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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143369


This study aims to assess the acceptability, adherence, and retention of a feasibility trial on milk fortification with calcium and vitamin D (Ca+VitD) and periodontal therapy (PT) among low income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis (IMPROVE trial). This 2 × 2 factorial feasibility trial used a mixed-methods evaluation. In total, 69 pregnant women were randomly allocated to four groups: 1. fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus early PT (throughout gestation); 2. placebo and milk plus early PT; 3. fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus late PT after childbirth; 4. placebo and milk plus late PT. Data were collected via questionnaires, field notes, participant flow logs, treatment diary, and focal group discussions. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. Eligibility rate (12%) was below the target of 15%, but participation (76.1%) and recruitment rate (2 women/week) exceeded the targets. Retention rate (78.6%) was slightly below the target (80%). Adherence to the PT was significantly higher in the early treatment groups (98.8%) compared to the late treatment groups (29%). All women accepted the random allocation, and baseline groups were balanced. There was no report of adverse events. This multi-component intervention is acceptable, well-tolerated, and feasible among low-risk pregnant women in Brazil.

J Acad Nutr Diet ; 119(9): 1439-1451, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053516


BACKGROUND: Dietary intake may be associated with neonatal outcomes, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary pattern (DP). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between prepregnancy DPs and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study during pregnancy (baseline between 5 and 13 gestational week and three follow-up visits: 20 to 26 gestational weeks, 30 to 36 gestational weeks, and 30 to 40 days postpartum, respectively). Diet was assessed in the first trimester using a food frequency questionnaire and having prepregnancy as the time frame. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Two hundred fifty-three pregnant women met the following eligibility criteria (20 to 40 years of age, 5 to 13 weeks of gestation at baseline, free of chronic [except obesity] or infectious diseases, and with a singleton pregnancy). The final sample was composed of 193 pregnant women attending a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type of delivery, large for gestational age (LGA), birth length (BL)>90th percentile, Apgar score<7 at 1 minute, and preterm birth. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Reduced rank regression was used to identify prepregnancy DPs that explain the following response variables: fiber density (daily dietary fiber intake in grams, divided by total daily energy intake in kilocalories), dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat. Statistical analyses included multiple logistic regression models. The following covariates were defined as confounders based on a unique Direct Acyclic Graph for each outcome: maternal age, current smoker, alcohol consumption, years of education, and first-trimester leisure physical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of normal delivery was 56.7%. LGA occurred in 16%, BL>90th percentile in 24.3%, Apgar score<7 at 1 minute in 14.2%, and preterm birth in 9.5% of the study population. Three DPs were identified: "fast food and candies" was associated with higher odds of LGA (odds ratio [OR]=4.38, 95% CI: 1.32 to 14.48) and BL>90th percentile (OR=4.81, 95% CI: 1.77 to 13.07); "beans, bread, and fat" was inversely associated with Apgar score<7 at 1 minute (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.70); and "vegetables and dairy" was inversely associated with preterm birth (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.97). There was no association between adherence to DPs and type of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to fast food and candies prepregnancy DP increased the odds of LGA birth, while a higher adherence to vegetables and dairy DP decreased the odds of preterm birth.

Dieta , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doces , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Fast Foods , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Verduras
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873290


Background: Periodontitis is a common oral inflammation, which is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium are inversely associated with occurrence and progression of periodontitis. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a multi-component intervention, including provision of milk powder supplemented with calcium and vitamin D and periodontal therapy (PT), for improving maternal periodontal health and metabolic and inflammatory profiles of low-income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis. Methods: The IMPROVE trial is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design with a parallel process evaluation. Pregnant women with periodontitis, aged 18-40 years and with < 20 gestational weeks (n = 120) were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups: (1) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (2) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (3) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT after delivery and (4) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT after delivery. Dentists and participants are blinded to fortification. Acceptability of study design, recruitment strategy, random allocation, data collection procedures, recruitment rate, adherence and attrition rate will be evaluated. Data on serum levels of vitamin D, calcium and inflammatory biomarkers; clinical periodontal measurements; anthropometric measurements; and socio-demographic questionnaires are collected at baseline, third trimester and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Qualitative data are collected using focus group, for analysis of favourable factors and barriers related to study adherence. Discussion: Oral health and mineral/vitamin supplementation are much overlooked in the public prenatal assistance in Brazil and of scarcity of clinical trials addressing these issues in low and middle-income countries,. To fill this gap the present study was designed to assess the feasibility of a RCT on acceptability of a multi-component intervention combining conventional periodontal treatment and consumption of milk fortified with calcium-vitamin D for improving periodontal conditions and maternal metabolic and inflammation status, among Brazilian low-income pregnant women with periodontitis. Thus, we hope that this relatively low-cost and safe multicomponent intervention can help reduce inflammation, improve maternal periodontal health and metabolic profile and consequently prevent negative gestational outcomes. Trial registration: NCT, NCT03148483. Registered on May 11, 2017.

Br J Nutr ; 121(1): 42-54, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588902


This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) plasma concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Vitamin D status was categorised as sufficient or insufficient using the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines (≥75/<75 nmol/l) and the Institute of Medicine (≥50/<50 nmol/l) thresholds. Linear mixed-effect regression models were employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and each outcome, considering interaction terms between vitamin D status and gestational age (P<0·1). At baseline, 70·7 % of pregnant women had 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/l and 16 % had levels <50 nmol/l. Women with sufficient vitamin D status at baseline, using both thresholds, presented lower glycaemia than those with insufficient 25(OH)D. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/l showed lower insulin (ß=-0·12; 95 % CI -0·251, 0·009; P=0·069) and adiponectin (ß=-0·070; 95 % CI -0·150, 0·010; P=0·085) concentrations throughout pregnancy than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l at baseline presented significantly higher leptin concentrations than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/l (ß=-0·253; 95 % CI -0·044, 0·550; P=0·095). The baseline status of vitamin D influences the biomarkers involved in glucose metabolism. Vitamin D-sufficient women at baseline had higher increases in insulin and adiponectin changes throughout gestation than those who were insufficient.

Adipocinas/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
Eur J Nutr ; 57(3): 1059-1072, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28353072


PURPOSE: To characterize the physiological changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] throughout pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 229 apparently healthy pregnant women followed at 5th-13th, 20th-26th, and 30th-36th gestational weeks. 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Statistical analyses included longitudinal linear mixed-effects models adjusted for parity, season, education, self-reported skin color, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Vitamin D status was defined based on 25(OH)D concentrations according to the Endocrine Society Practice Guideline and Institute of Medicine (IOM) for adults. RESULTS: The prevalence of 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L was 70.4, 41.0, and 33.9%; the prevalence of 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was 16.1, 11.2, and 10.2%; and the prevalence of 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L was 2, 0, and 0.6%, at the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Unadjusted analysis showed an increase in 25(OH)D (ß = 0.869; 95% CI 0.723-1.014; P < 0.001) and 1,25(OH)2D (ß = 3.878; 95% CI 3.136-4.620; P < 0.001) throughout pregnancy. Multiple adjusted analyses showed that women who started the study in winter (P < 0.001), spring (P < 0.001), or autumn (P = 0.028) presented a longitudinal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations, while women that started during summer did not. Increase of 1,25(OH)2D concentrations over time in women with insufficient vitamin D (50-75 nmol/L) at baseline was higher compared to women with sufficient vitamin D (≥75 nmol/L) (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy varied significantly according to the adopted criteria. There was a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D during pregnancy. The women with insufficient vitamin D status present greater longitudinal increases in the concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D in comparison to women with sufficiency.

25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcitriol/sangue , Ergocalciferóis/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
Appetite ; 105: 164-71, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27233369


OBJECTIVE: To estimate food intake changes from pre-conception to gestational period according to the degree of food processing. METHODS: Prospective cohort conducted in a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro with Brazilian pregnant women (n = 189). A food frequency questionnaire was applied at the first (5(th)-13(th)) and third (30(th)-36(th)) gestational trimesters. The food items were classified according to characteristics of food processing in four groups: unprocessed/minimally processed foods; sugar/fat; processed foods and ultra-processed foods. The variation of food intake according to the degree of processing between the pre-conception and gestational period was compared using paired Student's t-test. Linear regression models were performed to estimate the association of mother's characteristics on the variation of food group contribution to the total energy intake between periods. RESULTS: Total energy intake was 2415 (SD = 813) in the pre-conception and 2379 (750) kcal in the gestational period. We excluded women who had implausible total energy intake (<600 and >6000 kcal/day). The contribution of unprocessed/minimally processed food group to total energy intake during pregnancy when compared to the pre-conception period was higher [50.5 (14.1) vs. 48.8 (12.4), p-value = 0.048], while the caloric share of ultra-processed food group was lower [41.3 (14.6) vs. 43.1 (12.5), p-value = 0.032]. We observed a negative association of age (p-value = 0.009) and a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI (p-value = 0.060) with the variation of ultra-processed food intake. CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-processed food intake decreased, while minimally/unprocessed food intake slightly increased from the pre-conception to gestational period. These results indicate potential for a larger improvement in the women's diet quality and that nutritional counseling interventions in pregnant women are still needed.

Dieta Saudável , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Cooperação do Paciente , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Magreza/etnologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
Nutr. hosp ; 30(3): 562-569, sept. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-143778


Background: Hyperuricemia is related to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases, but the use of serum uric acid (UA) to diagnose MetS is currently ignored in clinical practices. Objectives: To examine the impact of serum UA on the diagnostic of MetS and the relationship of serum UA with cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Brazilian middle-aged men residents in a city of Minas Gerais. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 289 apparently healthy middle-aged men underwent anthropometric, clinical, sociodemographic and blood serum biochemical evaluation. By using receive operating curve the internal cutoff of serum UA was determined (5.25 mg/dL). Results: Subjects with two or more components of MetS exhibited higher serum UA as compared to those with one or none component. The inclusion of serum UA ≥ 5.25mg/dL as an additional component of MetS increased the occurrence of this syndrome by 13%. Subjects with UA ≥ 5.25mg/dL showed high prevalence for MetS and association with its components (central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension) as well as atherogenic risk. Conclusions: Serum UA has an important impact on the diagnostic of MetS and is related to cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Brazilian middle-aged men. Its use in clinical practices could aggregate accuracy to diagnose MetS (AU)

Introducción: La hiperuricemia viene sido asociada con el síndrome metabólico (SM) y las enfermedades cardiovasculares, pero el uso del ácido úrico (AU) en el diagnóstico del SM es comúnmente ignorado en la práctica clínica. Objetivos: Investigar el impacto de las concentraciones de AU en el diagnóstico del SM y la asociación del AU sérico con los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en brasileños de mediana edad aparentemente saludables residentes en una ciudad de Minas Gerais. Métodos: Por medio de un análisis transversal, 289 hombres de mediana edad aparentemente saludables fueron sometidos a evaluaciones para determinaciones de variables antropométricas, clínicas, sociodemograficos y bioquímicas. Para determinar el mejor punto de corte para la concentración del AU sérico con respecto al diagnóstico del SM (5.25 mg/dL) fue utilizada la curva ROC. Resultados: Sujetos con dos o más componentes del SM han demostrado mayores concentraciones séricas de AU cuando comparados con individuos con uno o ninguno componente. Además, la inclusión del AU > 5.25 mg/dL como un componente adicional en el diagnóstico del SM aumentó la ocurrencia de este síndrome en un 13%. Finalmente, los hombres con AU ≥ 5.25mg/dL presentaron una asociación positiva con componentes del SM (obesidad central, hipertrigliceridemia, dislipemia e hipertensión arterial), así como un mayor riesgo aterogénico. Conclusión: AU serico tiene un relevante impacto en la ocurrencia del SM, así como es asociado a reconocidos factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en brasileños de mediana edad aparentemente saludables y, su uso en la práctica clínica podría añadir en la exactitud del diagnóstico del SM (AU)

Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/análise , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos
Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 33(3): 787-798, jul.-set. 2011.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-611265


O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar e discutir a influência do exercício físico nas concentrações sanguíneas de adiponectina e a associação com a sensibilidade insulínica. Estudos realizados nos últimos 10 anos mostram que o exercício agudo, de intensidade alta, provoca redução nas concentrações sanguíneas de adiponectina, sem alterar as concentrações de insulina. Porém, exercícios agudos de intensidade moderada não alteram as concentrações sanguíneas de adiponectina, apesar de proporcionar melhoria na sensibilidade insulínica. O exercício crônico, por sua vez, aumenta os níveis sanguíneos de adiponectina, melhora a sensibilidade insulínica, mas altera a composição corporal em indivíduos obesos. Em indivíduos eutróficos, todavia, os níveis de adiponectina não são afetados, apesar dos benefícios do exercício crônico para a composição corporal e sensibilidade insulínica.

The aim of this review was to present and discuss the influence of exercise on blood concentrations of adiponectin and its association with insulin sensitivity. Studies conducted over the past 10 years showed that acute exercise of high intensity causes a decrease in blood adiponectin concentrations without changing insulin concentrations. However, acute exercise of moderate intensity does not alter the blood concentrations of adiponectin, though it improves insulin sensitivity. Chronic exercise, nevertheless, increases blood levels of adiponectin, improves insulin sensitivity but alters body composition in obese individuals. In normal weight individuals, however, the blood levels of adiponectin are not affected, despite the benefits of chronic exercise to body composition and insulin sensitivity.

El objetivo de esta revisión fue presentar y discutir la influencia del ejercicio sobre las concentraciones séricas de adiponectina y su asociación con sensibilidad a la insulina. Los estudios realizados en los últimos 10 años muestran que el ejercicio agudo de alta intensidad causa una reducción en las concentraciones sanguíneas de adiponectina, sin cambiar las concentraciones de insulina. Sin embargo, el ejercicio agudo de intensidad moderada no altera las concentraciones sanguíneas de adiponectina, aunque proporciona sensibilidad a la insulina. Ejercicio crónico, a su vez, aumenta los niveles sanguíneos de adiponectina mejora la sensibilidad a la insulina, sino que altera la composición corporal en sujetos obesos. En individuos normales, sin embargo, los niveles de adiponectina no se ven afectados, a pesar de los beneficios del ejercicio crónica de la composición corporal y la sensibilidad a la insulina.

Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 21(2 supl A): 3-7, abr.-jun. 2011. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-597366


A prevalência da obesidade vem aumentando consideravelmente no mundo, afetando todos os níveis sociais, sendo considerada atualmente uma epidemia global. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de sobrepeso e obesidade de crianças de 7 a 10 anos que estudam em uma escola da rede pública da cidade de Ubá-MG. Foi realizada uma pesquisa observacional de corte transversal, no qual foi verificada a ocorrência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças de uma escola da rede pública de Ubá-MG. A amostra foi composta por 126 crianças de 7 a 10 anos, sendo que 53 eram meninos e 73 eram meninas. Verificou-se que o índice de massa corporal (IMC) dos meninos com faixa etária entre 7 e 10 anos foi significativamente superior ao das meninas (18,14 ± 3,24 vs.16,48 ± 3,87 kg/m2, P=0,026). Em relação à comparação do IMC de meninos e meninas de 7 anos, observou-se também que os meninos apresentaram este valor superior ao das meninas (18,05 ± 3,8 vs. 14,51 ± 3,54 kg/m2, P=0,011). Concluiu-se que a ocorrência de sobrepeso e obesidade na escola estudada foi expressiva diante de outros estudos nacionais. Verificou-se, ainda, uma maior ocorrência de sobrepeso e obesidade entre os meninos em comparação com as meninas. A partir desses resultados, observa-se a necessidade de intervenção imediata na escola por meio do incentivo à prática de atividades físicas e alimentação equilibrada.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Criança , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
Rev. nutr ; 23(6): 947-958, nov.-dez. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-582783


OBJETIVO: No presente artigo, avaliou-se o efeito do consumo, durante cinco dias consecutivos, de refeições diferindo em índice glicêmico no gasto energético, na oxidação de substrato energético e no consumo excessivo de oxigênio após o exercício. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 15 homens bem treinados, com idade de M=24,4, DP=3,70 anos e consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max) de M=70,00, DP=5,32mL (kg.min)-1. Após o consumo das refeições, os participantes permaneceram por noventa minutos no calorímetro indireto Deltatrac®, para a avaliação dos parâmetros metabólicos. A seguir, foi realizado um exercício de 85 a 95 por cento da frequência cardíaca máxima, em três estágios de dez minutos. Os parâmetros metabólicos foram novamente avaliados durante os sessenta minutos pós-exercício. RESULTADOS: Os tratamentos aplicados no estudo não afetaram o gasto energético, o consumo excessivo de oxigênio e a oxidação lipídica após o exercício. Entretanto, a taxa de oxidação de gordura foi maior durante os noventa minutos no grupo que consumiu a refeição de alto índice glicêmico antes do exercício, em relação ao da refeição de baixo índice glicêmico. Além disso, a taxa de oxidação lipídica do período pós-prandial foi inferior àquela obtida no período pós-exercício. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que enquanto o consumo de refeições de baixo índice glicêmico pode não exercer efeito benéfico, a realização de exercício físico pode promover maior oxidação lipídica e consequentemente afetar a redução do teor de gordura corporal.

OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed, on 5 consecutive days, the effect of consuming meals with different glycemic indices on energy expenditure, energy substrate oxidation and excessive oxygen consumption after exercise. METHODS: A total of 15 well trained men aged M=24.4, SD=3.70 years with a mean body mass index of M=21.97, SD=1.46 kg/m2 and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of M=70.00, SD= 5.32 mL(kg.min)-1 participated in the study. After the meal, the participants remained 90 minutes in the indirect calorimeter Deltatrac® for assessment of the metabolic parameters. Next, they exercised at 85-95 percent of their maximum heart rate in three bouts of 10 minutes. The metabolic parameters were reassessed within the 60 minutes following the exercise. RESULTS: The study treatments did not affect energy expenditure, excessive oxygen consumption or fat oxidation after exercise. However, the rate of fat oxidation in the 90 minutes that followed the meal was higher in those who consumed the high-glycemic index meal than in those who consumed the low-glycemic index meal. Moreover, the postprandial fat oxidation rate was lower than that observed after the exercise. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, while the consumption of low-glycemic index meals may not have beneficial effects, exercise can promote greater fat oxidation and, consequently, reduce body fat.

Adulto , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 15(5): 360-364, set.-out. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-530146


A taxa metabólica de repouso (TMR) pode ser determinada por calorimetria indireta (CI). Porém, em função da praticidade, na prática clínica na maioria das vezes esta é estimada por equações de predição, as quais foram desenvolvidas em estudos envolvendo indivíduos não atletas. Apesar de alguns autores terem indicado que tais equações não estimam adequadamente a TMR, estas têm sido bastante utilizadas para calculá-la e prescrever dietas, inclusive para atletas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a TMR determinada por CI com a estimada pelas equações de Harris & Benedict (HB), Schofield, FAO/WHO/UNU e Henry & Rees (HR), em 15 homens ciclistas, de 24,4 ± 3,68 anos, apresentando índice de massa corporal de 21,97 ± 1,46kg/m² e VO2máx de 70,00 ± 5,32mL(kg.min)-1. Para comparar a TMR determinada por CI e pelas equações, utilizou-se o tratamento estatístico testes t de Student (variáveis com distribuição normal) e de Mann-Whitney (variáveis sem distribuição normal), considerando p < 0,05. Além disso, foi realizada correlação de Pearson entre TMR e massa livre de gordura (MLG). Verificou-se que a TMR foi subestimada em 23,5 por cento, 16,7 por cento, 16,8 por cento e 16,9 por cento, respectivamente, quando se utilizaram as equações de HR, FAO/WHO/UNU, Schofield e HB, em relação à TMR obtida por CI. A TMR se correlacionou com a MLG (r = 0,551, p = 0,03). Os resultados confirmam que as equações avaliadas não são adequadas para estimar a TMR em atletas. Tais resultados podem ser explicados pela maior quantidade de MLG apresentada por atletas e possivelmente maior resposta dos receptores β-adrenérgicos aos estímulos do sistema nervoso simpático, resultando em TMR mais alta que em indivíduos sedentários. Diante disso, desenvolveu-se uma equação com as variáveis MLG e idade para melhor estimativa da TMR de ciclistas. Recomenda-se, no entanto, que a equação desenvolvida seja validada em estudo envolvendo um número maior de ciclistas, para que...

The resting metabolic rate (RMR) can be determined by indirect calorimetry (IC). However, the clinical estimation of this parameter has been done using mathematical equations, which were developed in studies involving non-athletes. Although some authors have indicated that such equations do not estimate correctly the RMR, they have been constantly used to estimate such parameter and to prescribe diets, including for athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the RMR determined by IC with the ones estimated using the equations proposed by Harris & Benedict (HB), Schofield, FAO/WHO/UNU and Henry & Rees (HR), in 15 male cyclists, aged 24.4±3.68 years, body mass index of 21.97±1.46 kg/m² and VO2max of 70.00±5.32 mL(kg.min)-1. Student's t test (when data presented normal distribution) and Mann-Whitney (when data did not present normal distribution) were used to compare the RMR determined by IC and the ones estimated by the equations. Probability values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Pearson bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationship between RMR and fat free mass (FFM). It was verified that the RMR was significantly underestimated in 23.5 percent, 16.7 percent, 16.8 percent and 16.9 percent, respectively by the equations proposed by HR, FAO/WHO/UNU, Schofield and HB in comparison to RMR obtained by IC. RMR values were significantly correlated with FFM (r=0.551, p=0.03). These results confirm that the equations evaluated in this study are not appropriate to estimate the RMR of athletes. Such results can be explained by the fact that athletes have more FFM and possibly a greater β- adrenergic receptors response to the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn leads to RMR higher than in sedentary people. Therefore, we created an equation considering the FFM and age variables to better estimate athletesï RMR. However, this equation should be validated in a study involving...

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Atletas , Ciclismo , Calorimetria Indireta , Consumo de Energia/métodos , Pesos e Medidas , Descanso
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 9(1): 67-75, mar. 2007. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-454232


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta da glicose sangüínea (GS) ao longo de uma atividade de baixaintensidade, precedida pelo consumo de diferentes tipos de café da manhã (CM). Foram avaliados 15 estudantes EducaçãoFísica, do gênero masculino com idade média de 22,7 ± 2 anos. Os avaliados realizaram, em dias diferenciados, três ações de CM (CM0: jejum; CM1: biscoito, suco, maçã, barra de cereal; ou CM2: 400mL de bebida carboidratada) 60 minutos antes de um trote/caminhada a 50 – 60% da FC máxima calculada com duração de uma hora. A mensuração da GS ocorreu60 e 30 minutos antes da atividade e durante intervalos de 20 minutos no exercício. Foram também monitorizadas a FC, pressão arterial (PA) e IPE. O tratamento estatístico correspondeu à ANOVA associada ao teste de Tukey, para determinar a existência de diferenças tanto no efeito tempo como entre as ações de CM, com nível de signifi cância de P < 0,05. Osresultados indicaram ausência de diferença na resposta da FC, PA e IPE entre os três procedimentos. A GS apresentou diferença estatística entre o CM1 e o CM2 no período imediatamente antes do exercício, porém sem diferenças durante o exercício para os três tratamentos. Quanto ao comportamento temporal, a GS aos 30 minutos pré-exercício, para CM1 eCM2, foi signifi cativamente mais elevada, comparada às demais parciais. Conclui-se que o jejum ou o consumo energético proposto neste estudo, uma hora antes do trabalho físico, não provocam alterações nas respostas fi siológicas da FC, IPE, PA e GS durante a atividade.

The objective of this work was to evaluate blood glucose (BG) response during a low-intensity activity, precededby the consumption of three different types of breakfast (BF). Fifteen Physical Education male students of mean age of 22.7 ± 2 years were evaluated. Three BF interventions were carried out on different days :fasting; BF1: cookie, juice, apple, cereal bar or BF2: 400 mL carbohydrate drink) 60 minutes before jogging/walking for 1 hour at 50-60% of maximum calculated HR (heart rate). Measurements of BG were taken at 60 and 30 minutes prior to activity and every 20 minutes during exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP) and RPE were also monitored. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA with Tukey test and aimedto identify differences both in effect over time and between different BF interventions, to a signifi cance level of P < 0.05. The results indicate an absence of any difference in HR, BP or RPE response between the three procedures. There was a statistical difference in BG between BF1 and BF2 during the period immediately before exercise, but no differences wereobserved during exercise for any of the three treatments. In terms of behavior over time, BG at 30 minutes pre-exercisewas signifi cantly higher than at other sample times, for both for BF1 and BF2. It was concluded that fasting or the levels of energy intake proposed in this study one hour before physical work did not cause alterations to the physiological responses of HR, RPE, BP or BG during that exercise activity

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Antropometria , Glicemia , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Hidratação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Jejum , Comportamento Alimentar