Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 179
Filtrar
1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infection can manifest in different states including sub-clinical tuberculosis (scTB) that is commonly defined as confirmed TB without having the classical symptoms (commonly persistent cough for ≥2 weeks). This narrow definition likely poses limitations for surveillance and control measures. The aims of the current study were to characterize the clinical presentation of TB, estimate the prevalence of scTB amongst bacteriologically confirmed TB cases using various definitions, and investigate risk factors of scTB as opposed to clinical TB in a population-based survey. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative TB prevalence survey from Zambia in 2013-14 in which participants were screened for TB based on chest X-ray and symptoms. TB was defined as culture- or GeneXpert MTB/RIF-positive sputum. Risk factors for scTB were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 257 confirmed cases, 104 (40.5%) were without cough ≥2 weeks. Only 23 (22.1%) of these did not present with any other common symptoms. Those without cough ≥2 weeks frequently reported other symptoms, particularly chest pain (46.2%) and weight loss (38.5%); 36 (34.6%) reported experiencing other symptoms for ≥ 4 weeks. Females were more likely to report no cough ≥ 2 weeks as were relatively wealthier individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The commonly used definition of scTB includes a large proportion of patients who have other TB suggestive symptoms. Requiring cough ≥2 weeks for TB diagnosis likely misses many active TB infections and allows a large reservoir of likely transmissible TB to remain undetected.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0040921, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851179

RESUMO

We designed this study to determine the trend of moxifloxacin resistance among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients from 2007 to 2013 in China to inform the composition of multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) treatment regimens. We assessed moxifloxacin resistance among MDR-TB isolates collected in national drug resistance surveys in 2007 and 2013 that included 3,634 smear-positive and 7,206 culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, respectively. Moxifloxacin susceptibility was examined by a Mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 for the 2007 isolates, and by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method for the 2013 isolates, at both breakpoints 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Risk factors were explored through multivariable log-binominal regression analysis. Mutations in gyrA and gyrB for part of the isolates were also studied through sequencing. Of 401 MDR strains isolated in 2007, moxifiloxacin resistance could be determined for 319 (79.6%): 41 (12.9%) and 10 (3.1%) were resistant at 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively. Of 365 MDR strains isolated in 2013, 338 (92.6%) could be analyzed: 140 (41.4%) and 79 (23.4%) were resistant at 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. For patients in 2007, no characteristics were significantly associated with moxifloxacin resistance. For patients in 2013, patients aged ≥60 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.93) were more likely to have resistance at 0.5 µg/mL, whereas those residing in eastern China compared to those in central China had an increased risk of resistance at both 0.5 (aPR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.38 to 2.48) and 2.0 µg/mL (aPR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.35 to 3.40). Sequencing results were obtained for 245 and 266 MDR-TB isolates in 2007 and 2013, respectively. In total, 34 of 38 (89.5%) and 89 of 104 (85.6%) of 2007 and 2013 moxifloxacin-resistant (0.5 µg/mL) MDR-TB strains had mutations in the gyrA and gyrB gene, respectively. Asp94Gly was the most common mutation among 2007 (11 of 38, 28.9%) and 2013 isolates (24 of 104, 23.1%) and conferred high-level moxifloxacin resistance. Moxifloxacin resistance among MDR-TB patients in China increased from modest to high from 2007 to 2013. Moxifloxacin should be used carefully as a potentially effective drug for composing MDR/RR-TB regimens especially for elderly patients in China. Individual susceptibility testing especially rapid molecular-based assays should be conducted to confirm the susceptibility to moxifloxacin. IMPORTANCE China is one of the high-burden countries for multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB). Moxifloxacin is one of the critical antituberculosis drugs for MDR/RR-TB treatment. Susceptibility to moxifloxacin is therefore very important to compose effective regimens and to provide protection against development of resistance of companion drugs such as bedaquiline and linezolid. There are, however, no nationally representative data on moxifloxacin resistance among MDR/RR-TB cases in China. Therefore, we assessed the resistance prevalence for moxifloxacin among MDR-TB strains isolated in national drug resistance surveys in 2007 and 2013 that covered 72 sites around the country. We demonstrate that the prevalence of moxifloxacin resistance in MDR-TB isolates increased from modest to high, which should prompt the national tuberculosis program to use moxifloxacin cautiously in second-line regimens to treat MDR/RR-TB unless susceptibility can be laboratory-confirmed.

3.
Vaccine ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: South Africa's infant Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine policy changed from percutaneous (PC) BCG Japan to intradermal (ID) BCG Denmark in 2000. This study investigated whether this change in infant BCG vaccination had any durable impact on TB incidence rates (IR) into adolescence. METHODS: The Cape Town electronic TB register provided data (from 2008 to 2018) on HIV-negative TB patients born in 1991-1999 (BCG Japan cohort) and 2001-2008 (BCG Denmark cohort). Statistics South Africa provided population estimates. Annual TB IR per 100,000 population were calculated stratified by age, gender and birth year. Interrupted time series analysis with a segmented Poisson regression and birth cohort analyses were used to compare incidence between the BCG cohorts and trends over time. FINDINGS: TB IR increased throughout adolescence, with 17-year-olds having 7.34 [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.48-8.32] times higher TB IR than 10-year-olds. Females had 1.22 [95% CI 1.17-1.27] higher IR than males. Overall, adolescents who received ID BCG Denmark had a lower TB IR compared to PC BCG Japan (rate ratio 0.86, [95% CI 0.80-0.94]). No interaction between BCG and age, nor BCG and gender were identified. Birth cohort analyses showed the increase in TB IR started around one year earlier in females than in males. CONCLUSION: The change in infant BCG policy was associated with a modest decrease in TB incidence in 10- to 17-year-old HIV-negative adolescents. However, TB incidence rapidly increased with age in both adolescent cohorts and remained high despite BCG vaccination at birth.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1062, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New medicines have become available for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and are introduced in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by the national TB programs (NTPs) through special access schemes. Pharmacovigilance is typically the task of national medicines regulatory agencies (NMRAs), but the active drug safety monitoring and management (aDSM) recommended for the new TB medicines and regimens was introduced through the NTPs. We assessed the strengths and challenges of pharmacovigilance systems in Eswatini, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Tanzania, focusing on their capacity to monitor safety of medicines registered and not registered by the NMRAs for the treatment of DR-TB. METHODS: Assessment visits were conducted to all four countries by a multidisciplinary team. We used a pharmacovigilance indicator tool derived from existing tools, interviewed key stakeholders, and visited health facilities where DR-TB patients were treated with new medicines. Assessment results were verified with the local NMRAs and NTPs. RESULTS: Most countries have enabling laws, regulations and guidelines for the conduct of pharmacovigilance by the NMRAs. The relative success of NTP-NMRA collaboration is much influenced by interpersonal relationships between staff. Division of roles and responsibilities is not always clear and leads to duplication and unfulfilled tasks (e.g. causality assessment). The introduction of aDSM has increased awareness among DR-TB healthcare providers. CONCLUSION: aDSM has created awareness about the importance of pharmacovigilance among NTPs. In the future, a push for conducting pharmacovigilance through public health programs seems useful, but this needs to coincide with increased collaboration with between public health programs and NMRAs with clear formulation of roles and responsibilities.


Assuntos
Farmacovigilância , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Etiópia , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1367-1376, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis preventive therapy for persons with HIV infection is effective, but its durability is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment completion rates of weekly isoniazid-rifapentine for 3 months versus daily isoniazid for 6 months as well as the effectiveness of the 3-month rifapentine-isoniazid regimen given annually for 2 years versus once. DESIGN: Randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02980016). SETTING: South Africa, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with HIV infection who were receiving antiretroviral therapy, were aged 2 years or older, and did not have active tuberculosis. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to receive weekly rifapentine-isoniazid for 3 months, given either annually for 2 years or once, or daily isoniazid for 6 months. Participants were screened for tuberculosis symptoms at months 0 to 3 and 12 of each study year and at months 12 and 24 using chest radiography and sputum culture. MEASUREMENTS: Treatment completion was assessed using pill counts. Tuberculosis incidence was measured over 24 months. RESULTS: Between November 2016 and November 2017, 4027 participants were enrolled; 4014 were included in the analyses (median age, 41 years; 69.5% women; all using antiretroviral therapy). Treatment completion in the first year for the combined rifapentine-isoniazid groups (n = 3610) was 90.4% versus 50.5% for the isoniazid group (n = 404) (risk ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.61 to 1.95]). Tuberculosis incidence among participants receiving the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen twice (n = 1808) or once (n = 1802) was similar (hazard ratio, 0.96 [CI, 0.61 to 1.50]). LIMITATION: If rifapentine-isoniazid is effective in curing subclinical tuberculosis, then the intensive tuberculosis screening at month 12 may have reduced its effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Treatment completion was higher with rifapentine-isoniazid for 3 months compared with isoniazid for 6 months. In settings with high tuberculosis transmission, a second round of preventive therapy did not provide additional benefit to persons receiving antiretroviral therapy. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: The U.S. Agency for International Development through the CHALLENGE TB grant to the KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/análogos & derivados , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Etiópia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Moçambique , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e047023, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in the screening, diagnosis, treatment and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) patients, and investigate the impacts of DRTB-related policies on patients of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using registry data, plus a survey on DRTB-related policies. SETTING: All prefecture-level Centres for Disease Control in Zhejiang Province, China. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alongside the care cascade, we examined: (1) reported number of presumptive DRTB patients; (2) percentage of presumptive patients with drug susceptibility testing (DST) records; (3) percentage of DRTB/rifampicin-resistant (RR) patients registered; (4) percentage of RR/multidrug-resistant TB (MDRTB) patients that received anti-DRTB treatment; and (5) percentage of RR/MDRTB patients cured/completed treatment among those treated. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to explore the impacts of DRTB policies after adjusting for other factors. RESULTS: The number of reported presumptive DRTB patients and the percentage with DST records largely increased during 2015-2018, and the percentage of registered patients who received anti-DRTB treatment also increased from 59.0% to 86.5%. Patients under the policies of equipping GeneXpert plus expanded criteria for DST had a higher likelihood of being registered compared with no GeneXpert (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.57, 95% CI: 1.20 to 5.51), while for treatment initiation the association was only significant when further expanding the registration criteria (aOR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.19 to 4.79). Patients with registered residence inside Zhejiang were more likely to be registered (aOR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.52), treated (aOR=3.83, 95% CI: 2.78 to 5.28) and complete treatment (aOR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.59) compared with those outside. CONCLUSION: The policy changes on DST and registration have effectively improved DRTB case finding and care. Nevertheless, challenges remain in servicing vulnerable groups such as migrants and improving equity in the access to TB care. Future policies should provide comprehensive support for migrants to complete treatment at their current place of residence.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Políticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 872-879, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622491

RESUMO

Vietnam, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, conducted national TB prevalence surveys in 2007 and 2017. In both surveys participants were screened by using a questionnaire and chest radiograph; sputum samples were then collected to test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by smear microscopy and Löwenstein-Jensen culture. Culture-positive, smear-positive, and smear-negative TB cases were defined by laboratory results, and the prevalence of tuberculosis was compared between the 2 surveys. The results showed prevalence of culture-positive TB decreased by 37% (95% CI 11.5%-55.4%), from 199 (95% CI 160-248) cases/100,000 adults in 2007 to 125 (95% CI 98-159) cases/100,000 adults in 2017. Prevalence of smear-positive TB dropped by 53% (95% CI 27.0%-69.7%), from 99 (95% CI 78-125) cases/100,000 adults to 46 (95% CI 32-68) cases/100,000 adults; smear-negative TB showed no substantial decrease. Replacing microscopy with molecular methods for primary diagnostics might enhance diagnosis of pulmonary TB cases and further lower TB burden.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro , Vietnã
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): 1919-1926, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retreatment tuberculosis (TB) disease is common in high-prevalence settings. The risk of repeated episodes of recurrent TB is unknown. We calculated the rate of recurrent TB per subsequent episode by matching individual treatment episodes over a period of 13 years. METHODS: All recorded TB episodes in Cape Town between 2003 and 2016 were matched by probabilistic linkage of personal identifiers. Among individuals with a first episode notified in Cape Town and who completed their prior treatment successfully we estimated the recurrence rate stratified by subsequent episode and HIV status. We adjusted person-time to background mortality by age, sex, and HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 292 915 TB episodes among 263 848 individuals were included. The rate of recurrent TB was 16.4 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 16.2-16.6), and increased per subsequent episode (8.4-fold increase, from 14.6 to 122.7 per 1000 from episode 2 to 6, respectively). These increases were similar stratified by HIV status. Rates among HIV positives were higher than among HIV negatives for episodes 2 and 3 (2- and 1.5-fold higher, respectively), and the same thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: TB recurrence rates were high and increased per subsequent episode, independent of HIV status. This suggests that HIV infection is insufficient to explain the high burden of recurrence; it is more likely due to a high annual risk of infection combined with an increased risk of infection or progression to disease associated with a previous TB episode. The very high recurrence rates would justify increased TB surveillance of patients with >1 episode.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 28: 100600, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294814

RESUMO

Background: A decline in mortality rates during the first 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been mainly linked to increased ART initiation at higher CD4 counts and at less advanced World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stages of HIV infection; however, the role of improved patient care has not been well studied. We estimated improvements in early mortality due to improved patient care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected individuals ages 18 and older who initiated ART at the Mengo HIV Counseling and Home Care Clinic between 2006 and 2016. We conducted a mediation analysis using generalized structural equation models with inverse odds ratio weighting to estimate the natural direct and indirect effects of ART initiation time on early mortality. Findings: Among 6,847 patients, most were female (69%), with a median age of 32 (interquartile range [IQR] = 28-38), versus a median age of 38 (IQR = 32-45) for males. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 142 cells/ul (95% confidence interval [CI] = 135-150) in 2006-2010 to 302 cells/ul (95% CI = 283-323) in 2015-2016 (p < 0·001). The number of patients at WHO clinical stages I/II increased from 52% in 2006-2010 to 78% in 2015-2016 (p < 0·001). Annual early mortality decreased from 8·8 deaths/100 person years (PYS) in 2006 to 2.5 deaths/100 pys in 2016 (p < 0·001). Mediation by CD4 counts and WHO clinical stages accounted for 54% of the total effect of ART initiation timing on early mortality. In comparison, 46% remained as the direct effect, reflecting the contribution of improved patient care. Interpretation: Improved patient care practices should be promoted as a strategy for reducing early mortality after ART initiation, above and beyond the effects from ART initiation at higher CD4 counts and less advanced WHO clinical stage alone. Funding: This research was supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Intramural Research, and the National Cancer Institute.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 587, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted in bioaerosols containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Despite being central to ongoing TB transmission, no routine diagnostic assay exists to measure Mtb in bioaerosols. Furthermore, published studies of Mtb in bioaerosol samples have been limited to individuals with sputum-positive pulmonary TB. Notably, TB diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and sputum laboratory findings. This is despite the fact that approximately half of all patients commencing TB treatment are sputum-negative, resulting in a high proportion of presumptive treatments. Here, we propose to use a sensitive air sampling protocol to investigate the prevalence of Mtb-containing bioaerosols in both sputum-positive and sputum-negative TB suspects, at the same time evaluating the potential to identify unrecognized transmitters of TB. METHODS: Our parallel-group design will identify viable Mtb in bioaerosols produced by individuals attending a TB clinic in South Africa. Sampling will be performed on eligible individuals presenting with symptoms indicative of TB and repeated at 14 days if initially positive. Participants will be prospectively classified into three distinct groups based on National TB Control Program (NTBCP) criteria: Group A, TB notification with sputum-based laboratory confirmation; Group B, TB notification with empiric diagnosis; and Group C, individuals not notified. Group C individuals with detectable Mtb bioaerosol will be monitored until resolution of clinical and laboratory status. Collection of bioaerosol specimens will be via two consecutive sampling modalities: (1) direct sampling following a specific respiratory manoeuvre; and (2) indirect sampling during passive respiratory activity. Bioaerosol specimens will be analyzed for viable Mtb using DMN-trehalose staining and live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Mtb genomes and mycobacterial and host lipids will be detected using droplet digital PCR and mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of Mtb bioaerosols in all TB clinic attendees and in each of the groups. Secondary objectives are to investigate differences in prevalence of Mtb bioaerosol by HIV status and current isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) use; we will also determine the impact of anti-TB chemotherapy on Mtb-containing bioaerosol production. DISCUSSION: Respiratory bioaerosol has a potential role in non-invasive TB diagnosis, infectivity measurement and treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04241809 . Date of Registration: 27/1/2020.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , África do Sul , Escarro/microbiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 624, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838751

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324806

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. The current TB burden is unknown as not all individuals with TB are diagnosed, recorded and notified. The second national TB prevalence survey was conducted in 2017-2018 to assess the current burden of TB disease in the country. METHOD: Eighty-two clusters were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design. Adult (≥15 years of age) residents having lived for 2 weeks or more in the households of the selected clusters were invited to participate in the survey. The survey participants were screened for TB by a questionnaire and digital chest X-ray after providing written informed consent. Individuals with a positive symptom screen and/or chest X-ray suggestive of TB were asked to provide sputum samples to test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ziehl-Neelsen direct light microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF G4, BACTEC MGIT960 liquid culture and Löwenstein-Jensen solid culture. Bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were defined by an expert panel following a standard decision tree. RESULT: Of 87,207 eligible residents, 61,763 (70.8%) participated, and 4,738 (7.7%) screened positive for TB. Among these, 221 participants were defined as bacteriologically confirmed TB cases. The estimated prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed adult pulmonary TB was 322 (95% CI: 260-399) per 100,000, and the male-to-female ratio was 4.0 (2.8-5.8, p<0.001). In-depth interviews with the participants with TB disease showed that only 57.9% (95% CI: 51.3-64.3%) reported cough for 2 weeks or more and 32.1% (26.3-38.6%) did not report any symptom consistent with TB, while their chest X-ray results showed that 97.7% (95% CI: 94.6-99.1) had abnormal chest X-ray images suggesting TB. CONCLUSION: With highly sensitive diagnostics applied, this survey showed that the TB burden in Vietnam remains high. Half of the TB cases were not picked up by general symptom-based screening and were identified by chest X-ray only. Our results indicate that improving TB diagnostic capacity and access to care, along with reducing TB stigma, need to be top priorities for TB control and elimination in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Tosse/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tórax/microbiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass administrations of antimalarial drugs (MDA) have reduced the incidence and prevalence of P. falciparum infections in a trial in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Here we assess the impact of the MDA on P. vivax infections. METHODS: Between May 2013 and July 2017, four villages in each Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR were selected based on high prevalence of P. falciparum infections. Eight of the 16 villages were randomly assigned to receive MDA consisting of three-monthly rounds of three-day courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and, except in Cambodia, a single low-dose of primaquine. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at quarterly intervals to detect Plasmodium infections using ultrasensitive qPCR. The difference in the cumulative incidence between the groups was assessed through a discrete time survival approach, the difference in prevalence through a difference-in-difference analysis, and the difference in the number of participants with a recurrence of P. vivax infection through a mixed-effect logistic regression. RESULTS: 3,790 (86%) residents in the intervention villages participated in at least one MDA round, of whom 2,520 (57%) participated in three rounds. The prevalence of P. vivax infections fell from 9.31% to 0.89% at month 3 but rebounded by six months to 5.81%. There was no evidence that the intervention reduced the cumulative incidence of P.vivax infections (95% confidence interval [CI] Odds ratio (OR): 0.29 to 1.36). Similarly, there was no evidence of MDA related reduction in the number of participants with at least one recurrent infection (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.42). CONCLUSION: MDA with schizontocidal drugs had a lasting effect on P. falciparum infections but only a transient effect on the prevalence of P. vivax infections. Radical cure with an 8-aminoquinoline will be needed for the rapid elimination of vivax malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...