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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported a modest inverse association between dairy consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether plasma metabolite profiles associated with dairy consumption reflect this relationship remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the plasma metabolites associated with total and specific dairy consumption, and to evaluate the association between the identified multi-metabolite profiles and T2D. METHODS: The discovery population included 1833 participants from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial. The confirmatory cohorts included 1522 PREDIMED participants at year 1 of the trial and 4932 participants from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study US-based cohorts. Dairy consumption was assessed using validated FFQs. Plasma metabolites (n = 385) were profiled using LC-MS. We identified the dairy-related metabolite profiles using elastic net regularized regressions with a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. We evaluated the associations between the metabolite profiles and incident T2D in the discovery and the confirmatory cohorts. RESULTS: Total dairy intake was associated with 38 metabolites. C14:0 sphingomyelin (positive coefficient), C34:0 phosphatidylethanolamine (positive coefficient), and γ-butyrobetaine (negative coefficient) were associated in a directionally similar fashion with total and specific (milk, yogurt, cheese) dairy consumption. The Pearson correlation coefficients between self-reported total dairy intake and predicted total dairy intake based on the corresponding multi-metabolite profile were 0.37 (95% CI, 0.33-0.40) in the discovery cohort and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.13-0.19) in the US confirmatory cohort. After adjusting for T2D risk factors, a higher total dairy intake-related metabolite profile score was associated with a lower T2D risk [HR per 1 SD; discovery cohort: 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.90); US confirmatory cohort: 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78-0.99)]. CONCLUSIONS: Total dairy intake was associated with 38 metabolites, including 3 consistently associated with dairy subtypes (C14:0 sphingomyelin, C34:0 phosphatidylethanolamine, γ-butyrobetaine). A score based on the 38 identified metabolites showed an inverse association with T2D risk in Spanish and US populations.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653947

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal, therapy-resistant cancer that thrives in a highly desmoplastic, nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Several studies investigated the effects of depriving PDA of either glucose or glutamine alone. However, the consequences on PDA growth and metabolism of limiting both preferred nutrients have remained largely unknown. Here, we report the selection for clonal human PDA cells that survive and adapt to limiting levels of both glucose and glutamine. We find that adapted clones exhibit increased growth in vitro and enhanced tumor-forming capacity in vivo. Mechanistically, adapted clones share common transcriptional and metabolic programs, including amino acid use for de novo glutamine and nucleotide synthesis. They also display enhanced mTORC1 activity that prevents the proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase (GS), the rate-limiting enzyme for glutamine synthesis. This phenotype is notably reversible, with PDA cells acquiring alterations in open chromatin upon adaptation. Silencing of GS suppresses the enhanced growth of adapted cells and mitigates tumor growth. These findings identify nongenetic adaptations to nutrient deprivation in PDA and highlight GS as a dependency that could be targeted therapeutically in pancreatic cancer patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TMPRSS2: ERG gene fusion and PTEN loss are two of the most common somatic molecular alterations in prostate cancer. Here we investigated the association of pre-diagnostic circulating metabolomics and prostate cancer defined by ERG or PTEN status to improve understanding of these etiologically distinct molecular prostate cancer subtypes. METHODS: The study was performed among 277 prostate cancer cases with ERG status, 211 with PTEN status, and 294 controls nested in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS). We profiled 223 polar and non-polar metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma specimens. We applied enrichment analysis and multinomial logistic regression models to identify biological metabolite classes and individual metabolites associated with prostate cancer defined by ERG or PTEN status. RESULTS: Compared to non-cancer controls, sphingomyelins (P: 0.01), ceramides (P: 0.04), and phosphatidylethanolamines (P: 0.03) circulating levels were enriched among ERG-positive prostate cancer cases. Sphingomyelins (P: 0.02), ceramides (P: 0.005), and amino acids (P: 0.02) were enriched among tumors exhibiting PTEN-loss; unsaturated diacylglycerols (P: 0.003) were enriched among PTEN-intact cases; unsaturated triacylglycerols were enriched among both PTEN-loss (P: 0.001) and PTEN-intact (P: 0.0001) cases. While several individual metabolites identified in the above categories were nominally associated with ERG or PTEN defined prostate cancer, none remained significant after accounting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular process of prostate carcinogenesis may be distinct for men with different metabolomic profiles. IMPACT: These novel findings provide insights into the metabolic environment for the development of prostate cancer.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(4): 999-1010, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with disrupted lipid and glucose metabolism in people with HIV infection. We aimed to identify plasma lipid species associated with risk of diabetes in the context of HIV infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We profiled 211 plasma lipid species in 491 HIV-infected and 203 HIV-uninfected participants aged 35 to 55 years from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine associations between baseline lipid species and incident diabetes (166 diabetes cases were identified during a median follow-up of 12.6 years). RESULTS: We identified 11 lipid species, representing independent signals for 8 lipid classes/subclasses, associated with risk of diabetes (P < 0.05 after FDR correction). After adjustment for multiple covariates, cholesteryl ester (CE) (22:4), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (18:2), phosphatidylcholine (PC) (36:4), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (34:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (38:2) were associated with decreased risk of diabetes (HRs = 0.70 to 0.82 per SD increment), while diacylglycerol (32:0), LPC (14:0), PC (38:3), PE (36:1), and triacylglycerol (50:1) were associated with increased risk of diabetes (HRs = 1.26 to 1.56 per SD increment). HIV serostatus did not modify any lipid-diabetes associations; however, most of these lipid species were positively associated with HIV and/or ART use, including 3 diabetes-decreased ( CE [22:4], LPC [18:2], PE [38:2]) and all 5 diabetes-increased lipid species. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with incident diabetes. Regardless of the directions of their associations with diabetes, most diabetes-associated lipid species were elevated in ART-treated people with HIV infection. This suggests a complex role of lipids in the link between ART and diabetes in HIV infection.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(3): 394-407.e5, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440171

RESUMO

Gut microbiota metabolites may be important for host health, yet few studies investigate the correlation between human gut microbiome and production of fecal metabolites and their impact on the plasma metabolome. Since gut microbiota metabolites are influenced by diet, we performed a longitudinal analysis of the impact of three divergent diets, vegan, omnivore, and a synthetic enteral nutrition (EEN) diet lacking fiber, on the human gut microbiome and its metabolome, including after a microbiota depletion intervention. Omnivore and vegan, but not EEN, diets altered fecal amino acid levels by supporting the growth of Firmicutes capable of amino acid metabolism. This correlated with relative abundance of a sizable number of fecal amino acid metabolites, some not previously associated with the gut microbiota. The effect on the plasma metabolome, in contrast, were modest. The impact of diet, particularly fiber, on the human microbiome influences broad classes of metabolites that may modify health.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(2)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463549

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disorders represent a large collection of rare syndromes that are difficult to manage both because we do not fully understand biochemical pathogenesis and because we currently lack facile markers of severity. The m.3243A>G variant is the most common heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutation and underlies a spectrum of diseases, notably mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). To identify robust circulating markers of m.3243A>G disease, we first performed discovery proteomics, targeted metabolomics, and untargeted metabolomics on plasma from a deeply phenotyped cohort (102 patients, 32 controls). In a validation phase, we measured concentrations of prioritized metabolites in an independent cohort using distinct methods. We validated 20 analytes (1 protein, 19 metabolites) that distinguish patients with MELAS from controls. The collection includes classic (lactate, alanine) and more recently identified (GDF-15, α-hydroxybutyrate) mitochondrial markers. By mining untargeted mass-spectra we uncovered 3 less well-studied metabolite families: N-lactoyl-amino acids, ß-hydroxy acylcarnitines, and ß-hydroxy fatty acids. Many of these 20 analytes correlate strongly with established measures of severity, including Karnofsky status, and mechanistically, nearly all markers are attributable to an elevated NADH/NAD+ ratio, or NADH-reductive stress. Our work defines a panel of organelle function tests related to NADH-reductive stress that should enable classification and monitoring of mitochondrial disease.

9.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(1): e007275, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by significant metabolic disturbances; however, the breadth of metabolic dysfunction before the onset of overt disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of circulating metabolites with incident HF to uncover novel metabolic pathways to disease. METHODS: We performed targeted plasma metabolomic profiling in a deeply phenotyped group of Black adults from the JHS (Jackson Heart Study; n=2199). We related metabolites associated with incident HF to established etiological mechanisms, including increased left ventricular mass index and incident coronary heart disease. Furthermore, we evaluated differential associations of metabolites with HF with preserved ejection fraction versus HF with reduced ejection fraction. RESULTS: Metabolites associated with incident HF included products of posttranscriptional modifications of RNA, as well as polyamine and nitric oxide metabolism. A subset of metabolite-HF associations was independent of well-established HF pathways such as increased left ventricular mass index and incident coronary heart disease and included homoarginine (per 1 SD increase in metabolite level, hazard ratio, 0.77; P=1.2×10-3), diacetylspermine (hazard ratio, 1.34; P=3.4×10-3), and uridine (hazard ratio, 0.79; P, 3×10-4). Furthermore, metabolites involved in pyrimidine metabolism (orotic acid) and collagen turnover (N-methylproline) among others were part of a distinct metabolic signature that differentiated individuals with HF with preserved ejection fraction versus HF with reduced ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of clinical phenotyping with plasma metabolomic profiling uncovered novel metabolic processes in nontraditional disease pathways underlying the heterogeneity of HF development in Black adults.

10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444290

RESUMO

Mutations affecting mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis lead to kidney failure due to selective loss of podocytes, essential cells of the kidney filter. Curiously, neighboring tubular epithelial cells are spared early in disease despite higher mitochondrial content. We sought to illuminate noncanonical, cell-specific roles for CoQ, independently of the electron transport chain (ETC). Here, we demonstrate that CoQ depletion caused by Pdss2 enzyme deficiency in podocytes results in perturbations in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism and the Braf/Mapk pathway rather than ETC dysfunction. Single-nucleus RNA-Seq from kidneys of Pdss2kd/kd mice with nephrotic syndrome and global CoQ deficiency identified a podocyte-specific perturbation of the Braf/Mapk pathway. Treatment with GDC-0879, a Braf/Mapk-targeting compound, ameliorated kidney disease in Pdss2kd/kd mice. Mechanistic studies in Pdss2-depleted podocytes revealed a previously unknown perturbation in PUFA metabolism that was confirmed in vivo. Gpx4, an enzyme that protects against PUFA-mediated lipid peroxidation, was elevated in disease and restored after GDC-0879 treatment. We demonstrate broader human disease relevance by uncovering patterns of GPX4 and Braf/Mapk pathway gene expression in tissue from patients with kidney diseases. Our studies reveal ETC-independent roles for CoQ in podocytes and point to Braf/Mapk as a candidate pathway for the treatment of kidney diseases.

11.
J Nutr ; 151(2): 303-311, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unknown whether plasma metabolites related to walnut consumption are also associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to identify plasma metabolites associated with walnut consumption and evaluate the prospective associations between the identified profile and risk of T2D and CVD. METHODS: The discovery population included 1833 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study with available metabolomics data at baseline. The study population included 57% women (baseline mean BMI (in kg/m2): 29.9; mean age: 67 y). A total of 1522 participants also had available metabolomics data at year 1 and were used as the internal validation population. Plasma metabolomics analyses were performed using LC-MS. Cross-sectional associations between 385 known metabolites and walnut consumption were assessed using elastic net continuous regression analysis. A 10-cross-validation (CV) procedure was used, and Pearson correlation coefficients were assessed between metabolite weighted models and self-reported walnut consumption in each pair of training-validation data sets within the discovery population. We further estimated the prospective associations between the identified metabolite profile and incident T2D and CVD using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: A total of 19 metabolites were significantly associated with walnut consumption, including lipids, purines, acylcarnitines, and amino acids. Ten-CV Pearson correlation coefficients between self-reported walnut consumption and the plasma metabolite profile were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.20) in the discovery population and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.20) in the validation population. The metabolite profile was inversely associated with T2D incidence (HR per 1 SD: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.97; P = 0.02). For CVD incidence, the HR per 1-SD was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.85; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A metabolite profile including 19 metabolites was associated with walnut consumption and with a lower risk of incident T2D and CVD in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

12.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 86: 102504, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949984

RESUMO

In a recent clinical trial, the metabolite l-glutamine was shown to reduce painful crises in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. To support this observation and identify other metabolites implicated in SCD clinical heterogeneity, we profiled 129 metabolites in the plasma of 705 SCD patients. We tested correlations between metabolite levels and six SCD-related complications (painful crises, cholecystectomy, retinopathy, leg ulcer, priapism, aseptic necrosis) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and used Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess causality. We found a potential causal relationship between l-glutamine levels and painful crises (N = 1278, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.52-0.89], P = 0.0048). In two smaller SCD cohorts (N = 299 and 406), the protective effect of l-glutamine was observed (OR = 0.82 [0.50-1.34]), although the MR result was not significant (P = 0.44). We identified 66 significant correlations between the levels of other metabolites and SCD-related complications or eGFR. We tested these correlations for causality using MR analyses and found no significant causal relationship. The baseline levels of quinolinic acid were associated with prospectively ascertained survival in SCD patients, and this effect was dependent on eGFR. Metabolomics provide a promising approach to prioritize small molecules that may serve as biomarkers or drug targets in SCD.

13.
J Nutr ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of carbohydrate consumed, assessed by the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), or carbohydrate quality index (CQI), affects the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, which have been implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether plasma metabolites involved in different biological pathways could provide functional insights into the role of carbohydrate quality indices in health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify plasma metabolomic profiles associated with dietary GI, GL, and CQI. METHODS: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1833 participants with overweight/obesity (mean age = 67 y) from 2 case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. Data extracted from validated FFQs were used to estimate the GI, GL, and CQI. Plasma concentrations of 385 metabolites were profiled with LC coupled to MS and associations of these metabolites with those indices were assessed with elastic net regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 58, 18, and 57 metabolites were selected for GI, GL, and CQI, respectively. Choline, cotinine, γ-butyrobetaine, and 36:3 phosphatidylserine plasmalogen were positively associated with GI and GL, whereas they were negatively associated with CQI. Fructose-glucose-galactose was negatively and positively associated with GI/GL and CQI, respectively. Consistent associations of 21 metabolites with both GI and CQI were found but in opposite directions. Negative associations of kynurenic acid, 22:1 sphingomyelin, and 38:6 phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as positive associations of 32:1 phosphatidylcholine with GI and GL were also observed. Pearson correlation coefficients between GI, GL, and CQI and the metabolomic profiles were 0.30, 0.22, and 0.27, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The GI, GL, and CQI were associated with specific metabolomic profiles in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings may help in understanding the role of dietary carbohydrate indices in the development of cardiometabolic disorders. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.

14.
Nature ; 588(7837): 331-336, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299191

RESUMO

Most deaths from cancer are explained by metastasis, and yet large-scale metastasis research has been impractical owing to the complexity of in vivo models. Here we introduce an in vivo barcoding strategy that is capable of determining the metastatic potential of human cancer cell lines in mouse xenografts at scale. We validated the robustness, scalability and reproducibility of the method and applied it to 500 cell lines1,2 spanning 21 types of solid tumour. We created a first-generation metastasis map (MetMap) that reveals organ-specific patterns of metastasis, enabling these patterns to be associated with clinical and genomic features. We demonstrate the utility of MetMap by investigating the molecular basis of breast cancers capable of metastasizing to the brain-a principal cause of death in patients with this type of cancer. Breast cancers capable of metastasizing to the brain showed evidence of altered lipid metabolism. Perturbation of lipid metabolism in these cells curbed brain metastasis development, suggesting a therapeutic strategy to combat the disease and demonstrating the utility of MetMap as a resource to support metastasis research.

15.
Circ Res ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272114

RESUMO

Rationale: Altered lipid metabolism has been implicated in heart failure (HF) development, but no prospective studies have examined comprehensive lipidomics data and subsequent risk of HF. Objective: We aimed to link single lipid metabolites and lipidomics networks to the risk of developing heart failure. Methods and Results: Discovery analyses were based on 216 targeted lipids in a case-control study (331 incident HF cases and 507 controls, matched by age, sex, and study center), nested within the PREDIMED study. Associations of single lipids were examined in conditional logistic regression models. Furthermore, lipidomics networks were linked to HF risk in a multi-step workflow, including machine learning-based identification of the HF-related network-clusters, and regression-based discovery of the HF-related lipid patterns within these clusters. If available, significant findings were externally validated in a subsample of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort (2414 at-risk-participants, including 87 incident HF-cases). After confounder-adjustments, two lipids were significantly associated with HF risk in both cohorts: ceramide 16:0 (HR per SD in PREDIMED 1.28, 95%CI 1.13, 1.47) and phosphatidylcholine 32_0 (HR per SD in PREDIMED 1.23, 95%CI 1.08, 1.41). Additionally, lipid patterns in several network clusters were associated with HF risk in PREDIMED. Adjusted for standard risk factors, an internally cross-validated score based on the significant HF-related lipids that were identified in the network analysis in PREDIMED was associated with a higher HF risk (20 lipids, HR per SD 2.33, 95%CI 1.93, 2.81%). Moreover, a lipid score restricted to the externally available lipids was significantly associated with HF incidence in both cohorts (6 lipids, HRs per SD 1.30, 95%CI 1.14, 1.47 in PREDIMED, and 1.46, 95%CI, 1.17, 1.82 in EPIC-Potsdam). Conclusions: Our study identified and validated two lipid metabolites and several lipidomics patterns as potential novel biomarkers of HF risk. Lipid profiling may capture preclinical molecular alterations that predispose for incident HF.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141762

RESUMO

As the interface between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system, there has been great interest in the maintenance of colonic epithelial integrity through mitochondrial oxidation of butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by the gut microbiota. Herein, we showed that the intestinal epithelium can also oxidize long-chain fatty acids, and that luminally-delivered acylcarnitines in bile can be consumed via apical absorption by the intestinal epithelium resulting in mitochondrial oxidation. Finally, intestinal inflammation led to mitochondrial dysfunction in the apical domain of the surface epithelium that may reduce the consumption of fatty acids, contributing to higher concentrations of fecal acylcarnitines in murine Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. These results emphasized the importance of both the gut microbiota and the liver in the delivery of energy substrates for mitochondrial metabolism by the intestinal epithelium.

17.
Metabolomics ; 16(10): 113, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The metabolomics quality assurance and quality control consortium (mQACC) evolved from the recognized need for a community-wide consensus on improving and systematizing quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) practices for untargeted metabolomics. OBJECTIVES: In this work, we sought to identify and share the common and divergent QA and QC practices amongst mQACC members and collaborators who use liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in untargeted metabolomics. METHODS: All authors voluntarily participated in this collaborative research project by providing the details of and insights into the QA and QC practices used in their laboratories. This sharing was enabled via a six-page questionnaire composed of over 120 questions and comment fields which was developed as part of this work and has proved the basis for ongoing mQACC outreach. RESULTS: For QA, many laboratories reported documenting maintenance, calibration and tuning (82%); having established data storage and archival processes (71%); depositing data in public repositories (55%); having standard operating procedures (SOPs) in place for all laboratory processes (68%) and training staff on laboratory processes (55%). For QC, universal practices included using system suitability procedures (100%) and using a robust system of identification (Metabolomics Standards Initiative level 1 identification standards) for at least some of the detected compounds. Most laboratories used QC samples (>86%); used internal standards (91%); used a designated analytical acquisition template with randomized experimental samples (91%); and manually reviewed peak integration following data acquisition (86%). A minority of laboratories included technical replicates of experimental samples in their workflows (36%). CONCLUSIONS: Although the 23 contributors were researchers with diverse and international backgrounds from academia, industry and government, they are not necessarily representative of the worldwide pool of practitioners due to the recruitment method for participants and its voluntary nature. However, both questionnaire and the findings presented here have already informed and led other data gathering efforts by mQACC at conferences and other outreach activities and will continue to evolve in order to guide discussions for recommendations of best practices within the community and to establish internationally agreed upon reporting standards. We very much welcome further feedback from readers of this article.

18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 277, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD) are believed to affect women's long-term health including cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the biological underpinnings are largely unknown. We aimed to test whether maternal postpartum metabolomic profiles, especially CVD-related metabolites, varied according to PTD subtypes with and without preeclampsia, in a US urban, low-income multi-ethnic population. METHODS: This study, from the Boston Birth Cohort, included 980 women with term delivery, 79 with medically indicated PTD (mPTD) and preeclampsia, 52 with mPTD only, and 219 with spontaneous PTD (sPTD). Metabolomic profiling in postpartum plasma was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations of each metabolite with mPTD with preeclampsia, mPTD only, and sPTD, respectively, adjusting for pertinent covariates. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis was applied to investigate interconnected metabolites associated with the PTD/preeclampsia subgroups. Bonferroni correction was applied to account for multiple testing. RESULTS: A total of 380 known metabolites were analyzed. Compared to term controls, women with mPTD and preeclampsia showed a significant increase in 36 metabolites, mainly representing acylcarnitines and multiple classes of lipids (diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, phosphocholines, and lysophosphocholines), as well as a decrease in 11 metabolites including nucleotides, steroids, and cholesteryl esters (CEs) (P < 1.3 × 10-4). Alterations of diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and CEs in women with mPTD and preeclampsia remained significant when compared to women with mPTD only. In contrast, the metabolite differences between women with mPTD only and term controls were only seen in phosphatidylethanolamine class. Women with sPTD had significantly different levels of 16 metabolites mainly in amino acid, nucleotide, and steroid classes compared to term controls, of which, anthranilic acid, bilirubin, and steroids also had shared associations in women with mPTD and preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: In this sample of US high-risk women, PTD/preeclampsia subgroups each showed some unique and shared associations with maternal postpartum plasma metabolites, including those known to be predictors of future CVD. These findings, if validated, may provide new insight into metabolomic alterations underlying clinically observed PTD/preeclampsia subgroups and implications for women's future cardiometabolic health.

19.
Circulation ; 142(22): 2110-2127, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas cardiovascular disease (CVD) metrics define risk in individuals >40 years of age, the earliest lesions of CVD appear well before this age. Despite the role of metabolism in CVD antecedents, studies in younger, biracial populations to define precise metabolic risk phenotypes are lacking. METHODS: We studied 2330 White and Black young adults (mean age, 32 years; 45% Black) in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) to identify metabolite profiles associated with an adverse CVD phenome (myocardial structure/function, fitness, vascular calcification), mechanisms, and outcomes over 2 decades. Statistical learning methods (elastic nets/principal components analysis) and Cox regression generated parsimonious, metabolite-based risk scores validated in >1800 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study. RESULTS: In the CARDIA study, metabolite profiles quantified in early adulthood were associated with subclinical CVD development over 20 years, specifying known and novel pathways of CVD (eg, transcriptional regulation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nitric oxide, renin-angiotensin). We found 2 multiparametric, metabolite-based scores linked independently to vascular and myocardial health, with metabolites included in each score specifying microbial metabolism, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, nitric oxide modulation, and collagen metabolism. The metabolite-based vascular scores were lower in men, and myocardial scores were lower in Black participants. Over a nearly 25-year median follow-up in CARDIA, the metabolite-based vascular score (hazard ratio, 0.68 per SD [95% CI, 0.50-0.92]; P=0.01) and myocardial score (hazard ratio, 0.60 per SD [95% CI, 0.45-0.80]; P=0.0005) in the third and fourth decades of life were associated with clinical CVD with a synergistic association with outcome (Pinteraction=0.009). We replicated these findings in 1898 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study over 2 decades, with a similar association with outcome (including interaction), reclassification, and discrimination. In the Framingham Heart Study, the metabolite scores exhibited an age interaction (P=0.0004 for a combined myocardial-vascular score with incident CVD), such that young adults with poorer metabolite-based health scores had highest hazard of future CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic signatures of myocardial and vascular health in young adulthood specify known/novel pathways of metabolic dysfunction relevant to CVD, associated with outcome in 2 independent cohorts. Efforts to include precision measures of metabolic health in risk stratification to interrupt CVD at its earliest stage are warranted.

20.
Nature ; 585(7826): 603-608, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939090

RESUMO

Ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death process-is involved in various degenerative diseases and represents a targetable susceptibility in certain cancers1. The ferroptosis-susceptible cell state can either pre-exist in cells that arise from certain lineages or be acquired during cell-state transitions2-5. However, precisely how susceptibility to ferroptosis is dynamically regulated remains poorly understood. Here we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 suppressor screens to identify the oxidative organelles peroxisomes as critical contributors to ferroptosis sensitivity in human renal and ovarian carcinoma cells. Using lipidomic profiling we show that peroxisomes contribute to ferroptosis by synthesizing polyunsaturated ether phospholipids (PUFA-ePLs), which act as substrates for lipid peroxidation that, in turn, results in the induction of ferroptosis. Carcinoma cells that are initially sensitive to ferroptosis can switch to a ferroptosis-resistant state in vivo in mice, which is associated with extensive downregulation of PUFA-ePLs. We further find that the pro-ferroptotic role of PUFA-ePLs can be extended beyond neoplastic cells to other cell types, including neurons and cardiomyocytes. Together, our work reveals roles for the peroxisome-ether-phospholipid axis in driving susceptibility to and evasion from ferroptosis, highlights PUFA-ePL as a distinct functional lipid class that is dynamically regulated during cell-state transitions, and suggests multiple regulatory nodes for therapeutic interventions in diseases that involve ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Éteres/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Éteres/química , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Peroxissomos/genética
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