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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406924

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether metabolic signature composed of multiple plasma metabolites can be used to characterize adherence and metabolic response to the Mediterranean diet and whether such a metabolic signature is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our primary study cohort included 1859 participants from the Spanish PREDIMED trial, and validation cohorts included 6868 participants from the US Nurses' Health Studies I and II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (NHS/HPFS). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), and plasma metabolome was profiled by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We observed substantial metabolomic variation with respect to Mediterranean diet adherence, with nearly one-third of the assayed metabolites significantly associated with MEDAS (false discovery rate < 0.05). Using elastic net regularized regressions, we identified a metabolic signature, comprised of 67 metabolites, robustly correlated with Mediterranean diet adherence in both PREDIMED and NHS/HPFS (r = 0.28-0.37 between the signature and MEDAS; P = 3 × 10-35 to 4 × 10-118). In multivariable Cox regressions, the metabolic signature showed a significant inverse association with CVD incidence after adjusting for known risk factors (PREDIMED: hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation increment in the signature = 0.71, P < 0.001; NHS/HPFS: HR = 0.85, P = 0.001), and the association persisted after further adjustment for MEDAS scores (PREDIMED: HR = 0.73, P = 0.004; NHS/HPFS: HR = 0.85, P = 0.004). Further genome-wide association analysis revealed that the metabolic signature was significantly associated with genetic loci involved in fatty acids and amino acids metabolism. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that the genetically inferred metabolic signature was significantly associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke (odds ratios per SD increment in the genetically inferred metabolic signature = 0.92 for CHD and 0.91 for stroke; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a metabolic signature that robustly reflects adherence and metabolic response to a Mediterranean diet, and predicts future CVD risk independent of traditional risk factors, in Spanish and US cohorts.

2.
Proteomics ; : e1900278, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386347

RESUMO

Novel proteomics platforms, such as the aptamer-based SOMAscan platform, can quantify large numbers of proteins efficiently and cost-effectively and are rapidly growing in popularity. However, comparisons to conventional immunoassays remain underexplored, leaving investigators unsure when cross-assay comparisons are appropriate. We explored the correlation of results from immunoassays with relative protein quantification by SOMAscan. For 63 proteins assessed in two chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohorts, Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) and COPDGene, using Myriad Rules Based Medicine (RBM) multiplex immunoassays and SOMAscan, Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from -0.13 to 0.97, with a median correlation coefficient of ∼0.5 and consistent results across cohorts. A similar range was observed for immunoassays in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and for other assays in COPDGene and SPIROMICS. Comparisons of relative quantification from the antibody-based Olink platform and SOMAscan in a small cohort of myocardial infarction patients also showed a wide correlation range. Finally, we integrated cis pQTL data, mass spectrometry aptamer confirmation, and other publicly available data to assess relationships with observed correlations . Correlation between proteomics assays shows a wide range and should be carefully considered when comparing and meta-analyzing proteomics data across assays and studies. Significance: This paper provides information on the comparability of antibody- and aptamer-based protein measures across multiple cohort studies. As new multi-cohort and multi-platform meta-analyses and replication efforts are initiated using novel proteomics assays, our analysis suggests that investigators must more fully consider differences in protein concentration measurements obtained from different platforms and assess the level of correlation between those platforms. In addition to correlation data, metrics such as mass spectrometry-based aptamer confirmation or the presence of cis pQTLs may help infer the specificity of different proteomics platforms when results differ. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is more prevalent among black versus white older Americans. We previously identified 37 metabolites associated with the vigor to frailty spectrum using the Scale of Aging Vigor in Epidemiology (SAVE) among older black men from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Here, we sought to develop a metabolite composite score based on the 37 SAVE-associated metabolites and determine whether the composite score predicts mortality and whether it attenuates the association between frailty and mortality among older black men. METHODS: Plasma metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most of the 37 metabolites were organic acids/derivatives or lipids. Metabolites were ranked into tertiles: tertiles associated with more vigorous SAVE scores were scored zero, mid-tertiles were scored one, and tertiles associated with frailer SAVE scores were scored two. Composite scores were the sum of metabolite tertile scores. We examined mortality associations using Cox regression. Percent attenuation estimated the extent to which metabolites attenuated the association between frailty and mortality. RESULTS: One standard deviation frailer SAVE was associated with 30% higher mortality, adjusting for age and site (p=0.0002); this association was attenuated by 56% after additionally adjusting for the metabolite composite score. In this model, one standard deviation higher metabolite composite score was associated with 46% higher mortality (p<0.0001). Metabolite composite scores also predicted mortality (p=0.045) in a validation sample of 120 older adults (40% men, 90% white). CONCLUSION: These metabolites may provide a deeper characterization of the higher mortality that is associated with frailty among older adults.

4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000178, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378786

RESUMO

SCOPE: The plasma metabolomics profiles of protein intake has been rarely investigated. We aimed to identify the distinct plasma metabolomics profiles associated with overall intakes of protein as well as with intakes from animal and plant protein sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis using data from 1,833 participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Plasma metabolomics analysis was performed using LC-MS. Associations between 385 identified metabolites and the intake of total, animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP), and plant-to-animal ratio (PR) were assessed using elastic net continuous regression analyses. A double 10-cross-validation (CV) procedure was used and Pearson correlations coefficients between multi-metabolite weighted models and reported protein intake in each pair of training-validation datasets were calculated. A wide set of metabolites was consistently associated with each protein source evaluated. These metabolites mainly consisted of amino acids and their derivatives, acylcarnitines, different organic acids and lipid species. Few metabolites overlapped among protein sources (i.e. C14:0 SM, C20:4 carnitine, GABA and allantoin) but none of them towards the same direction. Regarding AP and PP approaches, C20:4 carnitine and dimethylglycine were positively associated with PP but negatively associated with AP. However, allantoin, C14:0 SM, C38:7 PE plasmalogen, GABA, metronidazole and trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate) behaved contrary. Ten-CV Pearson correlations coefficients between self-reported protein intake and plasma metabolomics profiles ranged from 0.21 for PR to 0.32 for total protein. CONCLUSIONS: Different sets of metabolites were associated with total, animal and plant protein intake. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of these metabolites in protein biomarkers' discovery and prediction of cardiometabolic alterations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

6.
iScience ; 23(4): 100973, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213464

RESUMO

Human genetics studies have uncovered genetic variants that can be used to guide biological research and prioritize molecular targets for therapeutic intervention for complex diseases. We have identified a missense variant (P746S) in EDEM3 associated with lower blood triglyceride (TG) levels in >300,000 individuals. Functional analyses in cell and mouse models show that EDEM3 deficiency strongly increased the uptake of very-low-density lipoprotein and thereby reduced the plasma TG level, as a result of up-regulated expression of LRP1 receptor. We demonstrate that EDEM3 deletion up-regulated the pathways for RNA and endoplasmic reticulum protein processing and transport, and consequently increased the cell surface mannose-containing glycoproteins, including LRP1. Metabolomics analyses reveal a cellular TG accumulation under EDEM3 deficiency, a profile consistent with individuals carrying EDEM3 P746S. Our study identifies EDEM3 as a regulator of blood TG, and targeted inhibition of EDEM3 may provide a complementary approach for lowering elevated blood TG concentrations.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e013522, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063116

RESUMO

Background People living with HIV have an increased risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and heart failure. HIV-associated LVDD may reflect both cardiomyocyte and systemic metabolic derangements, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. Methods and Results To explore such pathways, we conducted a pilot study in the Bronx and Brooklyn sites of the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study) who participated in concurrent, but separate, metabolomics and echocardiographic ancillary studies. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma samples from 125 HIV-infected (43 with LVDD) and 35 HIV-uninfected women (9 with LVDD). Partial least squares discriminant analysis identified polar metabolites and lipids in the glycerophospholipid-metabolism and fatty-acid-oxidation pathways associated with LVDD. After multivariable adjustment, LVDD was significantly associated with higher concentrations of diacylglycerol 30:0 (odds ratio [OR], 1.60, 95% CI [1.01-2.55]); triacylglycerols 46:0 (OR 1.60 [1.04-2.48]), 48:0 (OR 1.63 [1.04-2.54]), 48:1 (OR 1.62 [1.01-2.60]), and 50:0 (OR 1.61 [1.02-2.53]); acylcarnitine C7 (OR 1.88 [1.21-2.92]), C9 (OR 1.99 [1.27-3.13]), and C16 (OR 1.80 [1.13-2.87]); as well as lower concentrations of phosphocholine (OR 0.59 [0.38-0.91]). There was no evidence of effect modification of these relationships by HIV status. Conclusions In this pilot study, women with or at risk of HIV with LVDD showed alterations in plasma metabolites in the glycerophospholipid-metabolism and fatty-acid-oxidation pathways. Although these findings require replication, they suggest that improved understanding of metabolic perturbations and their potential modification could offer new approaches to prevent cardiac dysfunction in this high-risk group.

8.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(3): 302-309, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080622

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is widely involved in degenerative diseases in various tissues including kidney, liver and brain, and is a targetable vulnerability in multiple primary and therapy-resistant cancers. Accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides in cellular membranes is the hallmark and rate-limiting step of ferroptosis; however, the enzymes contributing to lipid peroxidation remain poorly characterized. Using genome-wide, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated suppressor screens, we identify cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as necessary for ferroptotic cell death in cancer cells exhibiting inherent and induced susceptibility to ferroptosis. By genetic depletion of POR in cancer cells, we reveal that POR contributes to ferroptosis across a wide range of lineages and cell states, and in response to distinct mechanisms of ferroptosis induction. Using systematic lipidomic profiling, we further map POR's activity to the lipid peroxidation step in ferroptosis. Hence, our work suggests that POR is a key mediator of ferroptosis and potential druggable target for developing antiferroptosis therapeutics.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Clin Invest ; 130(3): 1513-1526, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065590

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that controls blood phosphate levels by increasing renal phosphate excretion and reducing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D] production. Disorders of FGF23 homeostasis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but a fundamental understanding of what regulates FGF23 production is lacking. Because the kidney is the major end organ of FGF23 action, we hypothesized that it releases a factor that regulates FGF23 synthesis. Using aptamer-based proteomics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS-based) metabolomics, we profiled more than 1600 molecules in renal venous plasma obtained from human subjects. Renal vein glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) had the strongest correlation with circulating FGF23. In mice, exogenous G-3-P stimulated bone and bone marrow FGF23 production through local G-3-P acyltransferase-mediated (GPAT-mediated) lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) synthesis. Further, the stimulatory effect of G-3-P and LPA on FGF23 required LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1). Acute kidney injury (AKI), which increases FGF23 levels, rapidly increased circulating G-3-P in humans and mice, and the effect of AKI on FGF23 was abrogated by GPAT inhibition or Lpar1 deletion. Together, our findings establish a role for kidney-derived G-3-P in mineral metabolism and outline potential targets to modulate FGF23 production during kidney injury.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 835-844, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the associations of these metabolites with T2D incidence and the potential effect of dietary interventions remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with insulin resistance and T2D incidence, and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions. METHODS: We included 251 incident T2D cases and 638 noncases in a nested case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study during median follow-up of 3.8 y. Participants were allocated to MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil, MedDiet + nuts, or control diet. Plasma metabolites were measured using a targeted approach by LC-tandem MS. We tested the associations of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with subsequent T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models and adjusting for potential confounders. We designed a weighted score combining all these metabolites and applying the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. RESULTS: Baseline circulating concentrations of hexose monophosphate, pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and isocitrate were significantly associated with higher T2D risk (17-44% higher risk for each 1-SD increment). The weighted score including all metabolites was associated with a 30% (95% CI: 1.12, 1.51) higher relative risk of T2D for each 1-SD increment. Baseline lactate and alanine were associated with baseline and 1-y changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. One-year increases in most metabolites and in the weighted score were associated with higher relative risk of T2D after 1 y of follow-up. Lower risks were observed in the MedDiet groups than in the control group although no significant interactions were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related metabolites that was significantly associated with T2D risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A MedDiet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(6): 1357-1367, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969373

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer has few known risk factors, hampering identification of high-risk women. We assessed the association of prediagnostic plasma metabolites (N = 420) with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, including both borderline and invasive tumors. A total of 252 cases and 252 matched controls from the Nurses' Health Studies were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing the 90th-10th percentile in metabolite levels, using the permutation-based Westfall and Young approach to account for testing multiple correlated hypotheses. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA; n = 10 metabolite modules) and metabolite set enrichment analysis (n = 23 metabolite classes) were also evaluated. An increase in pseudouridine levels from the 10th to the 90th percentile was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of overall ovarian cancer (OR = 2.56; 95% CI, 1.48-4.45; P = 0.001/adjusted P = 0.15); a similar risk estimate was observed for serous/poorly differentiated tumors (n = 176 cases; comparable OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.33-4.32; P = 0.004/adjusted P = 0.55). For nonserous tumors (n = 34 cases), pseudouridine and C36:2 phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen had the strongest statistical associations (OR = 9.84; 95% CI, 2.89-37.82; P < 0.001/adjusted P = 0.07; and OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.35; P < 0.001/adjusted P = 0.06, respectively). Five WGCNA modules and 9 classes were associated with risk overall at FDR ≤ 0.20. Triacylglycerols (TAG) showed heterogeneity by tumor aggressiveness (case-only heterogeneity P < 0.0001). The TAG association with risk overall and serous tumors differed by acyl carbon content and saturation. In summary, this study suggests that pseudouridine may be a novel risk factor for ovarian cancer and that TAGs may also be important, particularly for rapidly fatal tumors, with associations differing by structural features. SIGNIFICANCE: Pseudouridine represents a potential novel risk factor for ovarian cancer and triglycerides may be important particularly in rapidly fatal ovarian tumors.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low walking ability is highly prevalent with advancing age and predicts major health outcomes. Metabolomics may help to better characterize differences in walking ability among older adults, providing insight into potentially altered molecular processes underlying age-related decline in functioning. We sought to identify metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with high versus low walking ability among 120 participants ages 79-95 from the CHS All Stars study. METHODS: Using a nested case-control design, 60 randomly selected participants with low walking ability were matched one-to-one on age, gender, race, and fasting time with 60 participants with high walking ability. High versus low walking ability was defined as being in the best versus worst tertiles for both gait speed (≥0.9 versus <0.7m/s) and the Walking Ability Index (7-9 versus 0-1). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 569 metabolites were identified in overnight-fasting plasma. RESULTS: Ninety-six metabolites were associated with walking ability, where 24% were triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols that were higher among those with high walking ability consisted mostly of polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas triacylglycerols that were lower among those with high walking ability consisted mostly of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids. Body composition partly explained associations between some metabolites and walking ability. Proline and arginine metabolism was a top pathway associated with walking ability. CONCLUSION: These results may partly reflect pathways of modifiable risk factors, including excess dietary lipids and lack of physical activity, contributing to obesity and further alterations in metabolic pathways that lead to age-related decline in walking ability in this older adult cohort.

13.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(3): 486-497, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959971

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with alterations in gut microbial abundances and lumenal metabolite concentrations, but the effects of specific metabolites on the gut microbiota in health and disease remain largely unknown. Here, we analysed the influences of metabolites that are differentially abundant in IBD on the growth and physiology of gut bacteria that are also differentially abundant in IBD. We found that N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), a class of endogenously produced signalling lipids elevated in the stool of IBD patients and a T-cell transfer model of colitis, stimulated growth of species over-represented in IBD and inhibited that of species depleted in IBD in vitro. Using metagenomic sequencing, we recapitulated the effects of NAEs in complex microbial communities ex vivo, with Proteobacteria blooming and Bacteroidetes declining in the presence of NAEs. Metatranscriptomic analysis of the same communities identified components of the respiratory chain as important for the metabolism of NAEs, and this was verified using a mutant deficient for respiratory complex I. In this study, we identified NAEs as a class of metabolites that are elevated in IBD and have the potential to shift gut microbiota towards an IBD-like composition.

14.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 694-703, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics has proven useful for detecting objective biomarkers of diet that may help to improve dietary measurement. Studies to date, however, have focused on a relatively narrow set of lipid classes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover candidate dietary biomarkers by identifying serum metabolites correlated with self-reported diet, particularly metabolites in underinvestigated lipid classes, e.g. triglycerides and plasmalogens. METHODS: We assessed dietary questionnaire data and serum metabolite correlations from 491 male and female participants aged 55-75 y in an exploratory cross-sectional study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Self-reported intake was categorized into 50 foods, food groups, beverages, and supplements. We examined 522 identified metabolites using 2 metabolomics platforms (Broad Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital). Correlations were identified using partial Pearson's correlations adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, study site, and total energy intake [Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.05/(50 × 522) = 1.9 × 10-6]. We assessed prediction of dietary intake by multiple-metabolite linear models with the use of 10-fold crossvalidation least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. RESULTS: Eighteen foods, beverages, and supplements were correlated with ≥1 serum metabolite at the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold, for a total of 102 correlations. Of these, only 5 have been reported previously, to our knowledge. Our strongest correlations were between citrus and proline betaine (r = 0.55), supplements and pantothenic acid (r = 0.46), and fish and C40:9 phosphatidylcholine (PC) (r = 0.35). The multivariate analysis similarly found reasonably large correlations between metabolite profiles and citrus (r = 0.59), supplements (r = 0.57), and fish (r = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Our study of PLCO participants identified many novel food-metabolite associations and replicated 5 previous associations. These candidate biomarkers of diet may help to complement measures of self-reported diet in nutritional epidemiology studies, though further validation work is still needed.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5604, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811141

RESUMO

Increased glucose uptake and metabolism is a prominent phenotype of most cancers, but efforts to clinically target this metabolic alteration have been challenging. Here, we present evidence that lactoylglutathione (LGSH), a byproduct of methylglyoxal detoxification, is elevated in both human and murine non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Methylglyoxal is a reactive metabolite byproduct of glycolysis that reacts non-enzymatically with nucleophiles in cells, including basic amino acids, and reduces cellular fitness. Detoxification of methylglyoxal requires reduced glutathione (GSH), which accumulates to high levels in NSCLC relative to normal lung. Ablation of the methylglyoxal detoxification enzyme glyoxalase I (Glo1) potentiates methylglyoxal sensitivity and reduces tumor growth in mice, arguing that targeting pathways involved in detoxification of reactive metabolites is an approach to exploit the consequences of increased glucose metabolism in cancer.

16.
Cell ; 179(7): 1483-1498.e22, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813625

RESUMO

Metabolism has been shown to control peripheral immunity, but little is known about its role in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Through a combination of proteomic, metabolomic, transcriptomic, and perturbation studies, we found that sphingolipid metabolism in astrocytes triggers the interaction of the C2 domain in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with the CARD domain in mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), boosting NF-κB-driven transcriptional programs that promote CNS inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, potentially, multiple sclerosis. cPLA2 recruitment to MAVS also disrupts MAVS-hexokinase 2 (HK2) interactions, decreasing HK enzymatic activity and the production of lactate involved in the metabolic support of neurons. Miglustat, a drug used to treat Gaucher and Niemann-Pick disease, suppresses astrocyte pathogenic activities and ameliorates EAE. Collectively, these findings define a novel immunometabolic mechanism that drives pro-inflammatory astrocyte activities, outlines a new role for MAVS in CNS inflammation, and identifies candidate targets for therapeutic intervention.

17.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(6): 940-946, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To optimize treatment and prevent cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes, it is important to determine how cholesterol metabolism changes with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare plasma levels of campesterol and ß-sitosterol, markers of cholesterol absorption, as well as lathosterol, a marker of cholesterol synthesis, in youth with and without type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from adolescent subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 175, mean age 15.2 years, mean duration of diabetes 8.2 years) and without diabetes (n = 74, mean age 15.4 years). Campesterol, ß-sitosterol, and lathosterol, were measured using targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, compared between groups, and correlated with the available cardiometabolic variables. RESULTS: Campesterol and ß-sitosterol levels were 30% higher in subjects with type 1 diabetes and positively correlated with hemoglobin A1c levels. In contrast, lathosterol levels were 20% lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes and positively correlated with triglycerides, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Plasma markers suggest that cholesterol absorption is increased, whereas cholesterol synthesis is decreased in adolescent subjects with type 1 diabetes. Further studies to address the impact of these changes on the relative efficacy of cholesterol absorption and synthesis inhibitors in subjects with type 1 diabetes are urgently needed.

18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 151, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires the identification of new predictor biomarkers. Biomarkers potentially modifiable with lifestyle changes deserve a special interest. Our aims were to analyze: (a) The associations of lysine, 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) or pipecolic acid with the risk of T2D or CVD in the PREDIMED trial; (b) the effect of the dietary intervention on 1-year changes in these metabolites, and (c) whether the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions can modify the effects of these metabolites on CVD or T2D risk. METHODS: Two unstratified case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were used. For CVD analyses, we selected 696 non-cases and 221 incident CVD cases; for T2D, we included 610 non-cases and 243 type 2 diabetes incident cases. Metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. RESULTS: In weighted Cox regression models, we found that baseline lysine (HR+1 SD increase = 1.26; 95% CI 1.06-1.51) and 2-AAA (HR+1 SD increase = 1.28; 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were both associated with a higher risk of T2D, but not with CVD. A significant interaction (p = 0.032) between baseline lysine and T2D on the risk of CVD was observed: subjects with prevalent T2D and high levels of lysine exhibited the highest risk of CVD. The intervention with MedDiet did not have a significant effect on 1-year changes of the metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide an independent prospective replication of the association of 2-AAA with future risk of T2D. We show an association of lysine with subsequent CVD risk, which is apparently diabetes-dependent. No evidence of effects of MedDiet intervention on lysine, 2-AAA or pipecolic acid changes was found. Trial registration ISRCTN35739639; registration date: 05/10/2005; recruitment start date 01/10/2003.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence supports a role of lipid dysregulation in ovarian cancer progression. We estimated associations with ovarian cancer risk for circulating levels of four lipid groups, previously hypothesized to be associated with ovarian cancer, measured 3-23 years before diagnosis. METHODS: Analyses were conducted among cases (N = 252) and matched controls (N = 252) from the Nurses' Health Studies. We used logistic regression adjusting for risk factors to investigate associations of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylcholines (PC), ceramides (CER), and sphingomyelins (SM) with ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. A modified Bonferroni approach (0.05/4=0.0125; 4 lipid groups) and the permutation-based Westfall and Young approach were used to account for testing multiple correlated hypotheses. Odds ratios (OR; 10th -90th percentile) and 95% confidence intervals of ovarian cancer risk were estimated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: SM sum was statistically significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (OR(95%CI)=1.97(1.16-3.32); p-value=0.01/permutation-adjusted-p=0.20). C16:0 SM, C18:0 SM, C16:0 CER were suggestively associated with risk (ORs: 1.95-2.10; p-values: 0.004-0.01/permutation-adjusted-p: 0.08-0.21). SM sum, C16:0 SM, and C16:0 CER had stronger ORs among postmenopausal women (OR range: 2.16-3.22). ORs were similar for serous/poorly differentiated and endometrioid/clear cell tumors, although C18:1 LPC and LPC to PC ratio were suggestively inversely, while C18:0 SM was suggestively positively associated with risk of endometrioid/clear cell tumors. No individual metabolites were associated with risk when using the permutation-based approach. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of circulating SMs 3-23 years before diagnosis were associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, regardless of histotype, with stronger associations among postmenopausal women. Further studies are required to validate and understand the role of lipid dysregulation in ovarian carcinogenesis.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642867

RESUMO

Importance: Lipid metabolism disruption and excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been observed in HIV-infected individuals, but the associations among HIV infection, plasma lipidome, and CVD risk have not been well understood. Objective: To evaluate plasma lipidomic profiles and their associations with carotid artery atherosclerosis in individuals with HIV and individuals without HIV. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective analysis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study during a 7-year follow-up (from 2004-2006 to 2011-2013) at multicenter HIV cohorts in the United States. The study included 737 participants aged 35 to 55 years (520 with HIV and 217 without HIV) without CVD or carotid artery plaque at baseline. Data were analyzed between April 2017 and July 2019. Exposures: Two hundred eleven plasma lipid species. Main Outcomes and Measures: Poisson regression was used to examine the associations of baseline lipid species with risk of plaque measured by repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasonography imaging. Results: Of the 737 included participants, 398 (54%) were women, 351 (48%) were African American (non-Hispanic), 156 of 737 (21%) were nonwhite Hispanic, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (6) years. After adjusting for demographic and behavioral factors, we identified 12 lipid species, representing independent signals for 10 lipid classes, associated with risk of plaque. Nine lipid species remained significant after further adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, although many of them showed moderate to high association with conventional blood lipids (eg, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols and triglycerides). Cholesteryl ester (16:1) (risk ratio [RR] per standard deviation, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52), ceramide (16:0) (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), lysophosphatidylcholine (20:4) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.58), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (16:0) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.57), phosphatidylethanolamine (38:6) (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.64), phosphatidylethanolamine-plasmalogen (36:2) (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52), phosphatidylserine-plasmalogen (36:3) (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.43), and triacylglycerol (54:6) (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54) were associated with increased risk of plaque, while phosphatidylcholine (36:4) (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.54-0.77) was associated with decreased risk of plaque. Most of these plaque-increased lipid species showed higher levels in individuals with HIV, particularly among individuals with HIV using antiretroviral therapy compared with individuals without HIV. Network analysis identified 9 lipid modules, and 2 modules composed of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines with long and unsaturated acyl chains, respectively, showed the strongest associations with increased risk of plaque. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis, and alterations in these lipid species might be associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Our data suggest unfavorable associations of long-chain and unsaturated triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines with carotid artery plaque formation.

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