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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009340, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596274

RESUMO

Influenza virus infections are major public health threats due to their high rates of morbidity and mortality. Upon influenza virus entry, host cells experience modifications of endomembranes, including those used for virus trafficking and replication. Here we report that influenza virus infection modifies mitochondrial morphodynamics by promoting mitochondria elongation and altering endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria tethering in host cells. Expression of the viral RNA recapitulates these modifications inside cells. Virus induced mitochondria hyper-elongation was promoted by fission associated protein DRP1 relocalization to the cytosol, enhancing a pro-fusion status. We show that altering mitochondrial hyper-fusion with Mito-C, a novel pro-fission compound, not only restores mitochondrial morphodynamics and endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact sites but also dramatically reduces influenza replication. Finally, we demonstrate that the observed Mito-C antiviral property is directly connected with the innate immunity signaling RIG-I complex at mitochondria. Our data highlight the importance of a functional interchange between mitochondrial morphodynamics and innate immunity machineries in the context of influenza viral infection.

3.
EMBO Rep ; : e49019, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180995

RESUMO

Several human pathologies including neurological, cardiac, infectious, cancerous, and metabolic diseases have been associated with altered mitochondria morphodynamics. Here, we identify a small organic molecule, which we named Mito-C. Mito-C is targeted to mitochondria and rapidly provokes mitochondrial network fragmentation. Biochemical analyses reveal that Mito-C is a member of a new class of heterocyclic compounds that target the NEET protein family, previously reported to regulate mitochondrial iron and ROS homeostasis. One of the NEET proteins, NAF-1, is identified as an important regulator of mitochondria morphodynamics that facilitates recruitment of DRP1 to the ER-mitochondria interface. Consistent with the observation that certain viruses modulate mitochondrial morphogenesis as a necessary part of their replication cycle, Mito-C counteracts dengue virus-induced mitochondrial network hyperfusion and represses viral replication. The newly identified chemical class including Mito-C is of therapeutic relevance for pathologies where altered mitochondria dynamics is part of disease etiology and NEET proteins are highlighted as important therapeutic targets in anti-viral research.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042861

RESUMO

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a frequent opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed patients, which can be involved in kidney allograft dysfunction and rejection. In order to study the pathophysiology of HCMV renal diseases, we concentrated on the impact of HCMV infection on human renal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells. Our aim was to develop a model of infection of HK-2 cells by using the viral strain TB40/E, that contains the extended cell tropism of clinical isolates and the efficient viral multiplication in cell culture of laboratory-adapted strains. We observed that HK-2 cells can be infected by HCMV and expressed viral antigens, but they do not produce extracellular viral particles. We then studied the interplay of HCMV with ciliogenesis and autophagy. Primary cilium (PC) is a stress sensor important to maintain renal tissue homeostasis that projects from the apical side into the lumen of tubule cells. PC formation and length were not modified by HCMV infection. Autophagy, another stress response process critically required for normal kidney functions, was inhibited by HCMV in HK-2 cells with a reduction in the autophagic flux. HCMV classically induces an enlargement of infected cells in vivo and in vitro, and we observed that HCMV infection led to an enlargement of the HK-2 cell volume. Our results constitute therefore an excellent starting point to further explore the role of these mechanisms in renal cells dysfunction.

5.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(9): 1091-1102, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868900

RESUMO

Organs and cells must adapt to shear stress induced by biological fluids, but how fluid flow contributes to the execution of specific cell programs is poorly understood. Here we show that shear stress favours mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic reprogramming to ensure energy production and cellular adaptation in kidney epithelial cells. Shear stress stimulates lipophagy, contributing to the production of fatty acids that provide mitochondrial substrates to generate ATP through ß-oxidation. This flow-induced process is dependent on the primary cilia located on the apical side of epithelial cells. The interplay between fluid flow and lipid metabolism was confirmed in vivo using a unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model. Finally, primary cilium-dependent lipophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis are required to support energy-consuming cellular processes such as glucose reabsorption, gluconeogenesis and cytoskeletal remodelling. Our findings demonstrate how primary cilia and autophagy are involved in the translation of mechanical forces into metabolic adaptation.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
6.
Autophagy ; : 1-2, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954913

RESUMO

The kidney, similar to many other organs, has to face shear stress induced by biological fluids. How epithelial kidney cells respond to shear stress is poorly understood. Recently we showed in vitro and in vivo that proximal tubule epithelial cells use lipophagy to fuel mitochondria with fatty acids. Lipophagy is stimulated by a primary cilium-dependent signaling that converges at AMP kinase. AMP kinase is a central signaling hub to trigger lipophagy and also to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. These two pathways contribute to generate ATP needed to support energy-consuming cellular processes such as glucose reabsorption, gluconeogenesis. These findings demonstrate the role of the primary cilium and selective macroautophagy/autophagy to integrate shear stress and to sustain the execution of a specific cellular program.

7.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(9): 1076-1090, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807902

RESUMO

Autophagy is a catabolic process whereby cytoplasmic components are degraded within lysosomes, allowing cells to maintain energy homeostasis during nutrient depletion. Several studies reported that the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 promotes starvation-induced autophagy by an unknown mechanism. Here we find that p27 controls autophagy via an mTORC1-dependent mechanism in amino acid-deprived cells. During prolonged starvation, a fraction of p27 is recruited to lysosomes, where it interacts with LAMTOR1, a component of the Ragulator complex required for mTORC1 activation. Binding of p27 to LAMTOR1 prevents Ragulator assembly and mTORC1 activation, promoting autophagy. Conversely, p27-/- cells exhibit elevated mTORC1 signalling as well as impaired lysosomal activity and autophagy. This is associated with cytoplasmic sequestration of TFEB, preventing induction of the lysosomal genes required for lysosome function. LAMTOR1 silencing or mTOR inhibition restores autophagy and induces apoptosis in p27-/- cells. Together, these results reveal a direct coordinated regulation between the cell cycle and cell growth machineries.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Inanição/metabolismo
8.
Autophagy ; 16(8): 1526-1528, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434445

RESUMO

Control of systemic and hepatic inflammation, in particular originating from monocytes/macrophages, is crucial to prevent liver fibrosis and its progression to end-stage cirrhosis. LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is a non-canonical form of autophagy that shifts the monocyte/macrophage phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. In a recent study, we uncovered LAP as a protective mechanism against inflammation-driven liver fibrosis and systemic inflammation in the context of cirrhosis. We observed that LAP is enhanced in blood and liver monocytes from patients with liver fibrosis or those who progress to cirrhosis. Combining studies in which LAP was pharmacologically or genetically inactivated, we found that LAP limits inflammation in monocytes from cirrhotic patients, and the hepatic inflammatory profile in mice with chronic liver injury, resulting in anti-fibrogenic effects. Mechanistically, LAP-induced anti-inflammatory and antifibrogenic signaling results from enhanced expression of the Fc immunoreceptor FCGR2A/FcγRIIA and activation of an FCGR2A-mediated PTPN6/SHP-1 anti-inflammatory pathway, leading to increased engulfment of IgG into LC3 + phagosomes. In patients with cirrhosis progressing to multi-organ failure (acute-on chronic liver failure), LAP is lost in monocytes, and can be restored by targeting FCGR2A-mediated PTPN6/SHP-1 signaling. These data suggest that sustaining LAP may open novel therapeutic perspectives for patients with end-stage liver disease.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(539)2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295902

RESUMO

Sustained hepatic and systemic inflammation, particularly originating from monocytes/macrophages, is a driving force for fibrosis progression to end-stage cirrhosis and underlies the development of multiorgan failure. Reprogramming monocyte/macrophage phenotype has emerged as a strategy to limit inflammation during chronic liver injury. Here, we report that LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), a noncanonical form of autophagy, protects against hepatic and systemic inflammation during chronic liver injury in rodents, with beneficial antifibrogenic effects. LAP is enhanced in blood and liver monocytes from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis. Pharmacological inhibition of LAP components in human monocytes from patients with cirrhosis or genetic disruption of LAP in mice with chronic liver injury exacerbates both the inflammatory signature in isolated human monocytes and the hepatic inflammatory profile in mice, resulting in enhanced liver fibrosis. Mechanistically, patients with cirrhosis showed increased monocyte expression of Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIA (FcγRIIA) and enhanced engulfment of immunoglobulin G in LC3+ phagosomes that triggers an FcγRIIA/Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAMi) anti-inflammatory pathway. Mice overexpressing human FcγRIIA in myeloid cells show enhanced LAP in response to chronic liver injury and resistance to inflammation and liver fibrosis. Activation of LAP is lost in monocytes from patients with multiorgan failure and restored by specifically targeting ITAMi signaling with anti-FcγRIIA F(ab')2 fragments, or with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). These data suggest the existence of an ITAMi-mediated mechanism by which LAP might protect against inflammation. Sustaining LAP may open therapeutic perspectives for patients with chronic liver disease.

10.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 65, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although both circular RNAs (circRNAs) and autophagy are associated with the function of breast cancer (BC), whether circRNAs regulate BC progression via autophagy remains unknown. In this study, we aim to explore the regulatory mechanisms and the clinical significance of autophagy-associated circRNAs in BC. METHODS: Autophagy associated circRNAs were screened by circRNAs deep sequencing and validated by qRT-PCR in BC tissues with high- and low- autophagic level. The biological function of autophagy associated circRNAs were assessed by plate colony formation, cell viability, transwells, flow cytometry and orthotopic animal models. For mechanistic study, RNA immunoprecipitation, circRNAs pull-down, Dual luciferase report assay, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemical staining were performed. RESULTS: An autophagy associated circRNA circCDYL was elevated by 3.2 folds in BC tissues as compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and circCDYL promoted autophagic level in BC cells via the miR-1275-ATG7/ULK1 axis; Moreover, circCDYL enhanced the malignant progression of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, increased circCDYL in the tumor tissues and serum of BC patients was associated with higher tumor burden, shorter survival and poorer clinical response to therapy. CONCLUSIONS: circCDYL promotes BC progression via the miR-1275-ATG7/ULK1-autophagic axis and circCDYL could act as a potential prognostic and predictive molecule for breast cancer patients.

11.
Autophagy ; 16(6): 1143-1144, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102612

RESUMO

Primary cilium-dependent macroautophagy/autophagy is induced by the urinary flow in epithelial cells of the kidney proximal tubule. A major physiological outcome of this cascade is the control of cell size. Some components of the ATG machinery are recruited at the primary cilium to generate autophagic structures. Shear stress induced by the liquid flow promotes PtdIns3P synthesis at the primary cilium, and this lipid is required both for ciliogenesis and initiation of autophagy. We showed that PtdIns3P is generated by PIK3C2A, but not by PIK3C3/VPS34, during flow-associated primary cilium-dependent autophagy, in a ULK1-independent manner. Along the same line BECN1 (beclin 1), a partner of PIK3C3 in starvation-induced autophagy, is not recruited at the primary cilium under shear stress. Thus, kidney epithelial cells mobilize different PtdIns 3-kinases, i.e., PIK3C2A or PIK3C3, to produce PtdIns3P in order to initiate autophagy depending on the stimuli (shear stress or starvation). ABBREVIATIONS: PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PIK3C2A: class two alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PIK3C3/VPS34: class three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; ATG: autophagy associated genes.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 294, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941925

RESUMO

Cells subjected to stress situations mobilize specific membranes and proteins to initiate autophagy. Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P), a crucial lipid in membrane dynamics, is known to be essential in this context. In addition to nutriments deprivation, autophagy is also triggered by fluid-flow induced shear stress in epithelial cells, and this specific autophagic response depends on primary cilium (PC) signaling and leads to cell size regulation. Here we report that PI3KC2α, required for ciliogenesis and PC functions, promotes the synthesis of a local pool of PI3P upon shear stress. We show that PI3KC2α depletion in cells subjected to shear stress abolishes ciliogenesis as well as the autophagy and related cell size regulation. We finally show that PI3KC2α and VPS34, the two main enzymes responsible for PI3P synthesis, have different roles during autophagy, depending on the type of cellular stress: while VPS34 is clearly required for starvation-induced autophagy, PI3KC2α participates only in shear stress-dependent autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Tamanho Celular , Classe III de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe III de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estresse Mecânico
13.
J Hepatol ; 72(3): 528-538, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies demonstrated that autophagy is protective in hepatocytes and macrophages, but detrimental in hepatic stellate cells in chronic liver diseases. The role of autophagy in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. Our aim was to analyze the potential implication of autophagy in LSECs in NASH and liver fibrosis. METHODS: We analyzed autophagy in LSECs from patients using transmission electron microscopy. We determined the consequences of a deficiency in autophagy: (a) on LSEC phenotype, using primary LSECs and an LSEC line; (b) on early stages of NASH and on advanced stages of liver fibrosis, using transgenic mice deficient in autophagy specifically in endothelial cells and fed a high-fat diet or chronically treated with carbon tetrachloride, respectively. RESULTS: Patients with NASH had half as many LSECs containing autophagic vacuoles as patients without liver histological abnormalities, or with simple steatosis. LSECs from mice deficient in endothelial autophagy displayed an upregulation of genes implicated in inflammatory pathways. In the LSEC line, deficiency in autophagy enhanced inflammation (Ccl2, Ccl5, Il6 and VCAM-1 expression), features of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (α-Sma, Tgfb1, Col1a2 expression) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3). In mice fed a high-fat diet, deficiency in endothelial autophagy induced liver expression of inflammatory markers (Ccl2, Ccl5, Cd68, Vcam-1), liver cell apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Mice deficient in endothelial autophagy treated with carbon tetrachloride also developed more perisinusoidal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: A defect in autophagy in LSECs occurs in patients with NASH. Deficiency in endothelial autophagy promotes the development of liver inflammation, features of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, apoptosis and liver fibrosis in the early stages of NASH, but also favors more advanced stages of liver fibrosis. LAY SUMMARY: Autophagy is a physiological process controlling endothelial homeostasis in vascular beds outside the liver. This study demonstrates that autophagy is defective in the liver endothelial cells of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. This defect promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis at early stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but also at advanced stages of chronic liver disease.

14.
EMBO Rep ; 20(11): e48150, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544310

RESUMO

STK38 (also known as NDR1) is a Hippo pathway serine/threonine protein kinase with multifarious functions in normal and cancer cells. Using a context-dependent proximity-labeling assay, we identify more than 250 partners of STK38 and find that STK38 modulates its partnership depending on the cellular context by increasing its association with cytoplasmic proteins upon nutrient starvation-induced autophagy and with nuclear ones during ECM detachment. We show that STK38 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that its nuclear exit depends on both XPO1 (aka exportin-1, CRM1) and STK38 kinase activity. We further uncover that STK38 modulates XPO1 export activity by phosphorylating XPO1 on serine 1055, thus regulating its own nuclear exit. We expand our model to other cellular contexts by discovering that XPO1 phosphorylation by STK38 regulates also the nuclear exit of Beclin1 and YAP1, key regulator of autophagy and transcriptional effector, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal STK38 as an activator of XPO1, behaving as a gatekeeper of nuclear export. These observations establish a novel mechanism of XPO1-dependent cargo export regulation by phosphorylation of XPO1's C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Humanos , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Cell Stress ; 3(3): 100-109, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225504

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved molecular pathway directly involved in the degradation and recycling of intracellular components. Autophagy is associated with a response to stress situations, such as nutrients deficit, chemical toxicity, mechanical stress or microbial host defense. We have recently shown that primary cilium-dependent autophagy is important to control kidney epithelial cell size in response to fluid flow induced shear stress. Here we show that the ciliary protein folliculin (FLCN) actively participates to the signaling cascade leading to the stimulation of fluid flow-dependent autophagy upstream of the cell size regulation in HK2 kidney epithelial cells. The knockdown of FLCN induces a shortening of the primary cilium, inhibits the activation of AMPK and the recruitment of the autophagy protein ATG16L1 at the primary cilium. Altogether, our results suggest that FLCN is essential in the dialog between autophagy and the primary cilium in epithelial cells to integrate shear stress-dependent signaling.

16.
Autophagy ; 15(10): 1829-1833, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234750

RESUMO

The NIH-funded center for autophagy research named Autophagy, Inflammation, and Metabolism (AIM) Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, located at the University of New Mexico Health Science Center is now completing its second year as a working center with a mission to promote autophagy research locally, nationally, and internationally. The center has thus far supported a cadre of 6 junior faculty (mentored PIs; mPIs) at a near-R01 level of funding. Two mPIs have graduated by obtaining their independent R01 funding and 3 of the remaining 4 have won significant funding from NIH in the form of R21 and R56 awards. The first year and a half of setting up the center has been punctuated by completion of renovations and acquisition and upgrades for equipment supporting autophagy, inflammation and metabolism studies. The scientific cores usage, and the growth of new studies is promoted through pilot grants and several types of enablement initiatives. The intent to cultivate AIM as a scholarly hub for autophagy and related studies is manifested in its Vibrant Campus Initiative, and the Tuesday AIM Seminar series, as well as by hosting a major scientific event, the 2019 AIM symposium, with nearly one third of the faculty from the International Council of Affiliate Members being present and leading sessions, giving talks, and conducting workshop activities. These and other events are often videostreamed for a worldwide scientific audience, and information about events at AIM and elsewhere are disseminated on Twitter and can be followed on the AIM web site. AIM intends to invigorate research on overlapping areas between autophagy, inflammation and metabolism with a number of new initiatives to promote metabolomic research. With the turnover of mPIs as they obtain their independent funding, new junior faculty are recruited and appointed as mPIs. All these activities are in keeping with AIM's intention to enable the next generation of autophagy researchers and help anchor, disseminate, and convey the depth and excitement of the autophagy field.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Inflamação , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Sociedades Científicas , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/economia , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Financiamento Governamental , Organização do Financiamento/economia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mentores , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , New Mexico , Pesquisadores/economia , Pesquisadores/educação , Sociedades Científicas/economia , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Sociedades Científicas/tendências , Estados Unidos
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1808, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755642

RESUMO

PiT1/SLC20A1 is an inorganic phosphate transporter with additional functions including the regulation of TNFα-induced apoptosis, erythropoiesis, cell proliferation and insulin signaling. Recent data suggest a relationship between PiT1 and NF-κB-dependent inflammation: (i) Pit1 mRNA is up-regulated in the context of NF-κB pathway activation; (ii) NF-κB target gene transcription is decreased in PiT1-deficient conditions. This led us to investigate the role of PiT1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. MCP-1 and IL-6 concentrations were impaired in PiT1-deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) upon LPS stimulation. Lower MCP-1 and IL-6 serum levels were observed in Mx1-Cre; Pit1lox/lox mice dosed intraperitoneally with LPS. Lower PiT1 expression correlated with decreased in vitro wound healing and lower reactive oxygen species levels. Reduced IκB degradation and lower p65 nuclear translocation were observed in PiT1-deficient cells stimulated with LPS. Conversely, PiT1 expression was induced in vitro upon LPS stimulation. Addition of an NF-κB inhibitor abolished LPS-induced PiT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that p65 expression activated Pit1 promoter activity. Finally, ChIP assays demonstrated that p65 directly binds to the mPit1 promoter in response to LPS. These data demonstrate a completely novel function of PiT1 in the response to LPS and provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of PiT1 expression by NF-κB.


Assuntos
Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Pit-1/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioglicolatos/toxicidade , Fator de Transcrição Pit-1/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Hepatol ; 70(5): 985-998, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711404

RESUMO

Autophagy is a self-eating catabolic pathway that contributes to liver homeostasis through its role in energy balance and in the quality control of the cytoplasm, by removing misfolded proteins, damaged organelles and lipid droplets. Autophagy not only regulates hepatocyte functions but also impacts on non-parenchymal cells, such as endothelial cells, macrophages and hepatic stellate cells. Deregulation of autophagy has been linked to many liver diseases and its modulation is now recognized as a potential new therapeutic strategy. Indeed, enhancing autophagy may prevent the progression of a number of liver diseases, including storage disorders (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson's disease), acute liver injury, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and chronic alcohol-related liver disease. Nevertheless, in some situations such as fibrosis, targeting specific liver cells must be considered, as autophagy displays opposing functions depending on the cell type. In addition, an optimal therapeutic time-window should be identified, since autophagy might be beneficial in the initial stages of disease, but detrimental at more advanced stages, as in the case of hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, identifying biomarkers of autophagy and methods to monitor autophagic flux in vivo are important steps for the future development of personalized autophagy-targeting strategies. In this review, we provide an update on the regulatory role of autophagy in various aspects of liver pathophysiology, describing the different strategies to manipulate autophagy and discussing the potential to modulate autophagy as a therapeutic strategy in the context of liver diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/fisiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/etiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 780, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770803

RESUMO

Autophagy is an essential self-digestion machinery for cell survival and homoeostasis. Membrane elongation is fundamental, as it drives the formation of the double-membrane vesicles that engulf cytosolic material. LC3-lipidation, the signature of autophagosome formation, results from a complex ubiquitin-conjugating cascade orchestrated by the ATG16L1 protein, whose regulation is unknown. Here, we identify the Gigaxonin-E3 ligase as the first regulator of ATG16L1 turn-over and autophagosome production. Gigaxonin interacts with the WD40 domain of ATG16L1 to drive its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Gigaxonin depletion induces the formation of ATG16L1 aggregates and impairs LC3 lipidation, hence altering lysosomal fusion and degradation of the main autophagy receptor p62. Altogether, we demonstrate that the Gigaxonin-E3 ligase controls the production of autophagosomes by a reversible, ubiquitin-dependent process selective for ATG16L1. Our findings unveil the fundamental mechanisms of the control of autophagosome formation, and provide a molecular switch to fine-tune the activation of autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1880: 331-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610708

RESUMO

Fluidic shear stress applied to epithelial cells inside the kidney tubules affects cell size in an autophagy-related manner. Here, we describe the technical equipment that we routinely use to apply shear stress on cells, as well as immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and three-dimensional cell volume reconstruction techniques used in analysis of the influence of this stress on cells and cellular components. By pointing out details of experimental techniques and potential pitfalls, this review will serve as a guide for those interested in study of how shear stress influences cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Tamanho Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Animais , Bioensaio/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Resistência ao Cisalhamento/fisiologia , Software , Estresse Mecânico
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