Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 79
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Br J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS:  Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.

2.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00781, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muir-Torre syndrome is defined by the development of sebaceous skin lesions in individuals who carry a germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation. Loss of expression of MMR proteins is frequently observed in sebaceous skin lesions, but MMR-deficiency alone is not diagnostic for carrying a germline MMR gene mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on three MMR-deficient sebaceous lesions from individuals with MSH2 gene mutations (Lynch syndrome) and three MMR-proficient sebaceous lesions from individuals without Lynch syndrome with the aim of characterizing the tumor mutational signatures, somatic mutation burden, and microsatellite instability status. Thirty predefined somatic mutational signatures were calculated for each lesion. RESULTS: Signature 1 was ubiquitous across the six lesions tested. Signatures 6 and 15, associated with defective DNA MMR, were significantly more prevalent in the MMR-deficient lesions from the MSH2 carriers compared with the MMR-proficient non-Lynch sebaceous lesions (mean ± SD=41.0 ± 8.2% vs. 2.3 ± 4.0%, p = 0.0018). Tumor mutation burden was, on average, significantly higher in the MMR-deficient lesions compared with the MMR-proficient lesions (23.3 ± 11.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 mutations/Mb, p = 0.03). All four sebaceous lesions observed in sun exposed areas of the body demonstrated signature 7 related to ultraviolet light exposure. CONCLUSION: Tumor mutational signatures 6 and 15 and somatic mutation burden were effective in differentiating Lynch-related from non-Lynch sebaceous lesions.

4.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

8.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1299, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388942

RESUMO

The abstract to this article contained errors in the Results and Conclusions section. The corrected sections are shown below.

9.
Genet Med ; 20(8): 890-895, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of the POLE and POLD1 genes are associated with an increased, but yet unquantified, risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We identified families with POLE or POLD1 variants by searching PubMed for relevant studies prior to October 2016 and by genotyping 669 population-based CRC cases diagnosed in patients under 60 years of age, from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry. We estimated the age-specific cumulative risks (penetrance) using a modified segregation analysis. RESULTS: We observed 67 CRCs (mean age at diagnosis = 50.2 (SD = 13.8) years) among 364 first- and second-degree relatives from 41 POLE families, and 6 CRCs (mean age at diagnosis = 39.7 (SD = 6.83) years) among 69 relatives from 9 POLD1 families. We estimated risks of CRC up to the age of 70 years (95% confidence interval) for males and females, respectively, to be 28% (95% CI, 10­42%) and 21% (95% CI, 7­33%) for POLE mutation carriers and 90% (95% CI, 33­99%) and 82% (95% CI, 26­99%) for POLD1 mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: CRC risks for POLE mutation carriers are sufficiently high to warrant consideration of colonoscopy screening and implementation of management guidelines recommended for MSH6 mutation carriers in cases of Lynch syndrome. Refinement of estimates of CRC risk for POLD1 carriers is needed; however, clinical management recommendations could follow those made for POLE carriers.

10.
Fam Cancer ; 17(1): 63-69, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573495

RESUMO

The WNT signaling pathway is commonly altered during colorectal cancer development. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF43, negatively regulates the WNT signal through increased ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the Frizzled receptor. RNF43 has recently been reported to harbor frequent truncating frameshift mutations in sporadic microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers. This study assesses the relative frequency of RNF43 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancers arising in the setting of Lynch syndrome. The entire coding region of RNF43 was Sanger sequenced in 24 colorectal cancers from 23 patients who either (i) carried a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2), or (ii) showed immunohistochemical loss of expression of one or more of the DNA mismatch repair proteins, was BRAF wild type at V600E, were under 60 years of age at diagnosis, and demonstrated no promoter region methylation for MLH1 in tumor DNA. A validation cohort of 44 colorectal cancers from mismatch repair germline mutation carriers from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) were sequenced for the most common truncating mutation hotspots (X117 and X659). RNF43 mutations were found in 9 of 24 (37.5%) Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. The majority of mutations were frameshift deletions in the G659 G7 repeat tract (29%); 2 cancers (2/24, 8%) from the one patient harbored frameshift mutations at codon R117 (C6 repeat tract) within exon 3. In the ACCFR validation cohort, RNF43 hotspot mutations were identified in 19/44 (43.2%) of samples, which was not significantly different to the initial series. The proportion of mutant RNF43 in Lynch syndrome related colorectal cancers is significantly lower than the previously reported mutation rate found in sporadic MSI colorectal cancers. These findings identify further genetic differences between sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. This may be because Lynch Syndrome cancers commonly arise in colorectal adenomas already bearing the APC mutation, whereas sporadic microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers arise from serrated polyps typically lacking APC mutation, decreasing the selection pressure on other WNT signaling related loci in Lynch syndrome.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 142(2): 238-250, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921583

RESUMO

The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-1994) and wave 2 (2003-2007). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stages I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment. Information on tumor characteristics and vital status was obtained. Tumor DNA was tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic mutations in oncogenes BRAF (V600E) and KRAS. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between lifestyle factors and overall and CRC-specific mortality using Cox regression. Of 724 eligible CRC cases, 339 died (170 from CRC) during follow-up (average 9.0 years). Exercise (non-occupational/leisure-time) was associated with higher CRC-specific survival for stage II (HR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60) but not stages I/III disease (p for interaction = 0.01), and possibly for colon and KRAS wild-type tumors. Waist circumference was inversely associated with CRC-specific survival (HR = 1.25 per 10 cm increment, 95% CI: 1.08-1.44), independent of stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular status. Cigarette smoking was associated with lower overall survival, with suggestive evidence of worse survival for BRAF mutated CRC, but not with CRC-specific survival. Alcohol intake was not associated with survival. Survival did not differ by MSI status. We have identified pre-diagnostic predictors of survival following CRC that may have clinical and public health relevance.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Exercício , Obesidade/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/classificação , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Fam Cancer ; 17(1): 91-100, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616688

RESUMO

In colorectal cancers (CRCs) with tumour mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, genes involved in the host immune response that contain microsatellites in their coding regions, including beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), can acquire mutations that may alter the immune response, tumour progression and prognosis. We screened the coding microsatellites within B2M for somatic mutations in MMR-deficient CRCs and adenomas to determine associations with tumour subtypes, clinicopathological features and survival. Incident MMR-deficient CRCs from Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study participants (n = 144) and 63 adenomas from 41 MMR gene mutation carriers from the ACCFR were screened for somatic mutations within five coding microsatellites of B2M. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival by B2M mutation status were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for age at CRC diagnosis, sex, AJCC stage and grade. B2M mutations occurred in 30 (20.8%) of the 144 MMR-deficient CRCs (29% of the MLH1-methylated, 17% of the Lynch syndrome and 9% of the suspected Lynch CRCs). No B2M mutations were identified in the 63 adenomas tested. B2M mutations differed by site, stage, grade and lymphocytic infiltration although none reached statistical significance (p > 0.05). The HR for overall survival for B2M mutated CRC was 0.65 (95% CI 0.29-1.48) compared with B2M wild-type. We observed differences in B2M mutation status in MMR-deficient CRC by tumour subtypes, site, stage, grade, immune infiltrate and for overall survival that warrant further investigation in larger studies before B2M mutation status can be considered to have clinical utility.

13.
Oncotarget ; 8(55): 93450-93463, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212164

RESUMO

The underlying genetic cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be identified for 5-10% of all cases, while at least 20% of CRC cases are thought to be due to inherited genetic factors. Screening for highly penetrant mutations in genes associated with Mendelian cancer syndromes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be prohibitively expensive for studies requiring large samples sizes. The aim of the study was to identify rare single nucleotide variants and small indels in 40 established or candidate CRC susceptibility genes in 1,046 familial CRC cases (including both MSS and MSI-H tumor subtypes) and 1,006 unrelated controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort using a robust and cost-effective DNA pooling NGS strategy. We identified 264 variants in 38 genes that were observed only in cases, comprising either very rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) or not previously reported (n=90, 34%) in reference databases, including six stop-gain, three frameshift, and 255 non-synonymous variants predicted to be damaging. We found novel germline mutations in established CRC genes MLH1, APC, and POLE, and likely pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes BAP1, CDH1, CHEK2, ENG, and MSH3. For the candidate CRC genes, we identified likely pathogenic variants in the helicase domain of POLQ and in the LRIG1, SH2B3, and NOS1 genes and present their clinicopathological characteristics. Using a DNA pooling NGS strategy, we identified novel germline mutations in established CRC susceptibility genes in familial CRC cases. Further studies are required to support the role of POLQ, LRIG1, SH2B3 and NOS1 as CRC susceptibility genes.

14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(5): 553-569, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in several genes predispose to colorectal cancer. Genetic testing for hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes was previously limited to single gene tests; thus, only a very limited number of genes were tested, and rarely those infrequently mutated in colorectal cancer. Next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to sequencing panels of genes known and suspected to influence colorectal cancer susceptibility. METHODS: Targeted sequencing of 36 known or putative CRC susceptibility genes was conducted for 1231 CRC cases from five subsets: (1) Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (n = 153); (2) CRC unselected by tumor immunohistochemical or microsatellite stability testing (n = 548); (3) young onset (age <50 years) (n = 333); (4) proficient mismatch repair (MMR) in cases diagnosed at ≥50 years (n = 68); and (5) deficient MMR CRCs with no germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2 (n = 129). Ninety-three unaffected controls were also sequenced. RESULTS: Overall, 29 nonsense, 43 frame-shift, 13 splice site, six initiator codon variants, one stop codon, 12 exonic deletions, 658 missense, and 17 indels were identified. Missense variants were reviewed by genetic counselors to determine pathogenicity; 13 were pathogenic, 61 were not pathogenic, and 584 were variants of uncertain significance. Overall, we identified 92 cases with pathogenic mutations in APC,MLH1,MSH2,MSH6, or multiple pathogenic MUTYH mutations (7.5%). Four cases with intact MMR protein expression by immunohistochemistry carried pathogenic MMR mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Results across case subsets may help prioritize genes for inclusion in clinical gene panel tests and underscore the issue of variants of uncertain significance both in well-characterized genes and those for which limited experience has accumulated.

15.
N Z Med J ; 130(1451): 57-67, 2017 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and an evolving management approach. The aims of this study were to assess the polyp burden reduction over time, and the incidence of CRC in serrated polyposis patients undergoing community surveillance. METHODS: This is an observational study based on prospectively collected data. A total of 96 SPS patients with no personal history of CRC were prospectively enrolled in a surveillance program under the guidance of a tertiary center. Patients underwent surveillance colonoscopy in multiple centres across New Zealand. RESULTS: Patients underwent a median of four colonoscopies with a median interval of 15 months over a median follow-up period of 4.8 years. Five of 96 patients (5%) were referred for surgery, and the remaining 91 were managed by colonoscopy alone. In patients referred for surgery, 92% of the surveillance intervals to the fourth colonoscopy had been ≤12 months compared to 33% (P<0.001) in the colonoscopy only group, and all five (100%) had ≥20 pancolonic polyps after four procedures compared with only 5/91 (5%) in those managed by colonoscopy alone. In patients successfully managed by colonoscopy, 86% had <10 pancolonic polyps, >75% no longer had polyps ≥10mm and >90% no longer had proximal serrated polyps ≥10mm after the fourth colonoscopy. No patients were found to develop CRC during the study time period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SPS were managed by proactive surveillance colonoscopy in wider hospital settings under tertiary centre guidance, with only 5% requiring surgical management. No CRC was diagnosed in any patient during surveillance.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/terapia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(2): 427-438, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tumor testing of colorectal cancers (CRC) for mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is an effective approach to identify carriers of germline MMR gene mutation (Lynch syndrome). The aim of this study was to identify MMR gene mutation carriers in two cohorts of population-based CRC utilizing a combination of tumor and germline testing approaches. METHODS: Colorectal cancers from 813 patients diagnosed with CRC < 60 years of age from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) and from 826 patients from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) were tested for MMR protein expression using immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability (MSI), BRAFV600E somatic mutation, and for MLH1 methylation. MMR gene mutation testing (Sanger sequencing and Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification) was performed on germline DNA of patients with MMR-deficient tumors and a subset of MMR-proficient CRCs. RESULTS: Of the 813 ACCFR probands, 90 probands demonstrated tumor MMR deficiency (11.1%), and 42 had a MMR gene germline mutation (5.2%). For the MCCS, MMR deficiency was identified in the tumors of 103 probands (12.5%) and seven had a germline mutation (0.8%). All the mutation carriers were diagnosed prior to 70 years of age. Probands with a MMR-deficient CRC without MLH1 methylation and a gene mutation were considered Lynch-like and comprised 41.1% and 25.2% of the MMR-deficient CRCs for the ACCFR and MCCS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of MMR gene mutation carriers in Australian CRC-affected patients is optimized by immunohistochemistry screening of CRC diagnosed before 70 years of age. A significant proportion of MMR-deficient CRCs will have unknown etiology (Lynch-like) proving problematic for clinical management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(3): 404-412, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799157

RESUMO

Background: Although high-risk mutations in identified major susceptibility genes (DNA mismatch repair genes and MUTYH) account for some familial aggregation of colorectal cancer, their population prevalence and the causes of the remaining familial aggregation are not known.Methods: We studied the families of 5,744 colorectal cancer cases (probands) recruited from population cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia and screened probands for mutations in mismatch repair genes and MUTYH We conducted modified segregation analyses using the cancer history of first-degree relatives, conditional on the proband's age at diagnosis. We estimated the prevalence of mutations in the identified genes, the prevalence of HR for unidentified major gene mutations, and the variance of the residual polygenic component.Results: We estimated that 1 in 279 of the population carry mutations in mismatch repair genes (MLH1 = 1 in 1,946, MSH2 = 1 in 2,841, MSH6 = 1 in 758, PMS2 = 1 in 714), 1 in 45 carry mutations in MUTYH, and 1 in 504 carry mutations associated with an average 31-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in unidentified major genes. The estimated polygenic variance was reduced by 30% to 50% after allowing for unidentified major genes and decreased from 3.3 for age <40 years to 0.5 for age ≥70 years (equivalent to sibling relative risks of 5.1 to 1.3, respectively).Conclusions: Unidentified major genes might explain one third to one half of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer.Impact: Our findings could aid gene discovery and development of better colorectal cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 404-12. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Mutação , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Cancer ; 140(7): 1485-1493, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943267

RESUMO

Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a causative agent for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtypes defined by the presence of somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS are known to exist. We examined associations between lifetime alcohol intake and molecular and anatomic subtypes of colorectal cancer. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 38,149 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lifetime alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity in the HRs across subtypes of colorectal cancer was assessed. A positive dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and overall colorectal cancer risk (mean follow-up = 14.6 years; n = 596 colon and n = 326 rectal cancer) was observed (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12 per 10 g/day increment). The risk was greater for rectal than colon cancer (phomogeneity = 0.02). Alcohol intake was associated with increased risks of KRAS+ (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15) and BRAF-/KRAS- (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) but not BRAF+ tumors (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01; phomogeneity = 0.01). Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- tumors originating via specific molecular pathways including the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway but not with BRAF+ tumors originating via the serrated pathway. Therefore, limiting alcohol intake from a young age might reduce colorectal cancer originating via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Genes ras , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/complicações , Antropometria , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(3): 366-375, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811119

RESUMO

Background: People with germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have increased colorectal cancer risk. For these high-risk people, study findings of the relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive.Methods: 1,925 MMR gene mutations carriers recruited into the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had completed a questionnaire on lifestyle factors were included. Weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer.Results: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 769 carriers (40%) at a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (10.3) years. Compared with abstention, ethanol consumption from any alcoholic beverage up to 14 g/day and >28 g/day was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.07 and 1.69; 95% CI, 1.07-2.65, respectively; Ptrend = 0.05), and colon cancer risk (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.27-2.49 and 1.94; 95% CI, 1.19-3.18, respectively; Ptrend = 0.02). However, there was no clear evidence for an association with rectal cancer risk. Also, there was no evidence for associations between consumption of individual alcoholic beverage types (beer, wine, spirits) and colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer risk.Conclusions: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption, particularly more than 28 g/day of ethanol (∼2 standard drinks of alcohol in the United States), is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers.Impact: Although these data suggested that alcohol consumption in MMR carriers was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, there was no evidence of a dose-response, and not all types of alcohol consumption were associated with increased risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 366-75. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 56(3): 177-184, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636879

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate up to one-third of all protein-coding genes including genes relevant to cancer. Variants within miRNAs have been reported to be associated with prognosis, survival, response to chemotherapy across cancer types, in vitro parameters of cell growth, and altered risks for development of cancer. Five miRNA variants have been reported to be associated with risk for development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we evaluated germline genetic variation in 1,123 miRNAs in 899 individuals with CRCs categorized by clinical subtypes and in 204 controls. The role of common miRNA variation in CRC was investigated using single variant and miRNA-level association tests. Twenty-nine miRNAs and 30 variants exhibited some marginal association with CRC in at least one subtype of CRC. Previously reported associations were not confirmed (n = 4) or could not be evaluated (n = 1). The variants noted for the CRCs with deficient mismatch repair showed little overlap with the variants noted for CRCs with proficient mismatch repair, consistent with our evolving understanding of the distinct biology underlying these two groups. © 2016 The Authors Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA