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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469664

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is a frequent problem in an ageing population, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Today, it is important to not only treat heart failure itself but also the related comorbidities. Among them, cardiac cachexia is one of the major challenges. It is a complex multifactorial disease with a negative impact on quality of life and prognosis. Therefore, prevention, early recognition and treatment of cardiac cachexia is essential. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiac cachexia frequently presents with skeletal as well as heart muscle depletion. Imaging-based diagnostic techniques can help to identify patients with cardiac cachexia and muscle wasting. Several blood biomarkers are available to detect metabolic changes in cardiac cachexia. SUMMARY: Several studies are currently ongoing to better comprehend the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac cachexia and to find new treatments. It is essential to diagnose it as early as possible to initiate therapy.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a crucial component in cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure (HF) patients. The Exercise Training in HF (ExTraHF) survey has reported poor implementation of ETPs in countries affiliated to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The aim of the present sub-analysis was to investigate the regional variations in the implementation of ETPs for HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was designed as a web-based survey of cardiac units, divided into five areas, according to the geographical location of the countries surveyed. Overall, 172 centres replied to the survey, in charge of 78 514 patients, differentiated in 52 Northern (n = 15 040), 48 Southern (n = 27 127), 34 Western (n = 11 769), 24 Eastern European (n = 12 748), and 14 extra-European centres (n = 11 830). Greater ETP implementation was observed in Western (76%) and Northern (63%) regions, whereas lower rates were seen in Southern (58%), Eastern European (50%) and extra-European (36%) regions. The leading barrier was the lack of resources in all (83-65%) but Western region (37%) where patients were enrolled in dedicated settings and specialized units (75%). In 40% of centres, non-inclusion of ETP in the national or local guideline pathway accounted for the lack of ETP implementation. CONCLUSION: Exercise training programmes are poorly implemented in the ESC affiliated countries, mainly because of the lack of resources and/or national and local guidelines. The linkage with dedicated cardiac rehabilitation centres (as in the Western region) or the model of local rehabilitation services adopted in Northern countries may be considered as options to overcome these gaps.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127678

RESUMO

AIMS: Classification of acute heart failure (AHF) patients into four clinical profiles defined by evidence of congestion and perfusion is advocated by the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)guidelines. Based on the ESC-EORP-HFA Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, we compared differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes among congestion/perfusion profiles using this classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 7865 AHF patients classified at admission as: 'dry-warm' (9.9%), 'wet-warm' (69.9%), 'wet-cold' (19.8%) and 'dry-cold' (0.4%). These groups differed significantly in terms of baseline characteristics, in-hospital management and outcomes. In-hospital mortality was 2.0% in 'dry-warm', 3.8% in 'wet-warm', 9.1% in 'dry-cold' and 12.1% in 'wet-cold' patients. Based on clinical classification at admission, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.78 (1.43-2.21) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 1.33 (1.19-1.48). For profiles resulting from discharge classification, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality were: 'wet-warm' vs. 'dry-warm' 1.46 (1.31-1.63) and 'wet-cold' vs. 'wet-warm' 2.20 (1.89-2.56). Among patients discharged alive, 30.9% had residual congestion, and these patients had higher 1-year mortality compared to patients discharged without congestion (28.0 vs. 18.5%). Tricuspid regurgitation, diabetes, anaemia and high New York Heart Association class were independently associated with higher risk of congestion at discharge, while beta-blockers at admission, de novo heart failure, or any cardiovascular procedure during hospitalization were associated with lower risk of residual congestion. CONCLUSION: Classification based on congestion/perfusion status provides clinically relevant information at hospital admission and discharge. A better understanding of the clinical course of the two entities could play an important role towards the implementation of targeted strategies that may improve outcomes.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 549, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069911
13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

16.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(1): 22-34, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia has significant impact on the patients' quality of life and prognosis. It is frequently observed in patients with cancer, especially in advanced stages, but prevalence data for the overall population are lacking. Good quality estimates of cancer cachexia in general and for each of the major cancer types would be highly relevant for potential treatment development efforts in this field. Both the USA and European Union (EU) have implemented special clinical development rules for such rare disorders what are called 'orphan diseases'. The cut-off level for a disease to be considered an orphan disease in the USA is 200 000 people (0.06% of the population) and EU is 5 per 10 000 people (0.05% of the population). METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched at PubMed (from inception to 31 January 2018) to identify clinical studies that assessed the prevalence of cachexia in cancer patients at risk. Studies reporting the prevalence of either cancer cachexia or wasting disease in the top-10 cancer types and 4 other selected cancer types known to be particularly commonly complicated by cachexia were included in this analysis (i.e. prostate cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, endometrial cancer, thyroid cancer, urinary bladder cancer, non-hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, kidney and renal pelvis cancer, head and neck cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and pancreatic cancer). We calculated the current burden of cancer cachexia, disease by disease, in the USA and in the EU and compared them to the current guidelines for the definition of orphan disease status. RESULTS: We estimate that in 2014 in the USA, a total of 527 100 patients (16.5 subjects per 10 000 people of the total population), and in 2013 in the EU, a total of 800 300 patients (15.8 subjects per 10 000 people of the total population) suffered from cancer cachexia (of any kind). In the 14 separately analysed cancer types, the prevalence of cancer cachexia in the USA ranged between 11 300 (0.4/10 000, gastric cancer) and 92 000 patients (2.9/10 000, lung cancer) and in the EU between 14 300 (0.3/10 000, melanoma of the skin) and 150 100 (3.0/10 000, colorectal cancer). CONCLUSIONS: The absolute number of patients affected by cancer cachexia in each cancer group is lower than the defined thresholds for orphan diseases in the USA and EU. Cancer cachexia in each subgroup separately should be considered an orphan disease.

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 5(6): 1092-1098, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570226

RESUMO

In an aging population, the number of patients affected by heart failure and cancer is constantly increasing and together these two conditions account for more than 50% of all deaths worldwide. Both diseases share similar risk factors including smoking, obesity, and hypertension. Presenting symptoms may also be similar, with patients frequently complaining of dyspnea, fatigue, and anorexia. Many affected patients, especially those with more advanced heart failure or cancer, suffer also from metabolic disorders. These can lead eventually to muscle wasting, sarcopenia, and cachexia. These complications are associated with increased morbidity, a poorer quality of life, a worse prognosis and indeed they represent an independent risk factor for the advancement of the underlying disease itself. Very few therapeutic options have been established to treat these co-morbidities. For sarcopenia the only validated treatment is resistance training. Moreover, there is currently no guideline recommended therapy for the treatment of cachexia. New treatment strategies are urgently needed to prevent and treat muscle and wasting disorders in patients with chronic diseases such as cancer and chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474896

RESUMO

Exercise training (ET) and secondary prevention measures in cardiovascular disease aim to stimulate early physical activity and to facilitate recovery and improve health behaviours. ET has also been proposed for heart failure patients with a ventricular assist device (VAD), to help recovery in the patient's functional capacity. However, the existing evidence in support of ET in these patients remains limited. After a review of current knowledge on the causes of the persistence of limitation in exercise capacity in VAD recipients, and concerning the benefit of ET in VAD patients, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology has developed the present document to provide practical advice on implementing ET. This includes appropriate screening to avoid complications and then starting with early mobilisation, ET prescription is individualised to meet the patient's needs. Finally, gaps in our knowledge are discussed.

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