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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544954

RESUMO

Alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB homolog 8 (ALKBH8) is a member of the AlkB family of dioxygenases. ALKBH8 is a methyltransferase of the highly variable wobble nucleoside position in the anticodon loop of tRNA and thus plays a critical role in tRNA modification by preserving codon recognition and preventing errors in amino acid incorporation during translation. Moreover, its activity catalyzes uridine modifications that are proposed to be critical for accurate protein translation. Previously, two distinct homozygous truncating variants in the final exon of ALKBH8 were described in two unrelated large Saudi Arabian kindreds with intellectual developmental disorder and autosomal recessive 71 (MRT71) syndrome (MIM# 618504). Here, we report a third family-of Egyptian descent-harboring a novel homozygous frame-shift variant in the last exon of ALKBH8. Two affected siblings in this family exhibit global developmental delay and intellectual disability as shared characteristic features of MRT71 syndrome, and we further characterize their observed dysmorphic features and brain MRI findings. This description of a third family with a truncating ALKBH8 variant from a distinct population broadens the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of MRT71 syndrome, affirms that perturbations in tRNA biogenesis can contribute to neurogenetic disease traits, and firmly establishes ALKBH8 as a novel neurodevelopmental disease gene.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098347

RESUMO

Dubowitz syndrome (DubS) is considered a recognizable syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance and deficits in growth and development. There have been over 200 individuals reported with Dubowitz or a "Dubowitz-like" condition, although no single gene has been implicated as responsible for its cause. We have performed exome (ES) or genome sequencing (GS) for 31 individuals clinically diagnosed with DubS. After genome-wide sequencing, rare variant filtering and computational and Mendelian genomic analyses, a presumptive molecular diagnosis was made in 13/27 (48%) families. The molecular diagnoses included biallelic variants in SKIV2L, SLC35C1, BRCA1, NSUN2; de novo variants in ARID1B, ARID1A, CREBBP, POGZ, TAF1, HDAC8, and copy-number variation at1p36.11(ARID1A), 8q22.2(VPS13B), Xp22, and Xq13(HDAC8). Variants of unknown significance in known disease genes, and also in genes of uncertain significance, were observed in 7/27 (26%) additional families. Only one gene, HDAC8, could explain the phenotype in more than one family (N = 2). All but two of the genomic diagnoses were for genes discovered, or for conditions recognized, since the introduction of next-generation sequencing. Overall, the DubS-like clinical phenotype is associated with extensive locus heterogeneity and the molecular diagnoses made are for emerging clinical conditions sharing characteristic features that overlap the DubS phenotype.

4.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905580

RESUMO

Agammaglobulinemia is the most profound primary antibody deficiency that can occur due to an early termination of B-cell development. We here investigated three novel patients, including the first known adult, from unrelated families with agammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Two of them also presented with intermittent or severe chronic neutropenia. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in the gene for Folliculin interacting protein 1 (FNIP1), leading to loss of the FNIP1 protein. B-cell metabolism, including mitochondrial numbers and activity and PI3K/AKT pathway, was impaired. These defects recapitulated the Fnip1-/- animal model. Moreover, we identified either uniparental disomy or copy number variants [CNV] in two patients, expanding the variant spectrum of this novel inborn error of immunity. The results indicate that FNIP1 deficiency can be caused by complex genetic mechanisms and support the clinical utility of exome sequencing and CNV analysis in patients with broad phenotypes, including agammaglobulinemia and HCM. FNIP1 deficiency is a novel inborn error of immunity characterized by early and severe B-cell development defect, agammaglobulinemia, variable neutropenia, and HCM. Our findings elucidate a functional and relevant role of FNIP1 in B-cell development and metabolism and potentially neutrophil activity.

5.
Neurol Genet ; 6(5): e498, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802956

RESUMO

Objective: To determine how single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to molecular diagnosis in familial Parkinson disease (PD), we integrated exome sequencing (ES) and genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and further probed CNV structure to reveal mutational mechanisms. Methods: We performed ES on 110 subjects with PD and a positive family history; 99 subjects were also evaluated using genome-wide aCGH. We interrogated ES and aCGH data for pathogenic SNVs and CNVs at Mendelian PD gene loci. We confirmed SNVs via Sanger sequencing and further characterized CNVs with custom-designed high-density aCGH, droplet digital PCR, and breakpoint sequencing. Results: Using ES, we discovered individuals with known pathogenic SNVs in GBA (p.Glu365Lys, p.Thr408Met, p.Asn409Ser, and p.Leu483Pro) and LRRK2 (p.Arg1441Gly and p.Gly2019Ser). Two subjects were each double heterozygotes for variants in GBA and LRRK2. Based on aCGH, we additionally discovered cases with an SNCA duplication and heterozygous intragenic GBA deletion. Five additional subjects harbored both SNVs (p.Asn52Metfs*29, p.Thr240Met, p.Pro437Leu, and p.Trp453*) and likely disrupting CNVs at the PRKN locus, consistent with compound heterozygosity. In nearly all cases, breakpoint sequencing revealed microhomology, a mutational signature consistent with CNV formation due to DNA replication errors. Conclusions: Integrated ES and aCGH yielded a genetic diagnosis in 19.3% of our familial PD cohort. Our analyses highlight potential mechanisms for SNCA and PRKN CNV formation, uncover multilocus pathogenic variation, and identify novel SNVs and CNVs for further investigation as potential PD risk alleles.

6.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1768-1776, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the scale of low-level parental mosaicism in exome sequencing (ES) databases. METHODS: We analyzed approximately 2000 family trio ES data sets from the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics (BHCMG) and Baylor Genetics (BG). Among apparent de novo single-nucleotide variants identified in the affected probands, we selected rare unique variants with variant allele fraction (VAF) between 30% and 70% in the probands and lower than 10% in one of the parents. RESULTS: Of 102 candidate mosaic variants validated using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, or blocker displacement amplification, 27 (26.4%) were confirmed to be low- (VAF between 1% and 10%) or very low (VAF <1%) level mosaic. Detection precision in parental samples with two or more alternate reads was 63.6% (BHCMG) and 43.6% (BG). In nine investigated individuals, we observed variability of mosaic ratios among blood, saliva, fibroblast, buccal, hair, and urine samples. CONCLUSION: Our computational pipeline enables robust discrimination between true and false positive candidate mosaic variants and efficient detection of low-level mosaicism in ES samples. We confirm that the presence of two or more alternate reads in the parental sample is a reliable predictor of low-level parental somatic mosaicism.

7.
Science ; 369(6500): 202-207, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647003

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in NCKAP1L, which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Diminished cortical actin networks caused by WRC loss led to uncontrolled cytokine release and immune hyperresponsiveness. HEM1 loss also blocked mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation, T cell proliferation, and selected effector functions, leading to immunodeficiency. Thus, the evolutionarily conserved HEM1 protein simultaneously regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) and mTORC2 signaling to achieve equipoise in immune responses.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/química , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(8): 4411-4422, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484799

RESUMO

Patients with common variable immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune cytopenia (CVID+AIC) generate few isotype-switched B cells with severely decreased frequencies of somatic hypermutations (SHMs), but their underlying molecular defects remain poorly characterized. We identified a CVID+AIC patient who displays a rare homozygous missense M466V mutation in ß-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1). Because CTNNBL1 binds activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that catalyzes SHM, we tested AID interactions with the CTNNBL1 M466V variant. We found that the M466V mutation interfered with the association of CTNNBL1 with AID, resulting in decreased AID in the nuclei of patient EBV-transformed B cell lines and of CTNNBL1 466V/V Ramos B cells engineered to express only CTNNBL1 M466V using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. As a consequence, the scarce IgG+ memory B cells from the CTNNBL1 466V/V patient showed a low SHM frequency that averaged 6.7 mutations compared with about 18 mutations per clone in healthy-donor counterparts. In addition, CTNNBL1 466V/V Ramos B cells displayed a decreased incidence of SHM that was reduced by half compared with parental WT Ramos B cells, demonstrating that the CTNNBL1 M466V mutation is responsible for defective SHM induction. We conclude that CTNNBL1 plays an important role in regulating AID-dependent antibody diversification in humans.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(6): 1387-1399, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a relatively common arrhythmia affecting ~1-3/1,000 individuals. Mutations in PRKAG2 have been described in rare patients in association with cardiomyopathy. However, the genetic basis of WPW in individuals with a structurally normal heart remains poorly understood. Sudden death due to atrial fibrillation (AF) can also occur in these individuals. Several studies have indicated that despite ablation of an accessory pathway, the risk of AF remains high in patients compared to general population. METHODS: We applied exome sequencing in 305 subjects, including 65 trios, 80 singletons, and 6 multiple affected families. We used de novo analysis, candidate gene approach, and burden testing to explore the genetic contributions to WPW. RESULTS: A heterozygous deleterious variant in PRKAG2 was identified in one subject, accounting for 0.6% (1/151) of the genetic basis of WPW in this study. Another individual with WPW and left ventricular hypertrophy carried a known pathogenic variant in MYH7. We found rare de novo variants in genes associated with arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy (ANK2, NEBL, PITX2, and PRDM16) in this cohort. There was an increased burden of rare deleterious variants (MAF ≤ 0.005) with CADD score ≥ 25 in genes linked to AF in cases compared to controls (P = .0023). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show an increased burden of rare deleterious variants in genes linked to AF in WPW syndrome, suggesting that genetic factors that determine the development of accessory pathways may be linked to an increased susceptibility of atrial muscle to AF in a subset of patients.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 41(3): 641-654, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769566

RESUMO

Visceral myopathy with abnormal intestinal and bladder peristalsis includes a clinical spectrum with megacystis-microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The vast majority of cases are caused by dominant variants in ACTG2; however, the overall genetic architecture of visceral myopathy has not been well-characterized. We ascertained 53 families, with visceral myopathy based on megacystis, functional bladder/gastrointestinal obstruction, or microcolon. A combination of targeted ACTG2 sequencing and exome sequencing was used. We report a molecular diagnostic rate of 64% (34/53), of which 97% (33/34) is attributed to ACTG2. Strikingly, missense mutations in five conserved arginine residues involving CpG dinucleotides accounted for 49% (26/53) of disease in the cohort. As a group, the ACTG2-negative cases had a more favorable clinical outcome and more restricted disease. Within the ACTG2-positive group, poor outcomes (characterized by total parenteral nutrition dependence, death, or transplantation) were invariably due to one of the arginine missense alleles. Analysis of specific residues suggests a severity spectrum of p.Arg178>p.Arg257>p.Arg40 along with other less-frequently reported sites p.Arg63 and p.Arg211. These results provide genotype-phenotype correlation for ACTG2-related disease and demonstrate the importance of arginine missense changes in visceral myopathy.

11.
Brain ; 143(1): 112-130, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794024

RESUMO

The conserved transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes regulate key trafficking events and are required for autophagy. TRAPPC4, like its yeast Trs23 orthologue, is a core component of the TRAPP complexes and one of the essential subunits for guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity for Rab1 GTPase. Pathogenic variants in specific TRAPP subunits are associated with neurological disorders. We undertook exome sequencing in three unrelated families of Caucasian, Turkish and French-Canadian ethnicities with seven affected children that showed features of early-onset seizures, developmental delay, microcephaly, sensorineural deafness, spastic quadriparesis and progressive cortical and cerebellar atrophy in an effort to determine the genetic aetiology underlying neurodevelopmental disorders. All seven affected subjects shared the same identical rare, homozygous, potentially pathogenic variant in a non-canonical, well-conserved splice site within TRAPPC4 (hg19:chr11:g.118890966A>G; TRAPPC4: NM_016146.5; c.454+3A>G). Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis revealed there was no haplotype shared between the tested Turkish and Caucasian families suggestive of a variant hotspot region rather than a founder effect. In silico analysis predicted the variant to cause aberrant splicing. Consistent with this, experimental evidence showed both a reduction in full-length transcript levels and an increase in levels of a shorter transcript missing exon 3, suggestive of an incompletely penetrant splice defect. TRAPPC4 protein levels were significantly reduced whilst levels of other TRAPP complex subunits remained unaffected. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography demonstrated a defect in TRAPP complex assembly and/or stability. Intracellular trafficking through the Golgi using the marker protein VSVG-GFP-ts045 demonstrated significantly delayed entry into and exit from the Golgi in fibroblasts derived from one of the affected subjects. Lentiviral expression of wild-type TRAPPC4 in these fibroblasts restored trafficking, suggesting that the trafficking defect was due to reduced TRAPPC4 levels. Consistent with the recent association of the TRAPP complex with autophagy, we found that the fibroblasts had a basal autophagy defect and a delay in autophagic flux, possibly due to unsealed autophagosomes. These results were validated using a yeast trs23 temperature sensitive variant that exhibits constitutive and stress-induced autophagic defects at permissive temperature and a secretory defect at restrictive temperature. In summary we provide strong evidence for pathogenicity of this variant in a member of the core TRAPP subunit, TRAPPC4 that associates with vesicular trafficking and autophagy defects. This is the first report of a TRAPPC4 variant, and our findings add to the growing number of TRAPP-associated neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Atrofia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Surdez/genética , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Quadriplegia/genética , Quadriplegia/fisiopatologia , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Síndrome
12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(1): e1023, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular and genetic mechanisms by which different single nucleotide variant alleles in specific genes, or at the same genetic locus, cause distinct disease phenotypes often remain unclear. Allelic truncating mutations of FBN1 could cause either classical Marfan syndrome (MFS) or a more complicated phenotype associated with Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome (MPLS). METHODS: We investigated a small cohort, encompassing two classical MFS and one MPLS subjects from China, whose clinical presentation included scoliosis potentially requiring surgical intervention. Targeted next generation sequencing was performed on all the participants. We analyzed the molecular diagnosis, clinical features, and the potential molecular mechanism involved in the MPLS subject in our cohort. RESULTS: We report a novel de novo FBN1 mutation for the first Chinese subject with MPLS, a more complicated fibrillinopathy, and two subjects with more classical MFS. We further predict that the MPLS truncating mutation, and others previously reported, is prone to escape the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), while MFS mutations are predicted to be subjected to NMD. Also, the MPLS mutation occurs within the glucogenic hormone asprosin domain of FBN1. In vitro experiments showed that the single MPLS mutation p.Glu2759Cysfs*9 appears to perturb proper FBN1 protein aggregation as compared with the classical MFS mutation p.Tyr2596Thrfs*86. Both mutations appear to upregulate SMAD2 phosphorylation in vitro. CONCLUSION: We provide direct evidence that a dominant-negative interaction of FBN1 potentially explains the complex MPLS phenotypes through genetic and functional analysis. Our study expands the mutation spectrum of FBN1 and highlights the potential molecular mechanism for MPLS.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 41(2): 487-501, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692161

RESUMO

Genetic ataxias are associated with mutations in hundreds of genes with high phenotypic overlap complicating the clinical diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has increased the overall diagnostic rate considerably. However, the upper limit of this method remains ill-defined, hindering efforts to address the remaining diagnostic gap. To further assess the role of rare coding variation in ataxic disorders, we reanalyzed our previously published exome cohort of 76 predominantly adult and sporadic-onset patients, expanded the total number of cases to 260, and introduced analyses for copy number variation and repeat expansion in a representative subset. For new cases (n = 184), our resulting clinically relevant detection rate remained stable at 47% with 24% classified as pathogenic. Reanalysis of the previously sequenced 76 patients modestly improved the pathogenic rate by 7%. For the combined cohort (n = 260), the total observed clinical detection rate was 52% with 25% classified as pathogenic. Published studies of similar neurological phenotypes report comparable rates. This consistency across multiple cohorts suggests that, despite continued technical and analytical advancements, an approximately 50% diagnostic rate marks a relative ceiling for current WES-based methods and a more comprehensive genome-wide assessment is needed to identify the missing causative genetic etiologies for cerebellar ataxia and related neurodegenerative diseases.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 974-986, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668702

RESUMO

The advent of inexpensive, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has led to the accumulation of genetic data from thousands of samples from individuals affected with a wide range of diseases, but for whom the underlying genetic and molecular etiology of their clinical phenotype remains unknown. In many cases, detailed phenotypes are unavailable or poorly recorded and there is little family history to guide study. To accelerate discovery, we integrated ES data from 18,696 individuals referred for suspected Mendelian disease, together with relatives, in an Apache Hadoop data lake (Hadoop Architecture Lake of Exomes [HARLEE]) and implemented a genocentric analysis that rapidly identified 154 genes harboring variants suspected to cause Mendelian disorders. The approach did not rely on case-specific phenotypic classifications but was driven by optimization of gene- and variant-level filter parameters utilizing historical Mendelian disease-gene association discovery data. Variants in 19 of the 154 candidate genes were subsequently reported as causative of a Mendelian trait and additional data support the association of all other candidate genes with disease endpoints.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1048-1056, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668703

RESUMO

NTNG2 encodes netrin-G2, a membrane-anchored protein implicated in the molecular organization of neuronal circuitry and synaptic organization and diversification in vertebrates. In this study, through a combination of exome sequencing and autozygosity mapping, we have identified 16 individuals (from seven unrelated families) with ultra-rare homozygous missense variants in NTNG2; these individuals present with shared features of a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual disability, muscle weakness and abnormal tone, autistic features, behavioral abnormalities, and variable dysmorphisms. The variants disrupt highly conserved residues across the protein. Functional experiments, including in silico analysis of the protein structure, in vitro assessment of cell surface expression, and in vitro knockdown, revealed potential mechanisms of pathogenicity of the variants, including loss of protein function and decreased neurite outgrowth. Our data indicate that appropriate expression of NTNG2 plays an important role in neurotypical development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Netrinas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1005-1015, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630790

RESUMO

Lissencephaly comprises a spectrum of malformations of cortical development. This spectrum includes agyria, pachygyria, and subcortical band heterotopia; each represents anatomical malformations of brain cortical development caused by neuronal migration defects. The molecular etiologies of neuronal migration anomalies are highly enriched for genes encoding microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins, and this enrichment highlights the critical role for these genes in cortical growth and gyrification. Using exome sequencing and family based rare variant analyses, we identified a homozygous variant (c.997C>T [p.Arg333Cys]) in TUBGCP2, encoding gamma-tubulin complex protein 2 (GCP2), in two individuals from a consanguineous family; both individuals presented with microcephaly and developmental delay. GCP2 forms the multiprotein γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) together with γ-tubulin and other GCPs to regulate the assembly of microtubules. By querying clinical exome sequencing cases and through GeneMatcher-facilitated collaborations, we found three additional families with bi-allelic variation and similarly affected phenotypes including a homozygous variant (c.1843G>C [p.Ala615Pro]) in two families and compound heterozygous variants consisting of one missense variant (c.889C>T [p.Arg297Cys]) and one splice variant (c.2025-2A>G) in another family. Brain imaging from all five affected individuals revealed varying degrees of cortical malformations including pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia, presumably caused by disruption of neuronal migration. Our data demonstrate that pathogenic variants in TUBGCP2 cause an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental trait consisting of a neuronal migration disorder, and our data implicate GCP2 as a core component of γ-TuRC in neuronal migrating cells.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Lisencefalia/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Alelos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Microtúbulos/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
18.
J Exp Med ; 216(12): 2778-2799, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601675

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo CDC42 mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. CDC42 mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Fenótipo , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/química
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2056-2066, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407851

RESUMO

Co-occurrence of primordial dwarfism and microcephaly together with particular skeletal findings are seen in a wide range of Mendelian syndromes including microcephaly micromelia syndrome (MMS, OMIM 251230), microcephaly, short stature, and limb abnormalities (MISSLA, OMIM 617604), and microcephalic primordial dwarfisms (MPDs). Genes associated with these syndromes encode proteins that have crucial roles in DNA replication or in other critical steps of the cell cycle that link DNA replication to cell division. We identified four unrelated families with five affected individuals having biallelic or de novo variants in DONSON presenting with a core phenotype of severe short stature (z score < -3 SD), additional skeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly. Two apparently unrelated families with identical homozygous c.631C > T p.(Arg211Cys) variant had clinical features typical of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), while two siblings with compound heterozygous c.346delG p.(Asp116Ile*62) and c.1349A > G p.(Lys450Arg) variants presented with Seckel-like phenotype. We also identified a de novo c.683G > T p.(Trp228Leu) variant in DONSON in a patient with prominent micrognathia, short stature and hypoplastic femur and tibia, clinically diagnosed with Femoral-Facial syndrome (FFS, OMIM 134780). Biallelic variants in DONSON have been recently described in individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. These studies also demonstrated that DONSON has an essential conserved role in the cell cycle. Here we describe novel biallelic and de novo variants that are associated with MGS, Seckel-like phenotype and FFS, the last of which has not been associated with any disease gene to date.


Assuntos
Alelos , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Nanismo/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Nanismo/complicações , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/complicações , Linhagem , Fenótipo
20.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 303, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417880

RESUMO

Nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NF-κB2/p100/p52), encoded by NFKB2 (MIM: 164012) belongs to the NF-κB family of transcription factors that play a critical role in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Heterozygous C-terminal mutations in NFKB2 have been associated with early-onset common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), central adrenal insufficiency and ectodermal dysplasia. Only two previously reported cases have documented decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and little is known about the role of NF-κB2 in NK cell maturation and function. Here we report a 13-year-old female that presented at 6 years of age with a history of early onset recurrent sinopulmonary infections, progressive hair loss, and hypogamaglobulinemia consistent with a clinical diagnosis of CVID. At 9 years of age she had cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia that responded to ganciclovir treatment. Functional NK cell testing demonstrated decreased NK cell cytotoxicity despite normal NK cell numbers, consistent with a greater susceptibility to systemic CMV infection. Research exome sequencing (ES) was performed and revealed a novel de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation in NFKB2 (c.2611C>T, p.Gln871*) that was not carried by either of her parents. The variant was Sanger sequenced and confirmed to be de novo in the patient. At age 12, she presented with a reactivation of the systemic CMV infection that was associated with severe and progressive nephrotic syndrome with histologic evidence of pedicellar effacement and negative immunofluorescence. To our knowledge, this is the third NF-κB2 deficient patient in which an abnormal NK cell function has been observed, suggesting a role for non-canonical NF-κB2 signaling in NK cell cytotoxicity. NK cell function should be assessed in patients with mutations in the non-canonical NF-κB pathway to explore the risk for systemic viral infections that may lead to severe complications and impact patient survival. Similarly NF-κB2 should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency who have aberrant NK cell function. Further studies are needed to characterize the role of NF-κB2 in NK cell cytotoxic function.

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