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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430092

RESUMO

Intense selection for milk yield has increased environmental sensitivity in animals, and currently, heat stress is an expensive problem in dairy farming. The objectives were to identify the best model for characterizing environmental sensitivity in Holstein cattle, using the test-day milk yield (TDMY) combined with the temperature-humidity index (THI), and identify sires genetically superior for heat-stress (HS) tolerance and milk yield, through random regression. The data comprised 94,549 TDMYs of 11,294 first-parity Holstein cows in Brazil, collected from 1997 to 2013. The yield data were fitted to Legendre orthogonal polynomials, linear splines and the Wilmink function. The THI (the average of two days before the dairy control) was used as an environmental gradient. An animal model that fitted production using a Legendre polynomials of quartic order for the days in milk and quadratic equations for the THI presented a better quality of fit (Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC)). The Spearman correlation coefficient of greatest impact was 0.54, between the top 1% for TDMY and top 1% for HS. Only 9% of the sires showed plasticity and an aptitude for joint selection. Thus, despite the small population fraction allowed for joint selection, sufficient genetic variability for selecting more resilient sires was found, which promoted concomitant genetic gains in milk yield and thermotolerance.

2.
Anim Biosci ; 34(2): 163-171, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance of dairy farming and the negative effects of heat stress, more tolerant genotypes need to be identified. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of heat stress via temperature-humidity index (THI) and diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in the genetic evaluations for daily milk yield of Holstein dairy cattle, using random regression models. METHODS: The data comprised 94,549 test-day records of 11,294 first parity Holstein cows from Brazil, collected from 1997 to 2013, and bioclimatic data (THI and DTV) from 18 weather stations. Least square linear regression models were used to determine the THI and DTV thresholds for milk yield losses caused by heat stress. In addition to the standard model (SM, without bioclimatic variables), THI and DTV were combined in various ways and tested for different days, totaling 41 models. RESULTS: The THI and DTV thresholds for milk yield losses was THI = 74 (-0.106 kg/d/THI) and DTV = 13 (-0.045 kg/d/DTV). The model that included THI and DTV as fixed effects, considering the two-day average, presented better fit (-2logL, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion). The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the reliabilities of the EBVs improved when using this model. CONCLUSION: Sires are re-ranking when heat stress indicators are included in the model. Genetic evaluation using the mean of two days of THI and DTV as fixed effect, improved EBVs and EBVs reliability.

3.
Vet Anim Sci ; 9: 100098, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734108

RESUMO

Dairy cattle production is distributed throughout the Brazilian regions. However, Brazilian producing regions are different in air temperature and humidity, diet, birth season, and other factors that may alter the reproductive performances of cows. The age of the cow at first calving (AFC) is a good indicator of sexual precocity since it shows the beginning of the female reproductive life and has a great influence on cow replacement costs. Researches on genotype-environment interaction (GEI) show the importance of using specific bulls for the different production systems in Brazil since most semen used in the country is imported. The objective of this work was to evaluate GEI for AFC in Holstein cows in Brazil, using reaction norms. The statistical models used were the standard animal model, which disregards the GEI, and hierarchical reaction norm models with homoscedastic (HRNMHO) and heteroscedastic (HRNMHE) residual variance, and one (HRNMHO1S and HRNMHE1S) and two (HRNMHO2S and HRNMHE2S) steps. HRNMHO1S presented better fit to the data, with lower heritability for environments with lower AFC, and higher heritability for environments with higher AFC. The GEI found was complex, with a reclassification of bulls, denoting the importance of considering GEI for evaluation and selection of bulls for different production levels. The reduction of AFC is possible when using breeding bulls adapted to the tropical and subtropical conditions of Brazil.

4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2425-2432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297042

RESUMO

Brazil is the world's fourth largest milk producer; this activity extends throughout the national territory, with productions of approximate 34 billion liters of milk per year. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genotype-environment interaction (GEI) in purebred Holstein cows for milk (M), protein (P), and fat (F) yields. The statistical models used were the standard animal model (AM), which disregards the GEI, and hierarchical reaction norm models with homoscedastic (HRNMHO) and heteroscedastic (HRNMHE) residual variance, and one (HRNMHO1S and HRNMHE1S) and two (HRNMHO2S and HRNMHE2S) steps. HRNMHO1S presented a better fit of the data for all traits, with higher heritability for the best environments. Most bulls presented robust phenotypes; however, GEI was found with a reclassification of the bulls in the environmental gradient. Although few, and less used, bulls with plastic phenotypes were found for all traits, and the use of them can optimize genetic gains in specific environments.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Leite/química , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
5.
Ecol Evol ; 7(22): 9544-9556, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187988

RESUMO

Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as FST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samßada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in both methods, with a Kappa value of 0.073 (95% CI: 0.011-0.134). The frequency of these markers indicated a clear north-south country division that reflects Brazilian environmental differences in temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation. Global spatial territory correlation for environmental variables corroborates this finding (average Moran's I = 0.89, range from 0.55 to 0.97). The distribution of alleles over the territory was not strongly correlated with the breed/genetic groups. These results are congruent with previous mtDNA studies and should be used to direct germplasm collection for the National gene bank.

6.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 29(6): 759-67, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26954176

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare two random regression models (RRM) fitted by fourth (RRM4) and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (RRM5) with a lactation model (LM) for evaluating Holstein cattle in Brazil. Two datasets with the same animals were prepared for this study. To apply test-day RRM and LMs, 262,426 test day records and 30,228 lactation records covering 305 days were prepared, respectively. The lowest values of Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and estimates of the maximum of the likelihood function (-2LogL) were for RRM4. Heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY) was 0.23 (RRM4), 0.24 (RRM5), and 0.21 (LM). Heritability, additive genetic and permanent environmental variances of test days on days in milk was from 0.16 to 0.27, from 3.76 to 6.88 and from 11.12 to 20.21, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between test days ranged from 0.20 to 0.99. Permanent environmental correlations between test days were between 0.07 and 0.99. Standard deviations of average estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 305MY from RRM4 and RRM5 were from 11% to 30% higher for bulls and around 28% higher for cows than that in LM. Rank correlations between RRM EBVs and LM EBVs were between 0.86 to 0.96 for bulls and 0.80 to 0.87 for cows. Average percentage of gain in reliability of EBVs for 305-day yield increased from 4% to 17% for bulls and from 23% to 24% for cows when reliability of EBVs from RRM models was compared to those from LM model. Random regression model fitted by fourth order Legendre polynomials is recommended for genetic evaluations of Brazilian Holstein cattle because of the higher reliability in the estimation of breeding values.

7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(2): 331-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584942

RESUMO

We evaluated the population genetic structure of the Holstein breed in Brazil through pedigree analysis with the aim of supporting genetic management of extant herds. We used data from genealogical records of 204,511 animals in farms from south and southeast Brazil. Pedigree records between 1943 and 2005 were divided into seven periods of 8 years to estimate the effective population size (N e ). N e varied during the study periods, ranging from 0.19 to 3016.25. There was an increase in the percentage of inbred animals over time, from 0.18 to 5.0 %. However, this figure may be an underestimate due to the low completeness of pedigree, primarily related to paternal pedigree. The effective number of founders (fe) was 473 animals and ancestors (fa) was 471. The genetic contribution of 260 ancestors (founders or not) accounted for 50 % of the genetic variability in the population. The average relatedness coefficient (AR) and inbreeding coefficient indicate that the Holstein breed in Brazil is being effectively managed, despite a moderate founder effect and the low number of animals that are responsible for the population variance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Linhagem
8.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 28(10): 1407-18, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26323397

RESUMO

A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre's polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre's polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from -0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from -0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits.

9.
Ciênc. rural ; 45(6): 1087-1092, 06/2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-747085

RESUMO

Objetivou-se comparar um modelo multi-característica padrão com modelos de análise de fatores (AF) e de componentes principais (CP) para estimar parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite no dia do controle (PLDC) de vacas da raça Holandesa. O arquivo de trabalho constituiu-se de 4.616 registros mensais de PLDC de primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa. As PLDC foram agrupadas em dez classes mensais, entre o 5o e 305o dia da lactação (PLDC1 a PLDC10). Foram realizadas análises considerando 11 modelos diferentes, como segue: multi-característica padrão (MC); cinco modelos de posto reduzido, para a matriz de covariância genética, ajustando um a cinco (CP1 ... CP5) componentes principais; e dois modelos utilizando análise de fatores (F1, F2, F3, F4 e F5). Para todos os modelos, foram considerados como aleatórios os efeitos genético aditivo e o residual e como fixos os de grupo de contemporâneos, da idade da vaca ao parto (linear e quadrático) e dias em lactação (linear). Os valores de Log L, AIC e BIC melhoraram com o aumento do número de parâmetros até CP4 e AF4. Comparando CP4 e AF4, observa-se que CP4 resultou em melhores valores de Log L, AIC e BIC. As estimativas de herdabilidade e correlações genéticas utilizando os modelos MC, CP4 e AF4 foram similares, variando de 0,06 (PL6) a 0,65 (PL10) e de 0,05 (PL4xPL10) a 0,94 (PL2xPL3), respectivamente, indicando que a estrutura de covariâncias genéticas entre as produções de leite no dia do controle pode ser ajustada utilizando um modelo de posto reduzido, contendo quatro componentes principais ou quatro fatores.


The objective was to compare a standard multi-trait (MT) analysis model with factor (FA) and principal components (PC) analyses models to estimated genetic parameters for Holstein cows test day milk production (TD). The data file was composed by 4.616 TD at first lactation registers. The TD was grouped into ten monthly classes of lactation, from the 5th and the 305th day of lactation (TD1 to TD10). Analyses were performed considering 11 different models: standard multi-traits (MT), five reduced rank models to genetic covariance matrix adjusting one (PC1), two (PC2), three (PC3), four (PC4) and five (PD5) principal components and five models using factor analyses (F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5). To all the models the effects additive genetic and residual were considered as random and the effects of contemporary group, age of cow at parturition (linear and quadratic) and days in lactation (linear) were considered as fixed. The values of Log L, AIC e BIC improved with the augment of the number of parameters until CP4 and AF4. Comparing CP4 and AF4 is possible to verify that CP4 proportioned better values to Log L, AIC e BIC. The heritabilities and genetic correlations estimated to the ten test day milk production using MC, CP4 and AF4 models were similar ranging from 0.06 (PL6) to 0.65 (PL10) and from 0.05 (PL4xPL10) to 0.94 (PL2xPL3), respectively, indicating that the structure of the genetic covariance between the TD milk productions can be adjusted using a reduced rank model with four principal components or four factors.

10.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 28(4): 476-84, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25656190

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

11.
Ciênc. rural ; 44(11): 2072-2077, 11/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-728737

RESUMO

O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a estrutura genética da população de bovinos da raça Girolando no Brasil. Analisou-se o arquivo de pedigree de 26.969 animais, composto de 3.031 machos e 23.938 fêmeas. O nível de conteúdo de informação do pedigree na geração atual foi 61%, mostrando ser de qualidade moderada. O coeficiente de endogamia médio e o coeficiente de relação médio da população Girolando foram 0,11 e 0,13%, respectivamente. O tamanho efetivo da população, considerando a geração completa traçada, foi 188, acima do nível crítico. Do total de 9.457 ancestrais que contribuíram para a população de referência, 457 explicaram 50% da variabilidade genética da população. O número efetivo de fundadores foi 551 e o de ancestrais 393. O intervalo médio de geração foi de 5,26 anos, sendo ligeiramente maior nas trilhas gaméticas mãe-filho e pai-filha. A partir dos coeficientes estimados, pode-se concluir que a endogamia nos rebanhos da raça Girolando foi de pequena magnitude e que as práticas de acasalamento foram adequadas durante o período avaliado. No entanto, é importante continuar com o monitoramento desses coeficientes a fim de prevenir perda de variabilidade genética.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the population structure of Girolando cattle in Brazil. The pedigree file contained 26,969 individuals, from which 3,031 were males and 23,938 were females. The average level of completeness of the pedigree in the current generation was of reasonable quality (61%). Inbreeding and average relatedness coefficients were low: 0.11 and 0.13%, respectively. Estimates of effective population size considering the full generations traced was 188, which is above the critical level range. The number of ancestors that contributed to the reference population was 9,457 animals, from which 457 explained 50% of the genetic variability of the population. The effective number of founders and the effective number of ancestors in this population were, respectively, 551 and 393. The average generation interval was 5.26 years, slightly higher in genetic pathways dam-son and sire-daughter. The inbreeding in the Girolando breed was of small magnitude, indicating that the current practices of mating were adequate during the study period. However, it is important to continue monitoring these coefficients in order to prevent loss of genetic variability.

12.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 27(6): 784-90, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050015

RESUMO

In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (-0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production.

13.
Genet Mol Biol ; 36(2): 207-13, 2013 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23885203

RESUMO

Heritability and genetic correlations for honey (HP) and propolis production (PP), hygienic behavior (HB), syrup-collection rate (SCR) and percentage of mites on adult bees (PMAB) of a population of Africanized honeybees were estimated. Data from 110 queen bees over three generations were evaluated. Single and multi-trait models were analyzed by Bayesian Inference using MTGSAM. The localization of the hive was significant for SCR and HB and highly significant for PP. Season-year was highly significant only for SCR. The number of frames with bees was significant for HP and PP, including SCR. The heritability estimates were 0.16 for HP, 0.23 for SCR, 0.52 for HB, 0.66 for PP, and 0.13 for PMAB. The genetic correlations were positive among productive traits (PP, HP and SCR) and negative between productive traits and HB, except between PP and HB. Genetic correlations between PMAB and other traits, in general, were negative, except with PP. The study permitted to identify honeybees for improved propolis and honey production. Hygienic behavior may be improved as a consequence of selecting for improved propolis production. The rate of syrup consumption and propolis production may be included in a selection index to enhance honeybee traits.

14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 45(7): 1627-34, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23568619

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize Nelore cattle on central performance tests in pasture, ranked by the visual classification method EPMURAS (structure, precocity, muscle, navel, breed, posture, and sexual characteristics), and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations between these parameters, including visual as well as production traits (initial and final weight on test, weight gain, and weight corrected for 550 days). The information used in the study was obtained on 21,032 Nelore bulls which were participants in the central performance test at pasture of the Brazilian Association for Zebu Breeders (ABCZ). Heritabilities obtained were from 0.19 to 0.50. Phenotypic correlations were positive from 0.70 to 0.97 between the weight traits, from 0.65 to 0.74 between visual characteristics, and from 0.29 to 0.47 between visual characteristics and weight traits. The genetic correlations were positive ranging from 0.80 to 0.98 between the characteristics of structure, precocity and musculature, from 0.13 to 0.64 between the growth characteristics, and from 0.41 to 0.97 between visual scores and weight gains. Heritability and genetic correlations indicate that the use of visual scores, along with the selection for growth characteristics, can bring positive results in selection of beef cattle for rearing on pasture.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ganho de Peso
15.
Front Genet ; 2: 112, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22303406

RESUMO

Accurate genetic evaluation of livestock is based on appropriate modeling of phenotypic measurements. In ruminants, fecal egg count (FEC) is commonly used to measure resistance to nematodes. FEC values are not normally distributed and logarithmic transformations have been used in an effort to achieve normality before analysis. However, the transformed data are often still not normally distributed, especially when data are extremely skewed. A series of repeated FEC measurements may provide information about the population dynamics of a group or individual. A total of 6375 FEC measures were obtained for 410 animals between 1992 and 2003 from the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (co)variance components. We also proposed using random regression models (RRM) for genetic and non-genetic studies of FEC. Phenotypes were analyzed using RRM and restricted maximum likelihood. Within the different orders of Legendre polynomials used, those with more parameters (order 4) adjusted FEC data best. Results indicated that the transformation of FEC data utilizing the Box-Cox transformation family was effective in reducing the skewness and kurtosis, and dramatically increased estimates of heritability, and measurements of FEC obtained in the period between 12 and 26 weeks in a 26-week experimental challenge period are genetically correlated.

16.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(5): 1485-1491, ago. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-521202

RESUMO

Foram utilizados 21.702 registros de produção de leite no dia do controle de 2.429 vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa, filhas de 233 touros, coletados em 33 rebanhos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, entre 1992 e 2003, para estimar parâmetros genéticos, para três medidas de persistência (PS1, PS2 e PS3) e para a produção de leite até 305 dias (P305) de lactação. Os modelos de regressão aleatória ajustados aos controles leiteiros entre o sexto e o 300o dia de lactação incluíram o efeito de rebanho-ano-mês do controle, a idade da vaca ao parto e os parâmetros do polinômio de Legendre de ordem quatro, para modelar a curva média da produção de leite da população e os parâmetros do mesmo polinômio, para modelar os efeitos aleatórios genético-aditivo direto e de ambiente permanente. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas foram 0,05, 0,08 e 0,19, respectivamente, para PS1, PS2 e PS3 e 0,25, para P305 sugerindo a possibilidade de ganho genético por meio da seleção para PS3 e para P305. As correlações genéticas entre as três medidas de persistência e P305, variaram de -0,05 a 0,07, indicando serem persistência e produção, características determinadas por grupos de genes diferentes. Assim, consequentemente, a seleção para P305, geralmente praticada, não promove progresso genético para a persistência.


There were used 21,702 test day milk yields from 2,429 first parity Holstein breed cows, daughters of 2,031 dams and 233 sires, distributed over 33 herds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1992 to 2003. Genetic parameters for three measures of lactation persistency (PS1, PS2 e PS3) and for milk production to 305 days (P305) were evaluated. A random regression model adjusted by fourth order Legendre polynomial was used. The random regression model adjusted to test day between the sixth and the 305th lactation day included the herd-year-season of the test day, the age of the cow at the parturition effects and the order fourth Legendre polinomial parameters, for modeling the milk production average curve of the population, and parameters of the same polinomial for modeling the random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The estimated heritabilities were 0.05, 0.08 and 0.19, respectively to PS1, PS2 and PS3, and 0.25 to P305, suggesting the possibility of a genetic gain by selection for PS3 and P305. The genetic correlations between persistency measurements and P305 ranged from -0.05 to 0.07, suggesting being, persistency and milk yield, characteristics determined by different gene groups, and that the selection for P305, usually done, do not promote genetic progress for persistency.

17.
Genet. mol. biol ; 30(2): 349-355, Mar. 2007. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-452810

RESUMO

A model for analyzing test day records including both fixed and random coefficients was applied to the genetic evaluation of first lactation data for Holstein cows. Data comprising 87045 test-day milk yield records from calving between 1997 and 2001 from Holstein herds in 10 regions of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Six persistency of lactation measures were evaluated using breeding values obtained by random regression analyses. The Wilmink function was used to model the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Residual variance was constant throughout lactation. Ranking for animals did not change among criteria for persistency measurements, but ranking changes were observed when the estimated breeding value (EBV) for persistency of lactation was contrasted with those estimated for 305-day milk yield (305MY). The rank correlation estimates for persistency of lactation and 305MY were practically the same for sire and cows, and ranged from -0.45 to 0.69. The EBVs for milk yield during lactation for sires producing daughters with superior 305MY indicate genetic differences between sires regarding their ability to transmit desirable persistency of lactation traits. This suggests that selection for total lactation milk yield does not identify sires or cows that are genetically superior in regard to persistency of lactation. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation is important for improving the efficiency of the milk production capacity of Holstein cows.

18.
Genet. mol. biol ; 28(1): 75-83, Jan.-Mar. 2005. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-399619

RESUMO

Test-day milk yield records of 11,023 first-parity Holstein cows were used to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield during different lactation periods. (Co)variance components were estimated using two random regression models, RRM1 and RRM2, and the restricted maximum likelihood method, compared by the likelihood ratio test. Additive genetic variances determined by RRM1 and additive genetic and permanent environmental variances estimated by RRM2 were described, using the Wilmink function. Residual variance was constant throughout lactation for the two models. The heritability estimates obtained by RRM1 (0.34 to 0.56) were higher than those obtained by RRM2 (0.15 to 0.31). Due to the high heritability estimates for milk yield throughout lactation and the negative genetic correlation between test-day yields during different lactation periods, the RRM1 model did not fit the data. Overall, genetic correlations between individual test days tended to decrease at the extremes of the lactation trajectory, showing values close to unity for adjacent test days. The inclusion of random regression coefficients to describe permanent environmental effects led to a more precise estimation of genetic and non-genetic effects that influence milk yield.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Leite , Modelos Genéticos , Lactação , Análise de Regressão
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