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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800079

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with current or a history of hyperkalaemia, treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) is often compromised. Patiromer, a novel potassium (K+ ) binder, may improve serum K+ levels and adherence to RAASi. METHODS: The DIAMOND trial will enrol ~820 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; ejection fraction ≤40%). Patients meeting the screening criteria will enter a single-blinded run-in phase where they will be started or continued on a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) titrated to 50 mg/day and other RAASi therapy to ≥50% target dose, and patiromer. Patiromer will be titrated up to a maximum three packs/day (8.4 g/pack) to achieve optimal doses of RAASi without hyperkalaemia. The run-in phase will last up to 12 weeks, following which patients will undergo double-blind randomization in a 1:1 ratio to receive either continued patiromer or placebo (patiromer withdrawal). The primary endpoint is the mean difference in serum K+ from randomization between patiromer and placebo arms. Secondary endpoints will include hyperkalaemia events with K+ value >5.5 mEq/L, durable enablement of MRA at target dose, investigator-reported adverse events of hyperkalaemia, hyperkalaemia-related clinical endpoints and an overall RAASi Use Score (using a 0-8-point scale) comprising all-cause death, occurrence of cardiovascular hospitalization or usage of comprehensive HF medication. CONCLUSION: The DIAMOND trial is designed to determine if patiromer can favourably impact K+ control in patients with HFrEF with hyperkalaemia or a history of hyperkalaemia leading to RAASi therapy compromise, and in turn improve RAASi use.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612556

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628706

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of interatrial shunt devices (IASD) for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until April 2021 were searched for prospective studies investigating dedicated transcatheter IASD for the treatment of CHF. Standardised mean differences were calculated for the within-group changes before and after implantation of the IASD. The pre-defined primary outcome was change in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) from baseline to 12 months. Other outcomes were change in New York Heart Association class, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), echocardiographic and haemodynamic data, device performance and safety. Subgroup analyses were crude univariable meta-regression analyses. Six studies (five single-arm open-label studies, one sham-controlled trial) were included. In these, 226 patients underwent IASD implantation using four different devices. From baseline to 12 months, 6MWD increased by 28.1 m [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.9-45.3] with no evidence for a difference between devices (P for interaction = 0.66) and patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40% or ≤40% (P for interaction = 0.21). At 12 months, HRQoL improved by 17.7 points (95% CI 10.8-24.6) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) decreased by 2.0 mmHg (95% CI -3.6 to -0.4). There were no changes in LVEF or N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide during follow-up. Shunt patency ranged from 50% for the first-generation v-Wave to 100% for the Corvia IASD II and the second-generation v-Wave system, respectively. The summary risk of serious adverse device-related effects was 8% (95% CI 1-20) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Interatrial shunt device implantation in CHF is feasible and associates with improved submaximal exercise capacity (measured by 6MWD) and HRQoL, and reductions in PCWP.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519177

RESUMO

The accepted use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology as a good alternative for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure together with the improved survival of the LVAD-supported patients on the device and the scarcity of donor hearts has significantly increased the population of LVAD-supported patients. The expected and non-expected device-related and patient-device interaction complications impose a significant burden on the medical system exceeding the capacity of the LVAD implanting centres. The ageing of the LVAD-supported patients, mainly those supported with the 'destination therapy' indication, increases the risk for those patients to experience comorbidities common in the older population. The probability of an LVAD-supported patient presenting with medical emergency to a local emergency department, internal, or surgical ward of a non-LVAD implanting centre is increasing. The purpose of this trilogy is to supply the immediate tools needed by the non-LVAD specialized physician: ambulance clinicians, emergency ward physicians, general cardiologists, internists, anaesthesiologists, and surgeons, to comply with the medical needs of this fast-growing population of LVAD-supported patients. The different issues discussed will follow the patient's pathway from the ambulance to the emergency department and from the emergency department to the internal or surgical wards and eventually to the discharge home from the hospital back to the general practitioner. In this first part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, after the introduction on the assist devices technology in general, definitions and structured approach to the assessment of the LVAD-supported patient in the ambulance and emergency department is presented including cardiopulmonary resuscitation for LVAD-supported patients.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523254

RESUMO

The improvement in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology and scarcity of donor hearts have increased dramatically the population of the LVAD-supported patients and the probability of those patients to present to the emergency department with expected and non-expected device-related and patient-device interaction complications. The ageing of the LVAD-supported patients, mainly those supported with the 'destination therapy' indication, increases the risk for those patients to suffer from other co-morbidities common in the older population. In this second part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, definitions and structured approach to the LVAD-supported patient presenting to the emergency department with bleeding, neurological event, pump thrombosis, chest pain, syncope, and other events are presented. The very challenging issue of declaring death in an LVAD-supported patient, as the circulation is artificially preserved by the device despite no other signs of life, is also discussed in detail.

8.
Drugs ; 81(14): 1599-1604, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478114

RESUMO

Vericiguat, a novel stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), has shown promising results in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the recent VICTORIA trial. The nitric oxide (NO)-sGC-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway is disturbed in heart failure, leading to increased formation of reactive oxygen species and reduced NO bioavailability, and resultant myocardial dysfunction, adverse left ventricular remodeling, and cardiorenal syndrome. Restoration of sufficient NO-sGC-cGMP signaling has been proposed as an important treatment target in heart failure, beyond neurohormonal blockage and afterload reduction. Vericiguat has a dual mode of action on this axis, it both sensitizes sGC to low levels of NO, and can directly stimulate sGC in the absence of any endogenous NO. VICTORIA was a Phase 3 trial that compared vericiguat, at a target dose of 10 mg, with placebo in 5050 patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction < 45%) on top of guideline-indicated therapy. The composite endpoint was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. The median follow up was 10.8 months. The included patients had to have had a heart failure-related hospitalization or need of IV diuretic therapy in the past 6 months, making it a particularly high risk and vulnerable patient population. The composite endpoint occurred less frequently with vericiguat than with placebo (35.5% vs 38.5%, p = 0.02). Adverse events were common in both groups, syncope was more common with vericiguat than with placebo (4% vs 3.5%, p = 0.03). Compared to the other recent large trials in HFrEF, PARADIGM-HF and DAPA-HF, patients in VICTORIA were older, more symptomatic (up to 40% NYHA IIIIV class), had higher N-terminal-pro hormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, and were more vulnerable since 84% had been hospitalized for heart failure in the previous 6 months. While drugs involving the neurohormonal pathways are effective in slowing down the progression of disease in more stable HFrEF, vericiguat may be a drug of choice particularly in the highest risk patients with recent or recurrent hospitalizations despite full background medication. The drug has also shown safety in patients with reduced renal function. This article discusses the place in therapy of vericiguat in patients with HFrEF, which is a heterogenous group in terms of etiology, clinical profiles, and comorbidities.

9.
Lancet ; 398(10309): 1427-1435, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality remains unacceptably high in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) despite advances in therapeutics. We hypothesised that a novel artificial intelligence approach could better assess multiple and higher-dimension interactions of comorbidities, and define clusters of ß-blocker efficacy in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Neural network-based variational autoencoders and hierarchical clustering were applied to pooled individual patient data from nine double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials of ß blockers. All-cause mortality during median 1·3 years of follow-up was assessed by intention to treat, stratified by electrocardiographic heart rhythm. The number of clusters and dimensions was determined objectively, with results validated using a leave-one-trial-out approach. This study was prospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00832442) and the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews (CRD42014010012). FINDINGS: 15 659 patients with heart failure and LVEF of less than 50% were included, with median age 65 years (IQR 56-72) and LVEF 27% (IQR 21-33). 3708 (24%) patients were women. In sinus rhythm (n=12 822), most clusters demonstrated a consistent overall mortality benefit from ß blockers, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0·54 to 0·74. One cluster in sinus rhythm of older patients with less severe symptoms showed no significant efficacy (OR 0·86, 95% CI 0·67-1·10; p=0·22). In atrial fibrillation (n=2837), four of five clusters were consistent with the overall neutral effect of ß blockers versus placebo (OR 0·92, 0·77-1·10; p=0·37). One cluster of younger atrial fibrillation patients at lower mortality risk but similar LVEF to average had a statistically significant reduction in mortality with ß blockers (OR 0·57, 0·35-0·93; p=0·023). The robustness and consistency of clustering was confirmed for all models (p<0·0001 vs random), and cluster membership was externally validated across the nine independent trials. INTERPRETATION: An artificial intelligence-based clustering approach was able to distinguish prognostic response from ß blockers in patients with heart failure and reduced LVEF. This included patients in sinus rhythm with suboptimal efficacy, as well as a cluster of patients with atrial fibrillation where ß blockers did reduce mortality. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, UK, and EU/EFPIA Innovative Medicines Initiative BigData@Heart.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1577-1596, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482622

RESUMO

Circulating biomarkers and imaging techniques provide independent and complementary information to guide management of heart failure (HF). This consensus document by the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) presents current evidence-based indications relevant to integration of imaging techniques and biomarkers in HF. The document first focuses on application of circulating biomarkers together with imaging findings, in the broad domains of screening, diagnosis, risk stratification, guidance of treatment and monitoring, and then discusses specific challenging settings. In each section we crystallize clinically relevant recommendations and identify directions for future research. The target readership of this document includes cardiologists, internal medicine specialists and other clinicians dealing with HF patients.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1610-1632, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498368

RESUMO

New biomarkers are being evaluated for their ability to advance the management of patients with heart failure. Despite a large pool of interesting candidate biomarkers, besides natriuretic peptides virtually none have succeeded in being applied into the clinical setting. In this review, we examine the most promising emerging candidates for clinical assessment and management of patients with heart failure. We discuss high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (Tn), procalcitonin, novel kidney markers, soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), neprilysin, adrenomedullin (ADM), and also discuss proteomics and genetic-based risk scores. We focused on guidance and assistance with daily clinical care decision-making. For each biomarker, analytical considerations are discussed, as well as performance regarding diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, we discuss potential implementation in clinical algorithms and in ongoing clinical trials.

12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585525

RESUMO

The growing population of left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-supported patients increases the probability of an LVAD- supported patient hospitalized in the internal or surgical wards with certain expected device related, and patient-device interaction complication as well as with any other comorbidities requiring hospitalization. In this third part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, definitions and structured approach to the hospitalized LVAD-supported patient are presented including blood pressure assessment, medical therapy of the LVAD supported patient, and challenges related to anaesthesia and non-cardiac surgical interventions. Finally, important aspects to consider when discharging an LVAD patient home and palliative and end-of-life approaches are described.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1597-1609, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409711

RESUMO

The accepted use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology as a good alternative for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure together with the improved survival of patients on the device and the scarcity of donor hearts has significantly increased the population of LVAD supported patients. Device-related, and patient-device interaction complications impose a significant burden on the medical system exceeding the capacity of LVAD implanting centres. The probability of an LVAD supported patient presenting with medical emergency to a local ambulance team, emergency department medical team and internal or surgical wards in a non-LVAD implanting centre is increasing. The purpose of this paper is to supply the immediate tools needed by the non-LVAD specialized physician - ambulance clinicians, emergency ward physicians, general cardiologists, and internists - to comply with the medical needs of this fast-growing population of LVAD supported patients. The different issues discussed will follow the patient's pathway from the ambulance to the emergency department, and from the emergency department to the internal or surgical wards and eventually back to the general practitioner.

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