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Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 78-80, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393105


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents unique challenges for surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis. High viral concentrations in the upper aerodigestive tract, the ability of the virus to be transmitted by asymptomatic carriers and through aerosols, and the need for open airway access during laryngotracheal surgery create a high-risk situation for airway surgeons, anesthesiologists, and operating room personnel. While some surgical cases of laryngotracheal stenosis may be deferred, patients with significant airway obstruction or progressing symptoms often require urgent surgical intervention. We present best practices from our institutional experience for surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis during this pandemic, including preoperative triage, intraoperative airway management, and personal protective measures.

Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1225-1233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094792


BACKGROUND: Many children recovering from anesthesia experience pain that is severe enough to warrant intravenous (IV) opioid treatment within moments of admission to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Postoperative pain has several negative consequences; therefore, preventing significant PACU pain in children is both a major clinical goal and a moral/ethical imperative. This requires identifying patient-level and perioperative factors that may be used to predict PACU IV opioid requirement. This should allow for the development of personalized care protocols to prevent clinically significant PACU pain in children. Our objective was to develop prediction models enabling practitioners to identify children at risk for PACU IV opioid requirement after various painful ambulatory surgical procedures. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, clinical, demographic, and anthropometric data were prospectively collected on 1256 children 4-17 years of age scheduled for painful ambulatory surgery (defined as intraoperative administration of analgesia or local anesthetic infiltration). Three multivariable logistic regression models to determine possible predictors of PACU IV opioid requirement were constructed based on (1) preoperative history; (2) history + intraoperative variables; and (3) history + intraoperative variables + PACU variables. Candidate predictors were chosen from readily obtainable parameters routinely collected during the surgical visit. Predictive performance of each model was assessed by calculating the area under the respective receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Overall, 29.5% of patients required a PACU IV opioid, while total PACU analgesia requirement (oral or IV) was 41.1%. Independent predictors using history alone were female sex, decreasing age, surgical history, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.59 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.55-0.63]). Adding a few intraoperative variables improved the discriminant ability of the model (AUROC for the history + intraoperative variables model, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.67-0.74]). Addition of first-documented PACU pain score produced a substantially improved model (AUROC, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.82-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain requiring PACU IV opioid in children may be determined using a small set of easily obtainable perioperative variables. Our models require validation in other settings to determine their clinical usefulness.

Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Local/métodos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sala de Recuperação , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
A A Pract ; 12(10): 378-381, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091201


Although rare, cannot intubate and cannot oxygenate situations are challenging acute events. The development of management algorithms, standardized equipment provisions, and appropriate clinical training in the application of front-of-neck access techniques are necessary to optimize procedural success to ensure adequate oxygenation. The OxyTain algorithm is an institutionally developed protocol to manage cannot intubate and cannot oxygenate events. With proper implementation, this unique process aligning the cannula cricothyroidotomy and scalpel bougie as primary and secondary techniques, respectively, can potentially optimize procedural success. This algorithmic approach is trained routinely among our anesthesia providers, while the equipment is standardized throughout our anesthetizing locations.

Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Cânula , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos
Indian J Plast Surg ; 51(1): 7-14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928074


Background: Infection following augmentation and prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can cause significant physical and psychological distress for patients. It may delay adjuvant therapies and compromise aesthetic outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify modifiable risk factors for infection and identify common bacterial isolates to achieve optimal outcomes for patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction over a 2-year period. In each case, we documented demographics, co-morbidities, complications and antibiotic use. We reviewed treatments, infectious species cultured where applicable and all outcomes. Results: A total of 292 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-five patients (19%) developed an infection. Univariate analysis showed a significantly increased infection rate with longer operative times (P = 0.001) and use of tissue expanders (P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed drain use and elevated body mass index (BMI) as risk factors (odds ratio [OR] 2.427 and 1.061, respectively). After controlling for BMI, smoking status and radiation, we found an increased odd of infection with allograft use (OR 1.838) and a decreased odd with skin preparation using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl (OR 0.554), though not statistically significant. Forty of 55 patients with infections had cultures, with 62.5% of isolates being Gram-positive species and 30% Gram-negative species. The median time to clinical infection was 25 days. Implant salvage with surgical interventions was achieved in 61.5% of patients. Conclusions: This study identified judicious use of drains and efficiency in the operating room as modifiable risk factors for infections following implant-based breast reconstruction. Prospective trials to analyse techniques for infection prevention are warranted. Implant salvage following infection is a possible end-point in the appropriate patient.

Pain Pract ; 18(6): 698-708, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080245


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a child-friendly biofeedback-mediated relaxation device called BrightHearts. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected at a tertiary pediatric hospital to inform an iterative design process. Clinicians participated in expert group interviews to identify practical considerations that would facilitate the use of BrightHearts during procedures and provide feedback on prototype designs. Children 7 to 18 years of age participated in interactive exhibitions of the prototypes and were interviewed about their experiences using BrightHearts. RESULTS: Twenty-four clinicians participated in 6 group interviews. Thirty-nine children participated in interactive exhibitions, and 21 were interviewed. Clinicians placed high value on the following factors in the management of procedural pain: providing children with an element of control, the use of relaxation techniques, and the use of portable electronic devices such as iPads. They highlighted the need for BrightHearts to be cost effective, portable, and capable of engaging children's interest. They confirmed the utility of developing a biofeedback-assisted relaxation device for children. Based on the factors identified by clinicians, BrightHearts was developed as an iPad application (app) paired with a wireless heart rate monitor. The BrightHearts heart rate biofeedback app displays digital geometric artwork that responds to changes in heart rate. Children 7 to 17 years of age understood the concept of biofeedback and operated the app by slowing their heart rates. CONCLUSION: The BrightHearts app can be used to teach children biofeedback-assisted relaxation. Ongoing studies are evaluating its efficacy for the management of procedural pain in children.

Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino