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1.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(7): 1460-1472, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of CBD oil on perceived muscle soreness, inflammation, and strength performance after eccentric exercise (ECC) of the elbow flexors. METHODS: Thirteen untrained men (mean ± SD age, 21.85 ± 2.73 yr) performed 6 sets of 10 maximal ECC isokinetic muscle actions of the elbow flexors as part of a double-blind crossover design. Noninvasive (perceived soreness, arm circumference, hanging joint angle (JA), and peak torque (PT)) measures were taken before and after ECC, and 24, 48, and 72 h after ECC. All subjects completed both the supplement (CBD: 150 mg POST, 24 h, 48 h) and placebo (PLC: POST, 24 h, 48 h) condition separated by 2 wk. Four separate two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (condition [CBD vs PLC] × time [PRE vs POST vs 24 h vs 48 h vs 72 h]) were used to analyze perceived soreness, arm circumference, JA, and PT. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA were used to decompose significant interactions and main effects. RESULTS: There was no condition-time interaction or main effect of condition (P > 0.05) for perceived soreness, arm circumference, JA, or PT. There were main effects for time for perceived soreness (P = 0.000, ηp2 = 0.71) and JA (P = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: The current dose of 150 mg CBD oil at POST, 24 h, and 48 h had no effect on noninvasive markers of muscle damage in the upper extremity. At the current dose and schedule, CBD oil may not be beneficial for untrained men as a recovery aid after exercise-induced muscle damage.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Cápsulas , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(4): 763-769, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a verification test to confirm GXT V˙O2max in a hot environment. METHODS: Twelve recreationally trained cyclists completed a two-test protocol that included a GXT progressing 20 W·min-1 followed by a biphasic supramaximal-load verification test (1 min at 60% increasing to 110% maximal GXT wattage until failure) in a hot environment (39°C, 32% relative humidity). Rest between tests occurred in a thermoneutral room and was anchored to the duration required for gastrointestinal temperature to return to baseline. RESULTS: Mean verification test V˙O2max (51.3 ± 8.8 mL·kg-1·min-1) was lower than GXT (55.9 ± 7.6 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = 0.02). Verification tests confirmed GXT V˙O2max in 92% of participants using individual analysis thresholds. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a sizable mean bias (-4.6 ± 4.9 mL·kg-1·min-1) with wide 95% limits of agreement (-14.0 to 5.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) across a range of V˙O2max values. The high coefficient of variation (9.6%) and typical error (±3.48 mL·kg-1·min-1) indicate potential issues of test-retest reliability in the heat. CONCLUSIONS: Verification testing in a hot condition confirmed GXT V˙O2max in virtually all participants, indicating robust utility. To enhance test-retest reliability in this environment, protocol recommendations for work rate and recovery between tests are provided.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 20(1): 77-87, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the time course of changes and patterns of responses in electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) for the superficial quadriceps muscles during exhaustive treadmill runs within the severe exercise intensity zones (SIZ1 and SIZ2). METHODS: The EMG signals for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) as well as times to exhaustion (Tlim) were recorded in ten runners during two exhaustive treadmill runs (SIZ1 and SIZ2). The composite and individual responses were compared among muscles and between intensities. RESULTS: The composite patterns of responses in EMG AMP (linear, quadratic, and cubic increases; r2/R2=0.684-0.848) and EMG MPF (linear, quadratic, and cubic decreases; r2/R2=0.648 - 0.852) for the VL and RF were consistent with neuromuscular fatigue in both zones, but those for the VM were not (quadratic, cubic, and non-significant relationships with responses near baseline). The RF tended to demonstrate greater fatigue (EMG MPF decreased from 80-100% Tlim). There was large inter-individual variability (only 10-60% of responses consistent with composite) in response to fatiguing treadmill running. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings support the examination and characterization of neuromuscular fatigue on an intensity, muscle, and subject-by-subject basis.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 19(3): 266-275, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the time course of changes in electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) responses during cycle ergometry to exhaustion performed above (CP+10%) and below (CP-10%) critical power (CP) to infer motor unit activation strategies used to maintain power output. METHODS: Participants performed a 3-min all out test to determine CP, and 2 randomly ordered, continuous rides to exhaustion at CP+10% and CP-10%·V̇O2, EMG AMP, EMG MPF, MMG AMP, MMG MPF, and time to exhaustion (Tlim) were recorded. Responses at CP-10% and CP+10% were analyzed separately. RESULTS: At CP-10%, EMG and MMG AMP were significantly greater than the initial 5% timepoint at 100% Tlim. EMG MPF and MMG MPF reflected a downward trend that resulted in no significant difference between timepoints. At CP+10%, EMG AMP was significantly greater than the initial 5% timepoint from 60% to 100% Tlim. MMG AMP was less than the initial 5% timepoint at only 50% Tlim. EMG and MMG MPF were significantly less than the initial 5% timepoint at 20% Tlim and 100% Tlim, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The timecourse of changes in EMG and MMG signals were different at CP-10% and CP+10%, but responses observed indicated cycle ergometry to exhaustion relies on similar motor unit activation strategies.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453941

RESUMO

Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Cochrane-Snyman, KC, Housh, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Mechanomyographic amplitude is sensitive to load-dependent neuromuscular adaptations in response to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-We examined the sensitivity of the mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) and frequency (MMGMPF) vs. torque relationships to load-dependent neuromuscular adaptations in response to 6 weeks of higher- vs. lower-load resistance training. Twenty-five men (age = 22.8 ± 4.6 years) were randomly assigned to either a high- (n = 13) or low-load (n = 12) training group and completed 6 weeks of leg extension resistance training at 80 or 30% 1RM. Before and after 3 and 6 weeks of training, mechanomyography signals were recorded during isometric contractions at target torques equal to 10-100% of the subjects' baseline maximal strength to quantify MMGRMS and MMGMPF vs. torque relationships. MMGRMS decreased from Baseline to weeks 3 and 6 in the high-load, but not low-load group, and was dependent on the muscle and intensity of contraction examined. Consequently, MMGRMS was generally lower in the high- than low-load group at weeks 3 and 6, and these differences were most apparent in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris muscles at higher contraction intensities. MMGMPF was greater in the high- than low-load training group independent of time or muscle. The MMGRMS vs. torque relationship was sensitive to load-dependent, muscle-specific neuromuscular adaptations and suggest reductions in neuromuscular activation to produce the same absolute submaximal torques after training with high, but not low loads.

6.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2083-2094, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The mediators of the perception of effort during exercise are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine physiological responses during runs using a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-clamp model at the RPE corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (RPEGET) and 15% above GET (RPEGET+15%) to identify potential mediators and performance applications for RPE during treadmill running. METHODS: Twenty-one runners ([Formula: see text]max = 51.7 ± 8.3 ml kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption and the RPE associated with GET and GET + 15% followed by randomized 60 min RPE-clamp runs at RPEGET and RPEGET+15%. Mean differences for [Formula: see text], heart rate (HR), minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), respiratory frequency ([Formula: see text], respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and velocity were compared across each run. RESULTS: After minute 14, [Formula: see text], RER and velocity did not differ across conditions, but decreased across time (p < 0.05). There was a significant (p < 0.05) condition × time interaction for [Formula: see text], where values were significantly higher during RPE-clamp runs at RPEGET+15% and decreased across time in both conditions. There were no differences across condition or time for HR, and only small difference between conditions for [Formula: see text]. CONCLUSIONS: HR and [Formula: see text] may play a role in mediating the perception of effort, while [Formula: see text], RER, and [Formula: see text] may not. Although HR and [Formula: see text] may mediate the maintenance of a perceptual intensity, they may not be sensitive to differentiate perceptual intensities at GET and GET + 15%. Thus, prescribing exercise using an RPE-clamp model may only reflect a sustainable [Formula: see text] within the moderate intensity domain.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Ventilação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Physiol ; 8: 331, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611677

RESUMO

We examined the neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks of 80 vs. 30% one repetition maximum (1RM) resistance training to failure in the leg extensors. Twenty-six men (age = 23.1 ± 4.7 years) were randomly assigned to a high- (80% 1RM; n = 13) or low-load (30% 1RM; n = 13) resistance training group and completed leg extension resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Testing was completed at baseline, 3, and 6 weeks of training. During each testing session, ultrasound muscle thickness and echo intensity, 1RM strength, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, and contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris were measured. Percent voluntary activation (VA) and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured during MVIC, and during randomly ordered isometric step muscle actions at 10-100% of baseline MVIC. There were similar increases in muscle thickness from Baseline to Week 3 and 6 in the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. However, both 1RM and MVIC strength increased from Baseline to Week 3 and 6 to a greater degree in the 80% than 30% 1RM group. VA during MVIC was also greater in the 80 vs. 30% 1RM group at Week 6, and only training at 80% 1RM elicited a significant increase in EMG amplitude during MVIC. The peak twitch torque to MVIC ratio was also significantly reduced in the 80%, but not 30% 1RM group, at Week 3 and 6. Finally, VA and EMG amplitude were reduced during submaximal torque production as a result of training at 80% 1RM, but not 30% 1RM. Despite eliciting similar hypertrophy, 80% 1RM improved muscle strength more than 30% 1RM, and was accompanied by increases in VA and EMG amplitude during maximal force production. Furthermore, training at 80% 1RM resulted in a decreased neural cost to produce the same relative submaximal torques after training, whereas training at 30% 1RM did not. Therefore, our data suggest that high-load training results in greater neural adaptations that may explain the disparate increases in muscle strength despite similar hypertrophy following high- and low-load training programs.

8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(12): 3260-3265, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248750

RESUMO

Bergstrom, HC, Housh, TJ, Cochrane-Snyman, KC, Jenkins, NDM, Byrd, MT, Switalla, JR, Schmidt, RJ, and Johnson, GO. A model for identifying intensity zones above critical velocity. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3260-3265, 2017-The purpose of this study was to describe the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 responses relative to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak at 4 different intensities within the severe domain and, based on the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 responses, identify intensity zones above critical velocity (CV). Twelve runners (mean ± SD age = 23.2 ± 3.0 years) performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT) to exhaustion to determine the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and velocity associated with V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Critical velocity was determined from 4 exhaustive, constant velocity, randomly ordered treadmill runs (V1, V2, V3, and V4; V1 = highest, V4 = lowest). The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 responses were recorded during each of the constant velocity runs. Mean differences among V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values from the ITT and the highest value recorded during the constant velocity runs were examined. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values at exhaustion for V1 (3.32 ± 0.10 L·min, p = 0.15) and V2 (3.27 ± 0.91 L·min, p = 0.13) were not significantly different from V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (3.39 ± 0.96 L·min) from the ITT. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values at exhaustion for V3 (3.18 ± 0.88 L·min; p = 0.007) and V4 (3.09 ± 0.86 L·min; p = 0.003), however, were significantly less than the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from the ITT. There were intensity-dependent V[Combining Dot Above]O2 responses above CV. Based on these findings, we have hypothesized 3 intensity zones (first severe intensity zone [SIZ1], second severe intensity zone [SIZ2], and extreme intensity zone [EIZ]) within the severe and extreme domains, which are characterized by specific V[Combining Dot Above]O2 responses and may be used to design programs that maximize aerobic performance adaptations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 116(9): 1639-49, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325528

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine inter-individual variability versus composite models for the patterns of responses for electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG) versus time relationships during moderate and heavy cycle ergometry using a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) clamp model. METHODS: EMG amplitude (amplitude root-mean-square, RMS), EMG mean power frequency (MPF), MMG-RMS, and MMG-MPF were collected during two, 60-min rides at a moderate (RPE at the gas exchange threshold; RPEGET) and heavy (RPE at 15 % above the GET; RPEGET+15 %) intensity when RPE was held constant (clamped). Composite (mean) and individual responses for EMG and MMG parameters were compared during each 60-min ride. RESULTS: There was great inter-individual variability for each EMG and MMG parameters at RPEGET and RPEGET+15 %. Composite models showed decreases in EMG-RMS (r (2) = -0.92 and R (2) = 0.96), increases in EMG-MPF (R (2) = 0.90), increases in MMG-RMS (r (2) = 0.81 and 0.55), and either no change or a decrease (r (2) = 0.34) in MMG-MPF at RPEGET and RPEGET+15 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that there were differences between composite and individual patterns of responses for EMG and MMG parameters during moderate and heavy cycle ergometry at a constant RPE. Thus, composite models did not represent the unique muscle activation strategies exhibited by individual responses when cycling in the moderate and heavy intensity domains when using an RPE-clamp model.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Miografia/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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