutan during specific seasons when and where the transmission of dengue is most likely to occur. This study provides evidence for the National Vector-borne Disease Control programme to optimize the use of limited public health resources for surveillance and vector control, to mitigate the public health threat of dengue.

2.
Malar J ; 20(1): 20, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407471

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns. Against the backdrop of this global COVID-19 pandemic response, there was a sudden surge of locally-transmitted malaria cases between June to August 2020. There were 20 indigenous cases (zero Plasmodium falciparum and 20 Plasmodium vivax) from a total of 49 cases (seven P. falciparum and 42 P. vivax) in 2020 compared to just two from a total of 42 in 2019. Over 80% of the cases were clustered in malaria endemic district of Sarpang. This spike of malaria cases was attributed to the delay in the delivery of routine malaria preventive interventions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, Bhutan is unlikely to achieve the national goal of malaria elimination by 2020.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Butão/epidemiologia , Objetivos , Humanos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , /isolamento & purificação
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466497

RESUMO

Bhutan experienced its largest and first nation-wide dengue epidemic in 2019. The cases in 2019 were greater than the total number of cases in all the previous years. This study aimed to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns and effective reproduction number of this explosive epidemic. Weekly notified dengue cases were extracted from the National Early Warning, Alert, Response and Surveillance (NEWARS) database to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of the epidemic. The time-varying, temperature-adjusted cohort effective reproduction number was estimated over the course of the epidemic. The dengue epidemic occurred between 29 April and 8 December 2019 over 32 weeks, and included 5935 cases. During the epidemic, dengue expanded from six to 44 subdistricts. The effective reproduction number was <3 for most of the epidemic period, except for a ≈1 month period of explosive growth, coinciding with the monsoon season and school vacations, when the effective reproduction number peaked >30 and after which the effective reproduction number declined steadily. Interventions were only initiated 6 weeks after the end of the period of explosive growth. This finding highlights the need to reinforce the national preparedness plan for outbreak response, and to enable the early detection of cases and timely response.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410916

RESUMO

Dengue poses a significant health and economic burden in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Approaches for control need to be aligned with current knowledge on the epidemiology of dengue in the region. Such knowledge will ensure improved targeting of interventions to reduce dengue incidence and its socioeconomic impact. This review was undertaken to describe the contemporary epidemiology of dengue and critically analyse the existing surveillance strategies in the region. Over recent decades, dengue incidence has continued to increase with geographical expansion. The region has now become hyper-endemic for multiple dengue virus serotypes/genotypes. Every epidemic cycle was associated with a change of predominant serotype/genotype and this was often associated with severe disease with intense transmission. Classical larval indices are widely used in vector surveillance and adult mosquito samplings are not implemented as a part of routine surveillance. Further, there is a lack of integration of entomological and disease surveillance systems, often leading to inaction or delays in dengue prevention and control. Disease surveillance does not capture all cases, resulting in under-reporting, and has thus failed to adequately represent the true burden of disease in the region. Possible solutions include incorporating adult mosquito sampling into routine vector surveillance, the establishment of laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, integrated vector and dengue disease surveillance and climate-based early warning systems using available technologies like mobile apps.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008757, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence and re-emergence of scrub typhus has been reported in the past decade in many global regions. In this study, we aim to identify potential scrub typhus infection risk zones with high spatial resolution in Qingdao city, in which scrub typhus is endemic, to guide local prevention and control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Scrub typhus cases in Qingdao city during 2006-2018 were retrieved from the Chinese National Infectious Diseases Reporting System. We divided Qingdao city into 1,101 gridded squares and classified them into two categories: areas with and without recorded scrub typhus cases. A boosted regression tree model was used to explore environmental and socioeconomic covariates associated with scrub typhus occurrence and predict the risk of scrub typhus infection across the whole area of Qingdao city. A total of 989 scrub typhus cases were reported in Qingdao from 2006-2018, with most cases located in rural and suburban areas. The predicted risk map generated by the boosted regression tree models indicated that the highest infection risk areas were mainly concentrated in the mid-east and northeast regions of Qingdao, with gross domestic product (20.9%±1.8% standard error) and annual cumulative precipitation (20.3%±1.1%) contributing the most to the variation in the models. By using a threshold environmental suitability value of 0.26, we identified 757 squares (68.7% of the total) with a favourable environment for scrub typhus infection; 66.2% (501/757) of the squares had not yet recorded cases. It is estimated that 6.32 million people (72.5% of the total population) reside in areas with a high risk of scrub typhus infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many locations in Qingdao city with no recorded scrub typhus cases were identified as being at risk for scrub typhus occurrence. In these at-risk areas, awareness and capacity for case diagnosis and treatment should be enhanced in the local medical service institutes.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008907, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370267

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Indonesia. However, prevalence data for many parts of the country are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine human STH prevalence and knowledge and practices relating to STH risk behaviour, to provide a current view of the status of STH infection in rural communities in Central Java. A cross-sectional survey of 16 villages was conducted in Semarang, Central Java in 2015. Demographic and household data together with information about knowledge and practices relating to STH and hygiene were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Stool samples were collected and examined using the flotation method. Children (aged 2-12 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6,466 individuals with a mean age of 33.5 years (range: 2-93) from 2,195 households were interviewed. The overall prevalence of STH was 33.8% with Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) the predominant nematode identified (prevalence = 26.0%). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were found in 7.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. Females were at increased odds of infection with A. lumbricoides (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.02-1.29], p = 0.02). Adults in age groups 51-60 and over 60 years had the highest odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI [1.84-4.91], p<0.001 and adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI [2.30-6.26], p<0.001, respectively) compared to 6-12 year olds. Farmers also had higher odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI [1.17-4.76], p = 0.02) compared to other occupation categories. Poverty (OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.77-2.58], p<0.001), overcrowding (OR 1.35, 95% CI [1.27-1.44], p<0.001), goat ownership (OR 1.61, 95% CI [1.10-2.41], p = 0.02) and the presence of dry floor space in the home (OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58-0.91], p = 0.01) were all household factors significantly associated with an increased odds of infection. Infection with STH was not significantly associated with the gastrointestinal illness (p>0.05), BMI or Hb levels; however, one third of all 2-12 year olds surveyed were found to be anaemic (i.e. Hb concentrations below 110g/l or 115g/l for children under 5 and 5 years or older, respectively), with a greater proportion of school-age children at risk. Knowledge and behaviour related to hygiene and gastrointestinal diseases varied widely and were generally not associated with STH infection. The study revealed that STH infection remains endemic in Central Java despite ongoing deworming programs. Current control efforts would benefit from being re-evaluated to determine a more effective way forward.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saneamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 574136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162989

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis japonica is an ancient parasitic disease that has severely impacted human health causing a substantial disease burden not only to the Chinese people but also residents of other countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia and, before the 1970s, Japan. Since the founding of the new People's Republic of China (P. R. China), effective control strategies have been implemented with the result that the prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica has decreased markedly in the past 70 years. Historically, the Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is recognised as one of the most highly endemic for schistosomiasis in the P.R. China. The area is characterized by vast marshlands outside the lake embankments and, until recently, the presence of large numbers of domestic animals such as bovines, goats and sheep that can act as reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum. Considerable social, economic and environmental changes have expanded the Oncomelania hupensis hupensis intermediate snail host areas in the Dongting lake region increasing the potential for both the emergence of new hot spots for schistosomiasis transmission, and for its re-emergence in areas where infection is currently under control. In this paper, we review the history, the current endemic status of schistosomiasis and the control strategies in operation in the Dongting Lake region. We also explore epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission and highlight key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis mainly in Hunan but also other endemic Chinese provinces over the past 10 years. We also consider the implications of these research findings on current and future approaches that can lead to the sustainable integrated control and final elimination of schistosomiasis from the P. R. China and other countries in the region where this unyielding disease persists.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16855, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033306

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious health challenge with low survival prognosis. The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, plays a role in the aetiology of CCA, through hepatobiliary abnormalities: liver mass (LM), bile duct dilation, and periductal fibrosis (PDF). A population-based CCA screening program, the Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program, operates in Northeast Thailand. Hepatobiliary abnormalities were identified through ultrasonography. A multivariate zero-inflated, Poisson regression model measured associations between hepatobiliary abnormalities and covariates including age, sex, distance to water resource, and history of O. viverrini infection. Geographic distribution was described using Bayesian spatial analysis methods. Hepatobiliary abnormality prevalence was 38.7%; highest in males aged > 60 years (39.8%). PDF was most prevalent (20.1% of males). The Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) for hepatobiliary abnormalities was highest in the lower and upper parts of the Northeast region. Hepatobiliary abnormalities specifically associated with CCA were also more common in males and those aged over 60 years and distributed along the Chi, Mun, and Songkram Rivers. Our findings demonstrated a high risk of hepatobiliary disorders in Northeast Thailand, likely associated with infection caused by O. viverrini. Screening for CCA and improvement of healthcare facilities to provide better treatment for CCA patients should be prioritized in these high-risk areas.

10.
Malar J ; 19(1): 372, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: District Health Information Systems 2 (DHIS2) is used for supporting health information management in 67 countries, including Solomon Islands. However, there have been few published evaluations of the performance of DHIS2-enhanced disease reporting systems, in particular for monitoring infectious diseases such as malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate DHIS2 supported malaria reporting in Solomon Islands and to develop recommendations for improving the system. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted in three administrative areas of Solomon Islands: Honoria City Council, and Malaita and Guadalcanal Provinces. Records of nine malaria indicators including report submission date, total malaria cases, Plasmodium falciparum case record, Plasmodium vivax case record, clinical malaria, malaria diagnosed with microscopy, malaria diagnosed with (rapid diagnostic test) (RDT), record of drug stocks and records of RDT stocks from 1st January to 31st December 2016 were extracted from the DHIS2 database. The indicators permitted assessment in four core areas: availability, completeness, timeliness and reliability. To explore perceptions and point of view of the stakeholders on the performance of the malaria case reporting system, focus group discussions were conducted with health centre nurses, whilst in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholder representatives from government (province and national) staff and World Health Organization officials who were users of DHIS2. RESULTS: Data were extracted from nine health centres in Honoria City Council and 64 health centres in Malaita Province. The completeness and timeliness from the two provinces of all nine indicators were 28.2% and 5.1%, respectively. The most reliable indicator in DHIS2 was 'clinical malaria' (i.e. numbers of clinically diagnosed malaria cases) with 62.4% reliability. Challenges to completeness were a lack of supervision, limited feedback, high workload, and a lack of training and refresher courses. Health centres located in geographically remote areas, a lack of regular transport, high workload and too many variables in the reporting forms led to delays in timely reporting. Reliability of reports was impacted by a lack of technical professionals such as statisticians and unavailability of tally sheets and reporting forms. CONCLUSION: The availability, completeness, timeliness and reliability of nine malaria indicators collected in DHIS2 were variable within the study area, but generally low. Continued onsite support, supervision, feedback and additional enhancements, such as electronic reporting will be required to further improve the malaria reporting system.

11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1540-1548, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748781

RESUMO

Malaria in Vietnam has become focal to a few provinces, including Phu Yen. This study aimed to assess correlations between intervention (population proportion protected by insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying) and climatic variables with malaria incidence in Phu Yen Province. The Vietnam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology provided incidence data for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax for 104 communes of Phu Yen Province from January 2005 to December 2016. A multivariable, zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive prior structure to identify the underlying spatial structure of the data and quantify associations with covariates. There were a total of 2,778 P. falciparum and 1,770 P. vivax cases during the study period. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence increased by 5.4% (95% credible interval [CrI] 5.1%, 5.7%) and 3.2% (95% CrI 2.9%, 3.5%) for a 10-mm increase in precipitation without lag, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence decreased by 7.7% (95% CrI 5.6%, 9.7%) and 10.5% (95% CrI 8.3%, 12.6%) for a 1°C increase in minimum temperature without lag, respectively. There was a > 95% probability of a higher than provincial average trend of P. falciparum and P. vivax in Song Cau and Song Hoa districts. There was a > 95% probability of a lower than provincial average trend in Tuy Dong Xuan and Hoa districts for both species. Targeted distribution of resources, including intensified interventions, in this part of the province will be required for local malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura , Vietnã/epidemiologia
12.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(3)2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722014

RESUMO

Throughout history, pandemics of viral infections such as HIV, Ebola and Influenza have disrupted health care systems, including the prevention and control of endemic diseases. Such disruption has resulted in an increased burden of endemic diseases in post-pandemic periods. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could cause severe dysfunction in the prevention and control of tuberculosis (TB), the infectious disease that causes more deaths than any other, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the burden of TB is high. The economic and health crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the public health measures currently taken to stop the spread of the virus may have an impact on household TB transmission, treatment and diagnostic services, and TB prevention and control programs. Here, we provide an overview of the potential impact of COVID-19 on TB programs and disease burden, as well as possible strategies that could help to mitigate the impact.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10372, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587266

RESUMO

The influenza A (H7N9) subtype remains a public health problem in China affecting individuals in contact with live poultry, particularly at live bird markets. Despite enhanced surveillance and biosecurity at LBMs H7N9 viruses are now more widespread in China. This study aims to quantify the temporal relationship between poultry surveillance results and the onset of human H7N9 infections during 2013-2017 and to estimate risk factors associated with geographical risk of H7N9 human infections in counties in Southeast China. Our results suggest that poultry surveillance data can potentially be used as early warning indicators for human H7N9 notifications. Furthermore, we found that human H7N9 incidence at county-level was significantly associated with the presence of wholesale LBMs, the density of retail LBMs, the presence of poultry virological positives, poultry movements from high-risk areas, as well as chicken population density and human population density. The results of this study can influence the current AI H7N9 control program by supporting the integration of poultry surveillance data with human H7N9 notifications as an early warning of the timing and areas at risk for human infection. The findings also highlight areas in China where monitoring of poultry movement and poultry infections could be prioritized.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1360-1371, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538299

RESUMO

Dengue is an important emerging vector-borne disease in Bhutan. This study aimed to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue and their relationship to environmental factors in dengue-affected areas at the sub-district level. A multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed using a Bayesian framework with spatial and spatiotemporal random effects modelled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure. The posterior parameters were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation with Gibbs sampling. A total of 708 dengue cases were notified through national surveillance between January 2016 and June 2019. Individuals aged ≤14 years were found to be 53% (95% CrI: 42%, 62%) less likely to have dengue infection than those aged >14 years. Dengue cases increased by 63% (95% CrI: 49%, 77%) for a 1°C increase in maximum temperature, and decreased by 48% (95% CrI: 25%, 64%) for a one-unit increase in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). There was significant residual spatial clustering after accounting for climate and environmental variables. The temporal trend was significantly higher than the national average in eastern sub-districts. The findings highlight the impact of climate and environmental variables on dengue transmission and suggests prioritizing high-risk areas for control strategies.

15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(6): e18419, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) of antihelminthics to at-risk populations is still the main strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. However, MDA, as a stand-alone intervention, does not prevent reinfection. Accordingly, complementary measures to prevent STH reinfection, such as health education and improved sanitation, as part of an integrated control approach, are required to augment the effectiveness of MDA for optimal efficiency and sustainability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the impact and generalizability of a school-based health education package entitled The Magic Glasses for STH prevention in the Philippines. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial, involving 2020 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years, in 40 schools in Laguna Province, Philippines, to evaluate the impact of the school-based health education package for the prevention of STHs. The trial was conducted over the course of 1 year (June 2016 to July 2017). A total of 20 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm, in which The Magic Glasses Philippines health education package was delivered with the standard health education activities endorsed by the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) and the Department of Education (DepEd). The other 20 schools comprised the control arm of the study, where the DOH/DepEd's standard health education activities were done. At baseline, parasitological assessments and a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey were carried out in all schools. In addition, height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were obtained from each child (after parental consent), and their school attendance and academic performance in English and mathematics were accessed from the school records. The baseline and 2 follow-up surveys were completed using the same study measurements and quality-control assessments. RESULTS: Key results from this cluster randomized intervention trial will shed light on the impact that The Magic Glasses health education package will have against STH infections in schoolchildren in the province of Laguna, located on the Island of Luzon, in the Calabarzon Region of the Philippines. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the trial will be used to assess the generalizability of the impact of The Magic Glasses health education package in different epidemiological and cultural settings, providing evidence for translation of this health education package into public health policy and practice in the Asian region and beyond. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN12616000508471; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368849. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18419.

16.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e034704, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB), a major public health concern in Ethiopia, is distributed heterogeneously across the country. Mapping TB prevalence at national and subnational levels can provide information for designing and implementing control strategies. Data for spatial analysis can be obtained through systematic review of the literature, and spatial prediction can be done by meta-analysis of published data (geospatial meta-analysis). Geospatial meta-analysis can increase the power of spatial analytic models by making use of all available data. It can also provide a means for spatial prediction where new survey data in a given area are sparse or not available. In this report, we present a protocol for a geospatial meta-analysis to investigate the spatial patterns of TB prevalence in Ethiopia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To conduct this study, a national TB prevalence survey, supplemented with data from a systematic review of published reports, will be used as the source of TB prevalence data. Systematic searching will be conducted in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to 15 April 2020 to identify all potential publications reporting TB prevalence in Ethiopia. Data for covariates for multivariable analysis will be obtained from different, readily available sources. Extracted TB survey and covariate data will be georeferenced to specific locations or the centroids of small administrative areas. A binomial logistic regression model will be fitted to TB prevalence data using both fixed covariate effects and random geostatistical effects based on the approach of model-based geostatistics. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation will be conducted to obtained posterior parameter estimations, including spatially predicted prevalence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for this study as it will be based on deidentified, aggregate published data. The final report of this review will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and will also be presented at relevant conferences.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7060, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341415

RESUMO

At a time when Bhutan is on the verge of malaria elimination, the aim of this study was to identify malaria clusters at high geographical resolution and to determine its association with local environmental characteristics. Malaria cases from 2006-2014 were obtained from the Vector-borne Disease Control Program under the Ministry of Health, Bhutan. A Zero-Inflated Poisson multivariable regression model with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure was developed. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with Gibbs sampling was used to estimate posterior parameters. A total of 2,062 Plasmodium falciparum and 2,284 Plasmodium vivax cases were reported during the study period. Both species of malaria showed seasonal peaks with decreasing trend. Gender and age were not associated with the transmission of either species of malaria. P. falciparum increased by 0.7% (95% CrI: 0.3%, 0.9%) for a one mm increase in rainfall, while climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) were not associated with P. vivax. Insecticide treated bed net use and residual indoor insecticide coverage were unaccounted for in this study. Hot spots and clusters of both species were isolated in the central southern part of Bhutan bordering India. There was significant residual spatial clustering after accounting for climate and demographic variables.

18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1585-1594, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975551

RESUMO

Scrub typhus is a life-threatening vector-borne disease. During the past decade, the number of areas affected by this disease has expanded in many countries. In this study, we aim to identify the spatiotemporal and demographic characteristics of scrub typhus in Southwest China, an emerging endemic region for scrub typhus. Population-based surveillance data capturing scrub typhus cases in two provinces of Southwest China during 2006-2017 were retrieved. Descriptive temporal and spatial analyses were conducted and stratified by age group. The space-time scan statistic was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of scrub typhus occurrence at the county level. During the study period, 30,001 scrub typhus cases were recorded in Southwest China, with a total of 61.0% (191/313) of counties being affected; most cases (94.3%) occurred in rural areas. The annual incidence rate increased substantially from 0.25/100,000 in 2006 to 5.38/100,000 in 2017 (>21-fold change). The 0- to 4-year-old and 45- to 64-year-old subgroups had the highest cumulative incidence rates (57.46 and 32.98/100,000, respectively). Furthermore, since 2006, the 0- to 4-year-old (slope = 0.83, p < .01) and 45-64-year-old (slope = 0.69, p < .01) age groups have had the highest increases in incidence of all age groups. The most likely spatial cluster of overall cases (relative risk = 4.13, p < .01) occurred in the southern region of Southwest China and included 41 high-risk counties. In conclusion, scrub typhus appears to be widely distributed and rapidly increasing in Southwest China. Young children and middle-aged adults were the most severely affected groups, and the disease appeared to predominantly cluster in the southern part of Southwest China. Further in-depth surveys to determine the epidemiological characteristics and driving factors of this emerging disease and to facilitate effective control programmes among high-risk groups in the affected areas should be promoted.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi/patogenicidade , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes among patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are often sub-optimal. Therefore, the early prediction of poor treatment outcomes may be useful in patient care, especially for clinicians when they have the ability to make treatment decisions or offer counselling or additional support to patients. The aim of this study was to develop a simple clinical risk score to predict poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB, using routinely collected data from two large countries in geographically distinct regions. METHODS: We used MDR-TB data collected from Hunan Chest Hospital, China and Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. The data were divided into derivation (n = 343; 60%) and validation groups (n = 227; 40%). A poor treatment outcome was defined as treatment failure, lost to follow up or death. A risk score for poor treatment outcomes was derived using a Cox proportional hazard model in the derivation group. The model was then validated in the validation group. RESULTS: The overall rate of poor treatment outcome was 39.5% (n = 225); 37.9% (n = 86) in the derivation group and 40.5% (n = 139) in the validation group. Three variables were identified as predictors of poor treatment outcomes, and each was assigned a number of points proportional to its regression coefficient. These predictors and their points were: 1) history of taking second-line TB treatment (2 points), 2) resistance to any fluoroquinolones (3 points), and 3) smear did not convert from positive to negative at two months (4 points). We summed these points to calculate the risk score for each patient; three risk groups were defined: low risk (0 to 2 points), medium risk (3 to 5 points), and high risk (6 to 9 points). In the derivation group, poor treatment outcomes were reported for these three groups as 14%, 27%, and 71%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the point system in the derivation group was 0.69 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.77) and was similar to that in the validation group (0.67; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; p = 0.82). CONCLUSION: History of second-line TB treatment, resistance to any fluoroquinolones, and smear non-conversion at two months can be used to estimate the risk of poor treatment outcome in patients with MDR-TB with a moderate degree of accuracy (AUROC = 0.69).


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the leading causes of infectious-disease-related deaths in Ethiopia, but little is known about their spatial distribution across the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial patterns of TB and HIV co-infection in Ethiopia at the district level. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study using TB and HIV data reported from all regions of Ethiopia through the national Health Management Information System (HMIS), between June 2015 and June 2017. Spatial clustering was assessed using Moran's I statistic and Getis-Ord statistic. Spatial binomial regression models were constructed separately for the prevalence of TB among people living with HIV and for the prevalence of HIV among TB patients, with and without spatial components using a Bayesian approach. RESULTS: A total of 1,830,880 HIV and 192,359 TB patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of HIV among TB patients was 7.34%; hotspots were observed in districts located in Amhara, Afar, and Gambela regions, and cold spots were observed in Oromiya and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People (SNNP) regions. The prevalence of TB among people living with HIV varied from 0.7% in Oromia region to 14.5% in Afar region. Hotspots of TB prevalence among people living with HIV were observed in districts located in Gambela, Afar, Somali, and Oromiya regions; whereas the cold spots were observed in districts located in Amhara and Tigray regions. The ecological-level factors associated with the prevalence of TB among people living with HIV were low wealth index (OR: 1.49; 95% CrI: 1.05, 2.05), low adult literacy rate (OR: 0.67; 95% CrI: 0.46, 0.94), and distance to an international border (OR: 0.61; 95% CrI: 0.40, 0.91). The factors associated with the prevalence of HIV among TB patients were poor health care access (OR: 0.76; 95% CrI: 0.59, 0.95), low wealth index (OR: 1.31; 95% CrI: 1.01, 1.67), and low adult literacy rate (OR: 1.37; 95% CrI: 1.03, 1.78). CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for geographic clustering of TB/HIV co-infection in Ethiopia. Health care access, proximity to international borders, and demographic factors such as low wealth index and adult literacy were significantly associated with the prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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