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1.
Clin Biochem ; 80: 8-13, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at high risk of non-cardiac mortality following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) could guide clinicians to identify patients who require attention due to serious non-cardiac conditions after the acute phase of STEMI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the non-specific and prognostic biomarker of inflammation and comorbidity, soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR), could predict non-cardiac mortality in a cohort of STEMI patients. METHODS: SuPAR was measured in 1,190 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The primary endpoint was non-cardiac mortality, secondary endpoints were cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, reinfarction and periprocedural acute kidney injury. Backwards elimination of potential confounders significantly associated with the respective outcome was used to adjust associations. RESULTS: Patients were followed for a median of 3.0 years (interquartile range 2.5- 3.6 years). Multivariate cox regression revealed that a plasma suPAR level above 3.70 ng mL-1 was associated with non-cardiac and cardiac mortality at hazard ratios 3.33 (95% confidence interval 1.67-6.63, p = 0.001, adjusted for age) and 0.99 (0.18-5.30, p = 0.98, adjusted for previous myocardial infarction and left ventricular ejection fraction), respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with pPCI treated STEMI, suPAR was an independent prognostic biomarker of non-cardiac but not cardiac mortality and may identify patients with high risk of non-cardiac mortality.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(5): 453-463, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), coronary pathology may range from structurally normal vessels to severe coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test if coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) may be used to exclude coronary artery stenosis ≥50% in patients with NSTEACS. METHODS: The VERDICT (Very Early Versus Deferred Invasive Evaluation Using Computerized Tomography in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes) trial (NCT02061891) evaluated the outcome of patients with confirmed NSTEACS randomized 1:1 to very early (within 12 h) or standard (48 to 72 h) invasive coronary angiography (ICA). As an observational component of the trial, a clinically blinded coronary CTA was conducted prior to ICA in both groups. The primary endpoint was the ability of coronary CTA to rule out coronary artery stenosis (≥50% stenosis) in the entire population, expressed as the negative predictive value (NPV), using ICA as the reference standard. RESULTS: Coronary CTA was conducted in 1,023 patients-very early, 2.5 h (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8 to 4.2 h), n = 583; and standard, 59.9 h (IQR: 38.9 to 86.7 h); n = 440 after the diagnosis of NSTEACS was made. A coronary stenosis ≥50% was found by coronary CTA in 68.9% and by ICA in 67.4% of the patients. Per-patient NPV of coronary CTA was 90.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.8% to 94.1%) and the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity were 87.9% (95% CI: 85.3% to 90.1%), 96.5% (95% CI: 94.9% to 97.8%) and 72.4% (95% CI: 67.2% to 77.1%), respectively. NPV was not influenced by patient characteristics or clinical risk profile and was similar in the very early and the standard strategy group. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary CTA has a high diagnostic accuracy to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease in patients with NSTEACS.

4.
J Crit Care ; 56: 100-105, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896442

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an increasingly used treatment option for patients in need of mechanical cardiopulmonary support, while available outcome data is limited. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for 30-day in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed baseline characteristics and outcomes of 8351 VA-ECMO procedures performed in Germany from 2007 to 2015. Using a multivariable model, we identified the ten most important variables to allow for prediction of 30-day in-hospital mortality. Based on these variables, we created a mortality prediction score (ECMO-ACCEPTS score) to enhance decision making in patients considered for or treated with VA-ECMO support. RESULTS: Of 8351 patients (71.7% male) 3567 had prior CPR. Mean age was 62 years in the present cohort. The overall 30-day in-hospital mortality was 61%. The ECMO-ACCEPTS score, derived among randomly selected 4175 patients, included ten independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. Internal validation in the remaining 4176 patients confirmed strong differentiation between low and high risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality (r = 0.97 for correlation of predicted with observed mortality, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The ECMO-ACCEPTS score might help clinicians to improve risk prediction among VA-ECMO patients for refractory cardiogenic shock.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226625, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, risk factors and long-term prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (primary PCI). METHOD: A large-scale, retrospective cohort study based on procedure-related variables, biochemical and mortality data collected between 2009 and 2014 at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 25% during the first 72 hours after the index procedure. RESULTS: A total of 4239 patients were treated with primary PCI of whom 4002 had available creatinine measurements allowing for assessment of AKI and inclusion in this study. The mean creatinine value upon presentation for all patients was 84 µmol/l (standard deviation (SD) ±40) and 97 µmol/l (SD ±53) at peak. AKI occurred in a total of 765 (19.1%) patients. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of AKI were age, time from symptom onset to procedure, peak value of troponin-T, female sex and the contrast volume to eGFR ratio. In a multivariable adjusted analysis AKI was independently associated with a higher mortality rate at 5 years follow-up (hazard ratio 1.39 [95%-confidence interval 1.03-1.88]). CONCLUSION: In STEMI patients treated with primary PCI one in five experiences acute kidney injury, which was associated with a substantial increase in both short- and long-term mortality.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/sangue , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Troponina T/sangue
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 289: 1-5, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078351

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the impact of sampling bias due to reported as well as unreported exclusion of the target population in a multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared clinical characteristics and mortality between participants in the DANAMI-3 trial to contemporary non-participants with STEMI using unselected registries. A total of 179 DANAMI-3 participants (8%) and 617 contemporary non-participants (22%) had died (Log-Rank: P < 0.001) after a median follow-up of 1333 days (range: 1-2021 days). In an unadjusted Cox regression model all groups of non-participants had a higher hazard ratio to predict mortality compared to participants: eligible excluded (n = 144) (hazard ratio: 3.41 (95% CI: (2.69-4.32)), ineligible excluded (n = 472) (hazard ratio: 3.42 (95% CI: (2.44-4.80), eligible non-screened (n = 154) (hazard ratio: 3.37 (95% CI: (2.36-4.82)), ineligible non-screened (n = 154) (hazard ratio: 6.48 (95% CI: (4.77-8.80). CONCLUSION: Sampling bias had occurred due to both reported and unreported exclusion of eligible patients and the difference in mortality between participants and non-participants could not be explained only by the trial exclusion criteria. Thus, screening logs may not be suited to address the risks of sampling bias.

7.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(4): 430-437, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of sex on self-reported frailty in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is unclear. We examined the prevalence of self-reported frailty and its association with all-cause death among men and women. METHODS: Elderly (≥ 65 years) male (n = 2691) and female (n = 2305) patients with ACS enrolled in the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial were screened using the Fried Frailty Index. Sex differences in prevalence of frailty symptoms and categories (not frail; prefrail [1 to 2 symptoms]; and frail [≥ 3 symptoms]) and their prognostic importance were examined. RESULTS: Women were older and had higher rates of comorbidities than men. A total of 739 (27.5%) men and 645 (28%) women reported ≥ 1 frailty symptom. Prevalence of frailty increased with age among men but not women. During a median follow-up of 17.3 months, 353 (13.1%) men and 266 (11.5%) women died. After adjusting for age, prefrail men had a 35% increased risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.71), and frail men had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.22-2.67) of death relative to not-frail men. The age-adjusted HR for death in prefrail women was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.07-1.84), and 1.55 (95% CI, 0.96-2.49) in frail women relative to not-frail women. Self-reported slow walk time and decreased physical activity appeared to provide the most prognostic information. CONCLUSION: Self-reported frailty was similar among men and women with ACS. Frailty increased with age only among men, in whom it added more prognostic information. Patient-reported frailty may identify elderly patients with ACS, particularly men, at high-risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Velocidade de Caminhada
8.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): 721-730, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided revascularization compared with culprit-only percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on infarct size, left ventricular (LV), function, LV remodeling, and the presence of nonculprit infarctions. BACKGROUND: Patients with STEMI with multivessel disease might have improved clinical outcomes after complete revascularization compared with PCI of the infarct-related artery only, but the impact on infarct size, LV function, and remodeling as well as the risk for periprocedural infarction are unknown. METHODS: In this substudy of the DANAMI-3 (Third Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction)-PRIMULTI (Primary PCI in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Disease: Treatment of Culprit Lesion Only or Complete Revascularization) randomized trial, patients with STEMI with multivessel disease were randomized to receive either complete FFR-guided revascularization or PCI of the culprit vessel only. The patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during index admission and at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients (136 patients with infarct-related and 144 with complete FFR-guided revascularization) were included. There were no differences in final infarct size (median 12% [interquartile range: 5% to 19%] vs. 11% [interquartile range: 4% to 18%]; p = 0.62), myocardial salvage index (median 0.71 [interquartile range: 0.54 to 0.89] vs. 0.66 [interquartile range: 0.55 to 0.87]; p = 0.49), LV ejection fraction (mean 58 ± 9% vs. 59 ± 9%; p = 0.39), and LV end-systolic volume remodeling (mean 7 ± 22 ml vs. 7 ± 19 ml; p = 0.63). New nonculprit infarction occurring after the nonculprit intervention was numerically more frequent among patients treated with complete revascularization (6 [4.5%] vs. 1 [0.8%]; p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Complete FFR-guided revascularization in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease did not affect final infarct size, LV function, or remodeling compared with culprit-only PCI.

9.
Circulation ; 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Nordic Aortic Valve Intervention (NOTION) was designed to compare transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients 70 years or older with isolated severe aortic valve stenosis. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes are presented after 5 years. METHODS: Patients were enrolled at three Nordic centers and randomized 1:1 to TAVR using the self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis (n=145) or SAVR using any stented bio-prostheses (n=135). The primary composite outcome was the rate of all-cause mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 1 year defined according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar. The mean age was 79.1±4.8 years and mean STS-PROM score was 3.0%±1.7%. After 5 years, there were no differences between TAVR and SAVR in the composite outcome (Kaplan-Meier estimates 38.0% vs. 36.3%, log-rank test p=0.86) or any of its components. TAVR patients had larger prosthetic valve area (1.7 cm2 vs. 1.2 cm2, p<0.001) with a lower mean transprosthetic gradient (8.2 mm Hg vs. 13.7 mm Hg, p<0.001), both unchanged over time. More TAVR patients had moderate/severe total aortic regurgitation (8.2% vs. 0.0%, p<0.001) and a new pacemaker (43.7% vs. 8.7%, p<0.001). Four patients had prosthetic re-intervention and no difference was found for functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These are currently the longest follow-up data comparing TAVR and SAVR in lower risk patients, demonstrating no statistical difference for major clinical outcomes 5 years after TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis compared to SAVR. Higher rates of prosthetic regurgitation and pacemaker implantation were seen after TAVR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01057173.

10.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(2): 161-166, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362813

RESUMO

AIMS:: The new European Society of Cardiology guideline for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction recommends that left and right bundle branch block should be considered equal for recommending urgent angiography in patients with suspected myocardial infarction. We aimed to evaluate this novel recommendation in two prospective studies of patients with suspected myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS:: We included 4067 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected myocardial infarction. All patients had an ECG recorded immediately upon admission. Patients were classified as having right bundle branch block (RBBB), left bundle branch block (LBBB), bifascicular block (BFB) or no bundle branch block. All patients were followed for up to two years to assess mortality. In the overall population 125 (3.1%) patients had RBBB, 281 (6.9%) LBBB and 60 (1.5%) BFB. The final diagnosis of myocardial infarction was adjudicated in 20.8% (RBBB), 28.5% (LBBB), 23.3% (BFB) and 21.6% (no complete block) of patients. The mortality rate after one year was 10.7% (RBBB), 7% (LBBB), 17.5% (BFB) and 3.2% (no complete block). The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-2.34; P=0.40) for RBBB, 1.71 (95% CI 1.17-2.50; P=0.006) for LBBB and 2.27 (95% CI 1.28-4.05; P=0.005) for BFB. CONCLUSION:: Our results support the new European Society of Cardiology ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction guideline describing RBBB as a high risk for mortality in patients with suspected myocardial infarction. However, the data challenge the concept of RBBB as a trigger of acute angiography because the likelihood of myocardial infarction in a chest pain unit setting is equally frequent in patients without bundle branch block.


Assuntos
Bloqueio de Ramo/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Idoso , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
11.
Circulation ; 138(24): 2741-2750, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and revascularization in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome is not well defined. We tested the hypothesis that a strategy of very early ICA and possible revascularization within 12 hours of diagnosis is superior to an invasive strategy performed within 48 to 72 hours in terms of clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients admitted with clinical suspicion of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in the Capital Region of Copenhagen, Denmark, were screened for inclusion in the VERDICT trial (Very Early Versus Deferred Invasive Evaluation Using Computerized Tomography) ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02061891). Patients with ECG changes indicating new ischemia or elevated troponin, in whom ICA was clinically indicated and deemed logistically feasible within 12 hours, were randomized 1:1 to ICA within 12 hours or standard invasive care within 48 to 72 hours. The primary end point was a combination of all-cause death, nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction, hospital admission for refractory myocardial ischemia, or hospital admission for heart failure. RESULTS: A total of 2147 patients were randomized; 1075 patients allocated to very early invasive evaluation had ICA performed at a median of 4.7 hours after randomization, whereas 1072 patients assigned to standard invasive care had ICA performed 61.6 hours after randomization. Among patients with significant coronary artery disease identified by ICA, coronary revascularization was performed in 88.4% (very early ICA) and 83.1% (standard invasive care). Within a median follow-up time of 4.3 (interquartile range, 4.1-4.4) years, the primary end point occurred in 296 (27.5%) of participants in the very early ICA group and 316 (29.5%) in the standard care group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.78-1.08). Among patients with a GRACE risk score (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) >140, a very early invasive treatment strategy improved the primary outcome compared with the standard invasive treatment (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-1.01; P value for interaction=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of very early invasive coronary evaluation does not improve overall long-term clinical outcome compared with an invasive strategy conducted within 2 to 3 days in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. However, in patients with the highest risk, very early invasive therapy improves long-term outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02061891.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/metabolismo
12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 6(12): 1035-1043, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This report relates the authors' ongoing experience with percutaneous left ventricular (LV) unloading by using a transaortic LV assist device in combination with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) and provides an in-depth analysis of the hemodynamic benefit of this approach. BACKGROUND: VA-ECMO is increasingly used in cases of severe cardiogenic shock. However, increase in afterload with subsequent LV overload is a major drawback of VA-ECMO. METHODS: Consecutive patients were treated with a transaortic LV assist device in addition to VA-ECMO for cardiogenic shock. The primary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality. Additional endpoints included weaning from VA-ECMO and safety endpoints. RESULTS: Between September 2013 and January 2018, 106 patients were treated with percutaneous LV unloading, using a transaortic LV assist device in combination with VA-ECMO. Successful weaning from VA-ECMO support was achieved in 51.9% of all patients. In the overall cohort, survival at day 30 was 35.8%, which was higher than predicted by the SAVE score (20%) or by the SAPS-II score (6.9%). Right heart catheterization indicated a marked decrease of PCWP after addition of the device to VA-ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy of percutaneous LV unloading using a transaortic LV assist device in combination with VA-ECMO improved outcome in an all-comers cohort compared to established risk scores. A prospective, randomized study is needed to further investigate this approach.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Coração Auxiliar , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cardiology ; 140(3): 178-185, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099440

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to examine the pathophysiology of ST depression (STD) in leads V1-V3 in the setting of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction (iSTEMI) through the perspective of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: Differences in myocardial area at risk (MaR), infarct size, ejection fraction and myocardial segment involvement by CMR were compared in MITOCARE trial patients with first iSTEMI with ST elevation (STE), STD or no ST changes (NST) in V1-V3. The frontal plane projection of the inferior wall MaR in relationship to the anterior/posterior chest wall was calculated and compared between groups. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were included. Patients with STD (n = 38) and STE (n = 5) in V1-V3 had significantly larger mean MaR compared to NST (n = 13; 32 ± 7%LV, 36 ± 10%LV and 26 ± 6%LV, respectively; p = 0.01). STD in leads V1-V3 was associated with more apical inferior and mid inferoseptal involvement and had a larger mean frontal plane projection of MaR compared with NST (24 ± 6%LV vs. 20 ± 6%LV, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: STD in V1-V3 in iSTEMI is associated with larger MaR, more extension into the inferoseptal segments and likely results from greater frontal plane projection of the MaR, leading to reciprocal changes on the electrocardiogram.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia
14.
Am Heart J ; 204: 128-138, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective was to compare patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who were included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (trial participants) with patients who were not included (nonparticipants) on a trial-by-trial basis and according to indication for PCI. METHODS: In this cohort study, we compared patients with IHD who were randomized in RCTs in relation to undergoing PCI in Denmark between 2011 and 2015 were considered as RCT-participants in this study. The RCT-participants were compared with contemporary nonparticipants with IHD undergoing PCI in the same period, and they were identified using unselected national registry data. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 10,317 (30%) patients were included in 10 relevant RCTs (trial participants), and a total of 23,644 (70%) contemporary patients did not participate (nonparticipants). In all the included RCTs, nonparticipants had higher hazard ratios for mortality compared to trial participants (P < .001). Among all patients treated with PCI, the pooled estimates showed a significantly higher mortality rate for nonparticipants compared to trial participants (hazard ratio: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.88-2.19) (P < .001). When patients were stratified according to indication for PCI, the pooled estimates showed a significantly lower mortality rate for trial participants compared to nonparticipants in all strata (P for all < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Trial participants in recently performed RCTs including patients undergoing PCI were not representative of the general population of patients with IHD treated with PCI according to clinical characteristics and mortality. The difference in mortality was found irrespective of the indication for PCI. Thus, results from RCTs including patients undergoing PCI should be extrapolated with caution to the general patient population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Seleção de Pacientes , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Idoso , Angina Estável/cirurgia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Causas de Morte , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(8): 1287-1296, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115422

RESUMO

Most studies reporting bleedings in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are reports from clinical trials, which may be unrepresentative of incidences in real-life. In this study, we investigated 1-year bleeding and mortality incidences in an unselected STEMI population, and compared participants with nonparticipants of a randomized all-comer clinical trial (The Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with STEMI (DANAMI-3)). Hospital charts were read and bleedings classified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria in 2,490 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a single, large, and tertiary heart center. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor and/or major bleeding (TMMB) occurred in 4.4% day 0 to 30 and 2.1% day 31 to 365. DANAMI-3 nonparticipants (n = 887) had significantly higher 30-day bleeding rates than DANAMI-3-participants (n = 1,603) (7.2% vs 2.9%, p <0.0001), but not thereafter (p = 0.8). DANAMI-3 nonparticipation was significantly associated with 30-day TMMB (hazard ratio, 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.8, p = 0.007), but this did not persist after adjusting for resuscitated cardiac arrest, Killip-class>2 and anemia. Patients with cardiac arrest, Killip-class>2, and anemia accounted for 70.0% of 30-day TMMBs, and the majority of these patients were DANAMI-3 nonparticipants. TMMB day 0 to 30 was associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 5.2, p <0.0001) but not thereafter (p = 0.9). In conclusion, we found that clinical trial (DANAMI-3) nonparticipants had significantly more TMMBs within 30 days than participants. Patients with resuscitated cardiac arrest, anemia, and Killip-class>2 were accountable for a high rate of TMMBs. Bleeding incidences from clinical trials cannot be translated to an unselected STEMI population.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(4): 563-568, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is traditionally defined on the electrocardiogram (ECG) by ST elevation (STE) in leads V1-V3, with or without involvement of lead V4. It is commonly taught that such infarcts affect the basal anteroseptal myocardial segment. While there are suggestions in the literature that Q waves limited to V1-V4 represent predominantly apical infarction, none have evaluated anteroseptal ST elevation territories. We compared the distribution of the myocardium at risk (MaR) in STEMI patients presenting with STE limited to V1-V4 and those with more extensive STE (V1-V6). METHODS: We identified patients in the MITOCARE study presenting with a first acute STEMI and new STE in at least two contiguous anterior leads from V1 to V6. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging three to five days after acute infarction. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients met inclusion criteria. In patients with STE in V1-V4 (n = 20), myocardium at risk (MaR) > 50% was seen in 0%, 85%, 75%, 100%, and 90% in the basal anteroseptal, mid anteroseptal, apical anterior, apical septal segments, and apex, respectively. The group with STE in V1-V6 (n = 12), MaR > 50% was seen in 8%, 83%, 83%, 92%, and 83% of the same segments. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acute STEMI and STE in leads V1-V4, exhibit MaR in predominantly apical territories and rarely in the basal anteroseptum. We found no evidence to support existence of isolated basal anteroseptal or septal STEMI. "Anteroapical" infarction is a more precise description than "anteroseptal" infarction for acute STEMI patients exhibiting STE in V1-V4.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
17.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(6): e12580, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterolateral myocardial infarction (MI) is traditionally defined on the electrocardiogram by ST-elevation (STE) in I, aVL, and the precordial leads. Traditional literature holds STE in lead aVL to be associated with occlusion proximal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. However, concomitant ischemia of the inferior myocardium may theoretically lead to attenuation of STE in aVL. We compared segmental distribution of myocardial area at risk (MaR) in patients with and without STE in aVL. METHODS: We identified patients in the MITOCARE study presenting with a first acute MI and new STE in two contiguous anterior leads from V1 to V6 , with or without aVL STE. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 3-5 days after acute infarction for quantitative assessment of MaR. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients met inclusion criteria; 13 patients with and 19 without STE in lead aVL. MaR > 20% at the basal anterior segment was seen in 54% of patients with aVL STE, and 11% of those without (p = 0.011). MaR > 20% at the apical inferior segment was seen in 62% and 95% of patients with and without aVL STE, respectively (p = 0.029). The total MaR was not different between groups (44% ± 10% and 39% ± 8.3% respectively, p = 0.15). CONCLUSION: Patients with anterior STEMI and concomitant STE in aVL have less MaR in the apical inferior segment and more MaR in the basal anterior segment.


Assuntos
Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Gadolínio , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/etiologia , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Dinamarca , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(5): 735-743, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049462

RESUMO

The association of markers of myocardial injury and dysfunction with infarct size (IS) and ejection fraction (EF) are well documented. However, limited data are available on the newer high-sensitivity troponin assays and comparison with morphologic and functional assessment with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We aimed to examine the associations of high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin-T (hs-cTnT), creatine kinase MB iso-enzyme (CKMB), and N-terminal pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) to IS and EF at 6 months. Blood samples from 119 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients from the Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling Combined With Cold Saline solution as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction trial were collected at baseline, 6, 24, and 48 hours after admission. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed at 4 ± 2 days and 6 months. The association of biomarker levels to IS and EF was tested with Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression models with bootstrap resampling. The correlation coefficient of biomarker to IS was (CKMB: r = 0.71); (NT-proBNP: r = 0.55); (hs-cTnT: r = 0.80); and for EF (CKMB: r = 0.57); (NT-proBNP: r = 0.48); and (peak hs-cTnT: r = 0.68). IS and EF at 4 ± 2 days had the strongest correlations with IS and EF at 6 months respectively (IS: r = 0.84) and (EF: r = 0.74). Receiver operating characteristic of peak hs-cTnT for predicting EF ≤40% at 6 months was 0.87 compared with 0.75 for early IS. Early EF was a negative predictor of late EF <40%, 1-area under curve = 0.93. In conclusion, high-sensitivity Troponin T is a rapid, cheap, generally available tool for accurate prediction of systolic dysfunction in patients 6 months after first-time ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Volume Sistólico , Sístole
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 268: 18-22, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terminal QRS distortion on the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a sign of severe ischemia in patients with STEMI and can be quantified by the Sclarovsky-Birnbaum Severity of Ischemia. Due to score complexity, it has not been applied in clinical practice. Automatic scoring of digitally recorded ECGs could facilitate clinical application. We aimed to develop an automatic algorithm for the severity of ischemia. METHODS: Development set: 50 STEMI ECGs were manually (Manual-score) and automatically (Auto-score) scored by our designed algorithm. The agreement between Manual- and Auto-score was assessed by kappa statistics. Test set: ECGs from 199 STEMI patients were assigned a severity grade (severe or non-severe ischemia) by the Auto-score. Infarct size estimated by median peak Troponin T (TnT) and Creatinine Kinase Myocardial Band (CKMB) was tested between the groups. RESULTS: The agreement between Manual- and Auto-score was 0.83 ((95% CI 0.55-1.00), p < 0.0001), sensitivity 75% and specificity 100%, PPV 100% and NPV 94.6%. In the test set 152 (76%) patients were male, mean age 61 ±â€¯12 years. The Auto-score designated severe ischemia in 42 (21%) and non-severe ischemia in 157 (79%) patients. Patients with ECG signs of severe vs. non-severe ischemia had significantly higher levels of biomarkers of infarct size. In multiple linear regression, ECG sign of severe ischemia was an independent predictor for higher TnT and CKMB levels. CONCLUSION: The automatic ECG algorithm for severity of ischemia in STEMI performs adequately for clinical use. Severe ischemia obtained by the Auto-score was associated with biomarker estimated larger infarct size.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Clin Biochem ; 59: 37-42, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is recommended in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within <12 h of symptom onset. However, patients-reported symptom duration is not always reliable. Cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) and the endogenous stress marker copeptin have different temporal release patterns for myocardial infarction MI. We hypothesized that copeptin/troponin-ratio is associated to the duration of coronary occlusion and therefore inversely proportional to myocardial salvage. METHOD: Patients older than 18 years with first time STEMI referred to pPCI were eligible. cTnT and copeptin values were measured at admission. A cardiac magnetic resonance scanning (CMR) was done during the index admission for assessment of area at risk (AAR), and later 3 months to assess final infarct size (FIS). Myocardial salvage index (MSI) was calculated based on these measurements. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients were included. The median time from patient-reported onset of symptoms to pPCI was 192 min (IQR 150 min - 290 min). At presentation 416 (89%) patients had hs-cTnT values above the 99th percentile, median hs-cTnT was 53 ng/l (IQR 24 ng/l-146 ng/l) and 318 (68%) patients had copeptin values above the 99th percentile (18.9 pmol/l), median copeptin was 50 pmol/l (IQR 14 pmol/l-131 pmol/l). Symptom duration showed a weak but significant association with AAR (R2 = 0.02, p = .04), FIS (R2 = 0.03, p < .01) and MSI (R2 = 0.04, p < .01). Copeptin/troponin-ratio was significantly associated with symptom duration (R2 = 0.19, p < .01), but not AAR (R2 = 0.02, p = .19), FIS (R2 = 0.02, p = .12), or MSI (R2 = 0.01, p = .25). CONCLUSION: Copeptin/troponin-ratio is associated with patient-reported symptom duration, but there was no association with area at risk, final infarct size or myocardial salvage index.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Troponina T/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Miocárdio/patologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
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