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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113234, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768640

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases globally and is of considerable concern to global health. Approximately 425 million people are estimated to have DM globally and this is predicted to increase to >642 million by 2040. Whilst the prevalence of DM in South Africa is slightly lower than the global average, it is expected to rise rapidly in future years as more South Africans adopt a high calorie "westernised" diet. Traditional medicines offer an alternative for the development of new medicines to treat DM and the usage of South African plants is relatively well documented. AIM OF THE STUDY: To critically review the literature on the anti-diabetic properties of South African plants and to document plant species used for the treatment of DM. Thereafter, a thorough examination of the related research will highlight where research is lacking in the field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of published ethnobotanical books, reviews and primary scientific studies was undertaken to identify plants used to treat DM in traditional South African healing systems and to identify gaps in the published research. The study was non-biased, without taxonomic preference and included both native and introduced species. To be included, species must be recorded in the pharmacopeia of at least one South African ethnic group for the treatment of DM. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven species are recorded as therapies for DM, with leaves and roots most commonly used. The activity of only 43 of these species have been verified by rigorous testing, and relatively few studies have examined the mechanism of action. CONCLUSION: Despite relatively extensive ethnobotanical records and a diverse flora, the anti-diabetic properties of South African medicinal plants is relatively poorly explored. The efficacy of most plants used traditionally to treat DM are yet to be verified and few mechanistic studies are available. Further research is required in this field.

2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 1125-1137, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907666

RESUMO

Giardiasis, one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal disease, is caused by gastrointestinal protozoal parasites of the genus Giardia. Metronidazole is the most commonly used drug to treat giardiasis. However, metronidazole resistance is increasingly common, making the development of new anti-giardial drugs a high priority. A panel of 11 compounds previously identified in T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to inhibit G. duodenalis proliferation. Eight of the 11 compounds inhibited the growth of all three G. duodenalis strains. 2,3-Dihydroxyphenyl B-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (DPGA) was the most potent anti-giardial compound, with IC50 values as low as 126 µM (38 µg/mL). Notably, DPGA inhibited a metronidazole-resistant G. duodenalis strain with similar activity as determined for the metronidazole-sensitive strains. Furthermore, the activity of DPGA was greatly potentiated when it was tested in combination with ascorbic acid, to approximately 17 µM (5 µg/mL) for the metronidazole-sensitive G. duodenalis strains and 40 µM (12 mg/mL) for the resistant strain. The T. ferdinandiana tannins (gallic acid and chebulic acid) were moderate inhibitors of G. duodenalis growth when tested in combination with ascorbic acid, although they had only low levels of activity when tested alone. All of the tested compounds (and their combinations with ascorbic acid) displayed low toxic effects and all compounds are conformed to Lipinski's rules of 5 with few violations, indicating their potential as drug leads and chemotherapies for the treatment and prevention of giardiasis.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Giardia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terminalia/química , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Etilenoglicóis/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Metronidazol/farmacologia
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 251: 112539, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899200

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Human dermatophyte infections are one of the most common classes of infection globally, with an estimated 1.7 billion people contracting at least one infection annually. Southern African ethnic groups used multiple plants to treat dermatophytosis and to alleviate the symptoms, yet the anti-dermatophyte properties of most species remain poorly explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aimed to critically review the literature to document southern African plant species used to treat one or more dermatophytic infections, and to summarise scientific evaluations of these and other plant species. Our study aims to stimulate and focus future studies in this field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough review of the ethnobotanical books, reviews and primary scientific studies were undertaken to identify southern African plants used traditionally to treat dermatophytosis, thereby identifying gaps in the research requiring further study. RESULTS: Eighty-nine southern African plant species are recorded as traditional therapies for dermatophytosis. Scientific evaluations of 140 plant species were identified, although most of the species in those studies were selected for reasons apart from their traditional uses. None of those studies examined the mechanism of action of the plant species, and only a single study screened the extracts for toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite southern Africa having some of the longest continuous human civilisations globally, as well as unique and diverse flora, and good ethnobotanical records, the anti-dermatophyte properties of southern African medicinal plants remains relatively poorly explored. The efficacy of the majority of plants used traditionally to treat fungal skin disease are yet to be verified and substantial further research is required in this field.

4.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 41(5): 496-508, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, our group reported that extracts prepared from the Australian native plant Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell. are potent inhibitors of the growth malodorous bacteria with similar efficacy to triclosan and through these results, we highlighted a potential biological alternative to the current chemical additives. Other members of the genus Terminalia are also well documented for their antibacterial potential and tannin contents and thus were investigated as potential deodorant additives. METHODS: Solvent extractions prepared from of selected Indian, Australian and South African Terminalia spp. were screened by disc diffusion and liquid dilution assays against C. jeikeium, S. epidermidis, P. acnes and B. linens. The antibacterial activity was quantified by liquid dilution MIC assays. The extracts were screened for toxicity using Atremia franciscana nauplii and HDF cell viability bioassays. High-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) LC-MS and GC-MS headspace fingerprint analysis was used to detect tannin, flavonoid and terpenoid components in the extracts. RESULTS: Bacterial growth inhibition was observed in all Terminalia extracts with the methanolic T. chebula, T. carpenteriae and T. sericea extracts the most promising bacterial growth inhibitors, yielding MIC values as low as 200 µg mL-1 . Toxicity analyses of the extracts were favourable, and we determined that the methanolic T. chebula, T. carpenteriae and T. sericea extracts were all non-toxic. Using previously detected T. ferdinandiana antimicrobials as benchmarks, LC-MS and GC-MS fingerprint analyses revealed similar compounds in the methanolic T. chebula, T. carpenteriae and T. sericea extracts. CONCLUSION: Through these results, we propose that Terminalia spp. extracts may be useful deodorant additives to inhibit the growth of axillary and plantar malodorous bacteria, offering a biological alternative to their chemically synthesized counterparts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Desodorantes , Odorantes , Terminalia/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Taninos/metabolismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112176, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446074

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMALOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadly parasitic diseases globally, with over 200 million new cases and nearly 500,000 deaths reported annually. It is estimated that approximately half of the world's population lives in malaria endemic areas. Malaria is substantially less prevalent in South Africa than in other African regions and the disease is limited to some regions of the Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. However, it still has a significant impact on the health of the populations living in those regions. Traditional medicines have long been used in South Africa by multiple ethic groups and many people continue to rely on these natural therapies for their healthcare. The usage of South African medicinal plants in several traditional healing systems to treat malaria have been documented (particularly for Zulu and Venda traditional medicine), although ethnobotanical investigations of other ethnic groups living in endemic malaria areas remains relatively neglected. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the use of South African medicinal plants known to be used traditionally to treat Plasmodium spp. infections. We also critically reviewed the literature on the therapeutic properties of these and other South African plants screened against Plasmodium spp. parasites with the aim of highlighting neglected studies and fostering future research in this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Books and ethnobotanical reviews were examined for medicinal plants used specifically for fever. Exclusion criteria were studies not involving southern African medicinal plants. Furthermore, while fever is a common symptom of malaria, if not accompanied by the term "malaria" it was not considered. Databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Google Scholar were used to source research relevant to southern African plants and malaria. Exclusion criteria were those publications where full articles could not be accessed. RESULTS: Eighty South African plant species were identified as traditional therapies for malaria. The majority of these species were documented in Zulu ethnobotanical records, despite malaria occurring in only a relatively small portion of the Zulu's traditional territory. Surprisingly, far fewer species were reported to be used by Venda, Ndebele, northern Sotho, Tsonga, Tswana, and Pedi people, despite them living in endemic malaria areas. Interestingly many of the identified species have not been investigated further. This review summarises the available ethnobotanical and laboratory research in this field, with the aim of promoting and focusing research on priority areas. CONCLUSION: Although malaria remains a serious disease affecting millions of people, medicinal plants while used extensively, have not been given the attention warranted for further investigation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , África do Sul
6.
J Mycol Med ; 29(4): 331-344, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Syzygium australe (H.L. Wnddl. ex. Link) B. Hyland, Syzygium luehmannii (F. Muell.) L.A.S. Johnson, Syzygium jambos L. (Alston), Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell. and Tasmannia lanceolata (Poir.) A.C.Sm. are used in traditional Australian Aboriginal and Asian healing systems to treat a variety of pathogenic diseases including fungal skin infections, yet they are yet to be examined for the ability to inhibit the growth of human dermatophytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fungal growth inhibitory activity of extracts produced from selected Australian and Asian plants was assessed against a panel of human dermatophytes by standard disc diffusion and liquid dilution MIC methods. The toxicity of the extracts was evaluated by Artemia lethality and MTS HDF cell viability assays. The phytochemistry of the most promising extracts were examined by GC-MS headspace analysis and some interesting compounds were highlighted. RESULTS: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of all plant species were good antifungal agents, inhibiting the growth of all of the dematophytes tested. The methanolic S. australe (SA) and S. luehmannii (SL) extracts were particularly potent fungal growth inhibitors. MIC values of 39 and 53µg/mL were recorded for the methanolic SL fruit extract against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum respectively. Similar MICs were also noted for the methanolic SL leaf extract (88 and 106µg/mL respectively). The methanolic SL leaf extract was a particularly good fungal growth inhibitor, with MIC values≤100µg/mL against the reference C. albicans strain (96µg/mL), E. floccosum (53µg/mL), and T. mentagrophytes (88µg/mL). This extract also produced MICs≤200µg/mL against all other fungal species/strains tested. Similarly good activity was seen for the methanolic S. australe leaf and fruit extracts, as well as the S. lehmannii fruit and S. jambos leaf extracts, with MIC values 100-500µg/mL. Interestingly, these extracts had low toxicity and high therapeutic indices, indicating their suitability for clinical use. GC-MS headspace analysis highlighted several monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids in the methanolic SA and SL extracts. T. ferdinandiana and T. lanceolata extracts also had promising antifungal activity, albeit with substantially higher MICs. CONCLUSION: Whilst multiple extracts inhibited fungal growth, the methanolic S. australe and S. luehmannii leaf extracts and the S. luehmannii fruit extracts showed particularly potent activity against each of these dermatophytes, indicating that they are promising leads for the development of anti-dermatophytic therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Ásia , Austrália , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Syzygium/química , Terminalia/química , Winteraceae/química
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 220: 250-264, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621583

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Worldwide, more than three billion cases of parasitic disease are reported yearly and it is likely that this figure is substantially under-estimated. Approximately one in six people globally are estimated to be infected with at least one parasite species annually. In South Africa, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (bilharzia) and intestinal worms and helminths are particularly high, especially in children and in crowded or poorer rural communities with inadequate sanitation and nutrition. Despite alarmingly high estimates, medical research into parasitic diseases remains neglected and only malaria receives significant attention and funding. Traditional medicines have been used for centuries in Africa by multiple ethnic groups and many people rely on these healing systems as their primary healthcare modality. The traditional use of South African medicinal plants to treat parasite infestations is relatively well documented, and it is important to link these traditional uses to scientific evidence validating efficacy. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the medicinal plants used for parasitic infections and critically review the literature on the anti-parasitic properties of South African plants against some neglected parasitic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature (ethnobotanical books and publications documenting traditional plant use) was undertaken related to specific medicinal use for parasitic infections in Southern Africa. Inclusion criteria focused on human use. Exclusion criteria included veterinary use and malaria due to the extensive nature of these subject matters. An in-depth analysis of previous studies was undertaken and future prospectives are considered. RESULTS: In particular, bilharzia, gastrointestinal worms and helminths, ectoparasites, trichomoniasis, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are reviewed with special emphasis on the gaps in research. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of relatively extensive ethnobotanical records on the anti-parasitic properties of southern African medicinal plants, the antiparasitic properties of many plants have been poorly examined. There was in many instances a lack of evidence to support traditional use of many species towards some parasites and research is urgently needed in this area.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , África Austral , Animais , Antiparasitários/isolamento & purificação , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Criança , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia
8.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 39(5): 500-510, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28488331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts are potent growth inhibitors of many bacterial pathogens. They may also inhibit the growth of malodour-producing bacteria and thus be useful deodorant components, although this is yet to be tested. METHODS: Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit and leaf solvent extracts were investigated by disc diffusion and liquid dilution MIC assays against the most significant bacterial contributors to axillary and plantar malodour formation. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Non-targeted HPLC separation of the methanolic leaf extract coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy was used for the identification and characterization of individual components in the extract. RESULTS: The T. ferdinandiana leaf extracts were the most potent bacterial growth inhibitors. The leaf methanolic extract was particularly potent, with low MIC values against C. jeikeium (233 µg mL-1 ), S. epidermidis (220 µg mL-1 ), P. acnes (625 µg mL-1 ) and B. linens (523 µg mL-1 ). The aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extracts were also potent growth inhibitors of C. jeikeium and S. epidermidis (MICs < 1000 µg mL-1 ). In comparison, the fruit extracts were substantially less potent antibacterial agents, although still with MIC values indicative of moderate growth inhibitory activity. All T. ferdinandiana leaf extracts were non-toxic in the Artemia franciscana bioassay. Non-biased phytochemical analysis of the methanolic leaf extract revealed the presence of high levels of and high diversity of tannins and high levels of the flavone luteolin. CONCLUSION: The low toxicity of the T. ferdinandiana leaf extracts and their potent growth inhibition of axillary and plantar malodour-producing bacteria indicate their potential as deodorant components.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desodorantes/farmacologia , Odorantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terminalia/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Inflammopharmacology ; 25(2): 223-235, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239782

RESUMO

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional Australian medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune inflammatory diseases. One hundred and six extracts from 40 native Australian plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and/or to inhibit bacterial growth were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (K. pneumoniae). Eighty-six of the extracts (81.1%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. The D. leichardtii, Eucalyptus spp., K. flavescens, Leptospermum spp., M. quinquenervia, Petalostigma spp., P. angustifolium, S. spinescens, S. australe, S. forte and Tasmannia spp. extracts were effective K. pneumoniae growth inhibitors, with MIC values generally <1000 µg/mL. The T. lanceolata peppercorn extracts were the most potent growth inhibitors, with MIC values as low as 16 µg/mL. These extracts were examined by non-biased GC-MS headspace analysis and comparison with a compound database. A notable feature was the high relative abundance of the sesquiterpenoids polygodial, guaiol and caryophyllene oxide, and the monoterpenoids linalool, cineole and α-terpineol in the T. lanceolata peppercorn methanolic and aqueous extracts. The extracts with the most potent K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity (including the T. lanceolata peppercorn extracts) were nontoxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The lack of toxicity and the growth inhibitory activity of these extracts against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Espondilite Anquilosante , Austrália , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/microbiologia
10.
Prog Drug Res ; 70: 179-235, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26462368

RESUMO

Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe phytochemicals depend not only on their individual levels, but also on the ratios between the various components and their individual redox states. Therefore, discrepancies between bioactivity studies are likely when using different crude mixtures. This report aims to summarise the phytochemistry of the Aloes and (a) examine how their constituents may be responsible for their medicinal properties and (b) some possible reasons for the wide variations reported for their medicinal properties and (c) their therapeutic mechanisms. Some future areas of research into the medicinal activities of this important genus are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Aloe , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Aloe/química , Animais , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Inflammopharmacology ; 23(5): 203-29, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26226895

RESUMO

Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and therapeutic mechanisms of Terminalia species and thus to highlight and direct future areas of research into the medicinal activities of this important genus.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Terminalia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Combretaceae , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
12.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 11(Suppl 1): S190-208, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26109767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygium australe, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 µg/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 µg/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus inhibitory activity were also shown to be nontoxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. CONCLUSIONS: The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential in blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.

13.
Parasitol Res ; 114(7): 2611-20, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25876047

RESUMO

Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 µg/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terminalia/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Giardia lamblia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
14.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 11(41): 208-18, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25709234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants of the family Combretaceae are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes in southern Africa. In particular, many species of Combretum and Terminalia are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, yet their antimicrobial potential has not been rigorously studied and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of antimicrobial activity was undertaken on selected South African Combretum and Terminalia species. Sixteen extracts from 6 Combretum and 2 Terminalia plant species with a history of medicinal usage were investigated by disc diffusion assay against a panel of bacteria and fungi and their MIC values were determined. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. RESULTS: All extracts tested displayed broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 12-16 (75-100%) of the bacteria tested, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria being approximately equally susceptible. Potent antibacterial activities (generally in the range 200-5000 µg/ml) were evident for all Combretaceae extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the extracts also displayed good antifungal activity, inhibiting the growth of 2-3 (66.7-100%) of the fungal species tested, with fungal growth inhibition activities generally in the range 200-4000 µg/ml. In general, the Terminalia extracts had better efficacies than the Combretum extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extracts were generally better antimicrobial agents than the water extracts. All extracts were also shown to be non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. CONCLUSION: The lack of toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against a panel of bacteria and fungi indicate their potential as medicinal agents and partially validate their usage in multiple South African traditional medicinal systems.

15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 23(1): 21-35, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412961

RESUMO

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established.


Assuntos
Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Espondilite Anquilosante , Animais , Artemia , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Africana/tendências , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , África do Sul , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite Anquilosante/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 10(Suppl 1): S37-49, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24914307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Petalostigma pubescens and Petalostigma triloculare were common components of pharmacopeia's of multiple Australian Aboriginal tribal groupings which traditionally inhabited the areas in which they grow. Among these groups, they had a myriad of medicinal uses in treating a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This study was undertaken to test P. pubescens and P. triloculare leaf and fruit extracts for the ability to inhibit bacterial and viral growth and thus validate Australian Aboriginal usage of these plants in treating bacterial and fungal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P. pubescens, and P. triloculare leaves and fruit were extracted and tested for antimicrobial, antiviral activity and toxicity. The bioactive extracts were further examined by RP-HPLC and GC-MS to identify the component compounds. RESULTS: The methanol, water and ethyl acetate leaf and fruit extracts of displayed potent antibacterial activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 10 of the 14 bacteria tested (71%) for the leaf extract and 9 of the 14 bacteria tested (64%) for the fruit extracts. The water extracts also had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 8 (57%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. All antibacterial extracts were approximately equally effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, inhibiting the growth of 50-75% of the bacteria tested. The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay. The methanol and water extracts inhibited 26.6-49.0% and 85.4-97.2% of MS2 plaque formation, respectively, with the fruit extracts being more potent inhibitors. All ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of MS2 plaque formation. All extracts were also non-toxic or of low toxicity. Analysis of these extracts by RP-HPLC showed that the P. triloculare ethyl acetate fruit extract was the least complex of the bioactive extracts. Subsequent analysis of this extract by GC-MS revealed that it contained 9 main compounds: acetic acid; 2,2-dimethoxybutane; 4-methyl-1,3-dioxane; decane; unadecane; 2-furanmethanol; 1,2-benzenediol; 1,2,3-benzenetriol; and benzoic acid. CONCLUSION: These studies validate Australian Aboriginal therapeutic usage of Petalostigma species and indicate their medicinal potential.

17.
Inflammopharmacology ; 22(1): 23-36, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23877712

RESUMO

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 µg/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/prevenção & controle , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Proteus/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 6(23): 166-71, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20931073

RESUMO

The toxicity of Xanthorrhoea johnsonii methanolic leaf extract was investigated using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. At 24 h, the extract produced an EC(50) of 361.0 ± 41.8 µg/ml, indicating that it was substantially more toxic than the pesticide Mevinphos (1346.2 ± 80.1 µg/ml) and approximately 4 fold less toxic than potassium dichromate (87.1 ± 5.2 µg/ml). Whilst potassium dichromate LC(50) values remained constant across the 72-h test period, these values decreased for the extract and Mevinphos to similar values (199.8 ± 60.5 and 114 ± 12.8 µg/ml, respectively), indicating their similar level of efficacy. Noteworthy was the apparent anesthetic effect of X. johnsonii leaf extract. Although the extract initially appeared to kill the A. franciscana nauplii, they were seen to temporarily recover by 48 h only to die by 72 h.

19.
Phytother Res ; 24(3): 360-4, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19610042

RESUMO

This study reports on the induction of oxidative stress in aerobic cell systems by Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) juice using the salt water crustacean Artemia franciscana as a model. A consistent pattern was observed in which Artemia franciscana nauplii responded to Aloe vera juice exposure with a decrease in the overall activity of redox related enzymes. Exposure of Artemia franciscana to sub-lethal levels of Aloe vera juice resulted in a decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase by 34% (66% enzymatic activity), 79% (21% enzymatic activity) and 90% (10% enzymatic activity), respectively. Similarly apparent was the trend whereby the co-exposure of the nauplii to vitamin E counteracted this effect. For each of the biomarker enzymes tested, vitamin E co-exposure resulted in enzyme activities closer to the control value (78%, 56% and 32% of control enzymatic activities for thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity, respectively). These results indicate that exposure to sub-lethal doses of Aloe vera juice induces alterations in the cellular redox status of Artemia franciscana and that the addition of vitamin E helps the Artemia franciscana nauplii to overcome/block the juice induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Vitamina E/farmacologia
20.
Pharmacognosy Res ; 2(1): 4-9, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21808530

RESUMO

Methanol extracts from S. jambos leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity and toxicity. S. jambos leaf extract inhibited the growth of 4 of the 14 bacteria tested (29%). Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial growths were inhibited by S. jambos leaf extract, although gram-positive bacteria appeared more susceptible. Two of the 10 gram-negative bacteria (20%) and 2 of the 4 gram-positive bacteria (50%) tested had their growths inhibited by the extract. The leaf extract also proved to be toxic in the Artemia franciscana bioassay, with a 48-h LC(50) of 387.9 ± 38.8 µg/mL, making it slightly more toxic than Mevinphos (505.3± 37.7 µg/mL) and approximately 5-fold less toxic than potassium dichromate (80.4 ± 4.3 µg/mL). Whilst potassium dichromate's LC(50) remained constant across the 72-hour test period (24-h LC(50), 86.3 ± 5.1; 72-h LC(50), 77.9 ± 4.9), the extract and Mevinphos LC(50) values decreased by 72 hours (87.0 ± 11.3 µg/mL and 103.9 ± 12.8 µg/mL, respectively), indicating their similar levels of toxicity in the assay.

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