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1.
Fam Pract ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical findings do not accurately predict laboratory diagnosis of influenza. Early identification of influenza is considered useful for proper management decisions in primary care. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the diagnostic value of the presence and the severity of symptoms for the diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection among adults presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) in primary care. METHODS: Secondary analysis of patients with ILI who participated in a clinical trial from 2015 to 2018 in 15 European countries. Patients rated signs and symptoms as absent, minor, moderate, or major problem. A nasopharyngeal swab was taken for microbiological identification of influenza and other microorganisms. Models were generated considering (i) the presence of individual symptoms and (ii) the severity rating of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 2,639 patients aged 18 or older were included in the analysis. The mean age was 41.8 ± 14.7 years, and 1,099 were men (42.1%). Influenza was microbiologically confirmed in 1,337 patients (51.1%). The area under the curve (AUC) of the model for the presence of any of seven symptoms for detecting influenza was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.68), whereas the AUC of the symptom severity model, which included eight variables-cough, fever, muscle aches, sweating and/or chills, moderate to severe overall disease, age, abdominal pain, and sore throat-was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.69-0.72). CONCLUSION: Clinical prediction of microbiologically confirmed influenza in adults with ILI is slightly more accurate when based on patient reported symptom severity than when based on the presence or absence of symptoms.

2.
Lancet ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health threat. Antibiotics are very commonly prescribed for children presenting with uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), but there is little evidence from randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of antibiotics, both overall or among key clinical subgroups. In ARTIC PC, we assessed whether amoxicillin reduces the duration of moderately bad symptoms in children presenting with uncomplicated (non-pneumonic) LRTI in primary care, overall and in key clinical subgroups. METHODS: ARTIC PC was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 56 general practices in England. Eligible children were those aged 6 months to 12 years presenting in primary care with acute uncomplicated LRTI judged to be infective in origin, where pneumonia was not suspected clinically, with symptoms for less than 21 days. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive amoxicillin 50 mg/kg per day or placebo oral suspension, in three divided doses orally for 7 days. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was the duration of symptoms rated moderately bad or worse (measured using a validated diary) for up to 28 days or until symptoms resolved. The primary outcome and safety were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN79914298). FINDINGS: Between Nov 9, 2016, and March 17, 2020, 432 children (not including six who withdrew permission for use of their data after randomisation) were randomly assigned to the antibiotics group (n=221) or the placebo group (n=211). Complete data for symptom duration were available for 317 (73%) patients; missing data were imputed for the primary analysis. Median durations of moderately bad or worse symptoms were similar between the groups (5 days [IQR 4-11] in the antibiotics group vs 6 days [4-15] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 1·13 [95% CI 0·90-1·42]). No differences were seen for the primary outcome between the treatment groups in the five prespecified clinical subgroups (patients with chest signs, fever, physician rating of unwell, sputum or chest rattle, and short of breath). Estimates from complete-case analysis and a per-protocol analysis were similar to the imputed data analysis. INTERPRETATION: Amoxicillin for uncomplicated chest infections in children is unlikely to be clinically effective either overall or for key subgroups in whom antibiotics are commonly prescribed. Unless pneumonia is suspected, clinicians should provide safety-netting advice but not prescribe antibiotics for most children presenting with chest infections. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.

3.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although several models to predict intensive care unit (ICU) mortality are available, their performance decreases in certain subpopulations because specific factors are not included. Moreover, these models often involve complex techniques and are not applicable in low-resource settings. We developed a prediction model and simplified risk score to predict 14-day mortality in ICU patients infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data of ICU patients infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae at the largest tertiary hospital in Northern Vietnam during 2016-2018. Logistic regression was used to develop our prediction model. Model performance was assessed by calibration (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve-AUC) and discrimination (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test). A simplified risk score was also constructed. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-nine patients were included, with an overall 14-day mortality of 28.9%. The final prediction model comprised six predictors: age, referral route, SOFA score, central venous catheter, intracerebral haemorrhage surgery and absence of adjunctive therapy. The model showed high predictive accuracy (AUC = 0.83; p-value Hosmer-Lemeshow test = 0.92). The risk score has a range of 0-12 corresponding to mortality risk 0-100%, which produced similar predictive performance as the original model. CONCLUSIONS: The developed prediction model and risk score provide an objective quantitative estimation of individual 14-day mortality in ICU patients infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The tool is highly applicable in practice to help facilitate patient stratification and management, evaluation of further interventions and allocation of resources and care, especially in low-resource settings where electronic systems to support complex models are missing.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356738

RESUMO

While most cases of acute cough are self-limiting, antibiotics are prescribed to over 50%. This proportion is inappropriately high given that benefit from treatment with amoxicillin could only be demonstrated in adults with pneumonia (based on chest radiograph) or combined viral-bacterial infection (based on modern microbiological methodology). As routine use of chest radiographs and microbiological testing is costly, clinical prediction rules could be used to identify these patient subsets. In this secondary analysis of data from a multicentre randomised controlled trial in adults presenting to primary care with acute cough, we used prediction rules for pneumonia or combined infection and assessed the effect of amoxicillin in patients predicted to have pneumonia or combined infection on symptom duration, symptom severity and illness deterioration. In total, 2056 patients that fulfilled all inclusion criteria were randomised, 1035 to amoxicillin, 1021 to placebo. Neither patients with a predicted pneumonia nor patients with a predicted combined infection were significantly more likely to benefit from amoxicillin. While the studied clinical prediction rules may help primary care clinicians to reduce antibiotic prescribing for low-risk patients, they did not identify adult acute cough patients that would benefit from amoxicillin treatment.

5.
Fam Pract ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary health care providers (PHCPs) are assumed to be at high risk of a COVID-19 infection, as they are exposed to patients with usually less personal protective equipment (PPE) than other frontline health care workers (HCWs). Nevertheless, current research efforts focussed on the assessment of COVID-19 seroprevalence rates in the general population or hospital HCWs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the seroprevalence in PHCPs during the second SARS-CoV-2 wave in Flanders (Belgium) and compared it to the seroprevalence in the general population. We also assessed risk factors, availability of PPE and attitudes towards the government guidelines over time. METHODS: A prospective cohort of PHCPs (n = 698), mainly general practitioners, was asked to complete a questionnaire and self-sample capillary blood by finger-pricking at five distinct points in time (June-December 2020). We analysed the dried blood spots for IgG antibodies using a Luminex multiplex immunoassay. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of PHCPs remained stable between June and September (4.6-5.0%), increased significantly from October to December (8.1-13.4%) and was significantly higher than the seroprevalence of the general population. The majority of PHCPs were concerned about becoming infected, had adequate PPE and showed increasing confidence in government guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in seroprevalence during the second COVID-19 wave shows that PHCPs were more at risk during the second wave compared to the first wave in Flanders. This increase was only slightly higher in PHCPs than in the general population suggesting that the occupational health measures implemented provided sufficient protection when managing patients.

6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2725-2732, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The criteria for the reimbursement of fluoroquinolones changed in Belgium on 1 May 2018. This study aims to quantify the difference in fluoroquinolone use after this change, and to assess the timing and persistence of this effect, both in terms of total reimbursed fluoroquinolone use and its relative proportion. METHODS: Longitudinal reimbursement data on fluoroquinolone use in the Belgian community from January 2017 to November 2018 were analysed to identify a change in reimbursed fluoroquinolone use expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID), using a set of non-linear mixed models including change-points. In addition, longitudinal data on the relative proportion of prescribed fluoroquinolones from January 2017 to December 2018 were analysed to identify a change in the relative proportion of prescribed fluoroquinolones using generalized estimation equations including change-points. RESULTS: Fluoroquinolone use dropped significantly immediately after the change in reimbursement criteria, from 2.21 DID (95% CI: 2.03-2.38) to 0.52 DID (95% CI: 0.48-0.56) and from 9.14% (95% CI: 8.75%-9.56%) to 6.52% (95% CI: 6.04%-7.04%). The observed decrease in fluoroquinolone use persisted over time. CONCLUSIONS: While fluoroquinolone use was still above the target of 5% after the change in reimbursement criteria, its implementation helped to lower fluoroquinolone use in Belgium.

7.
JCI Insight ; 6(19)2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448730

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 infection induces mucin overexpression, further promoting disease. Given that mucins are critical components of innate immunity, unraveling their expression profiles that dictate the course of disease could greatly enhance our understanding and management of COVID-19.METHODSUsing validated RT-PCR assays, we assessed mucin mRNA expression in the blood of patients with symptomatic COVID-19 compared with symptomatic patients without COVID-19 and healthy controls and correlated the data with clinical outcome parameters. Additionally, we analyzed mucin expression in mucus and lung tissue from patients with COVID-19 and investigated the effect of drugs for COVID-19 treatment on SARS-CoV-2-induced mucin expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.RESULTSWe identified a dynamic blood mucin mRNA signature that clearly distinguished patients with symptomatic COVID-19 from patients without COVID-19 based on expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC6, MUC13, MUC16, and MUC20 (AUCROC of 91.8%; sensitivity and specificity of 90.6% and 93.3%, respectively) and that discriminated between mild and critical COVID-19 based on the expression of MUC16, MUC20, and MUC21 (AUCROC of 89.1%; sensitivity and specificity of 90.0% and 85.7%, respectively). Differences in the transcriptional landscape of mucins in critical cases compared with mild cases identified associations with COVID-19 symptoms, respiratory support, organ failure, secondary infections, and mortality. Furthermore, we identified different mucins in the mucus and lung tissue of critically ill COVID-19 patients and showed the ability of baricitinib, tocilizumab, favipiravir, and remdesivir to suppress expression of SARS-CoV-2-induced mucins.CONCLUSIONThis multifaceted blood mucin mRNA signature showed the potential role of mucin profiling in diagnosing, estimating severity, and guiding treatment options in patients with COVID-19.FUNDINGThe Antwerp University Research and the Research Foundation Flanders COVID-19 funds.

8.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(8): 685-699, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Influenza-like illness (ILI) leads to a substantial disease burden every winter in Europe; however, oseltamivir is not frequently prescribed to ILI patients in the primary-care setting. An open-label, multi-country, multi-season, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of oseltamivir for treating ILI in 15 European countries. We aimed to evaluate whether patients presenting with ILI in primary care and being managed with the addition of oseltamivir to usual care had lower average direct and indirect costs compared to patients with usual care alone. METHODS: Resource use data were extracted from participants' daily diaries. Itemised country-specific unit costs were collected through official tariffs, pharmacies or literature. Costs were converted to 2018 values. The null hypothesis was tested based on one-sided credible intervals (CrIs) obtained by bootstrapping. Base-case analysis estimated direct cost and productivity losses using itemised costed resource use and the human capital approach. Scenario analyses with self-reported spending rather than itemised costing were also performed. RESULTS: Patients receiving oseltamivir (N = 1306) reported fewer healthcare visits, medication uses, hospital attendances and paid-work hours lost than the other patients (N = 1298). Excluding the oseltamivir cost, the average direct costs were lower in patients treated with oseltamivir from all perspectives, but these differences were not statistically significant (perspective of patient: €17 [0-95% Crl: 16-19] vs. €24 [5-100% Crl: 18-29]; healthcare provider: €37 [28-67] vs. €44 [25-55]; healthcare payers: €54 [45-85] vs. €68 [45-81]; and society: €423 [399-478] vs. €451 [390-478]). Scenario and age-group analyses confirmed these findings, but with some between-country differences. CONCLUSION: The average direct and indirect costs were consistently lower in patients treated with oseltamivir than in patients without from four perspectives (excluding the oseltamivir cost). However, these differences were not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Oseltamivir , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049257, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe primary health care (consultation characteristics and management) for patients contacting their general practitioner (GP) with a respiratory tract infection (RTI) early on in the COVID-19 pandemic in contrasting European countries, with comparison to prepandemic findings. SETTING: Primary care in 16 countries (79 practices), when no routine SARS-CoV-2 testing was generally available. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Before (n=4376) and early in the pandemic (n=3301), patients with RTI symptoms were registered in this prospective audit study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Consultation characteristics (type of contact and use of PPE) and management characteristics (clinical assessments, diagnostic testing, prescribing, advice and referral) were registered. Differences in these characteristics between countries and between pandemic and prepandemic care are described. RESULTS: Care for patients with RTIs rapidly switched to telephone/video consultations (10% in Armenia, 91% in Denmark), and when consultations were face-to-face, GPs used PPE during 97% (95% CI 96% to 98%) of contacts. Laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 in primary care patients with RTIs was rapidly implemented in Denmark (59%) and Germany (31%), while overall testing for C reactive protein decreased. The proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics varied considerably between countries (3% in Belgium, 48% in UK) and was lower during the pandemic compared with the months before, except for Greece, Poland and UK. GPs provided frequent and varied COVID-related advice and more frequently scheduled a follow-up contact (50%, 95% CI 48% to 52%). GPs reported a slightly higher degree of confidence in the likely effectiveness of their management in face-to-face (73% (very) confident, 95% CI 71% to 76%) than in virtual consultations (69%, 95% CI 67% to 71%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite between-country variation in consultation characteristics, access to SARS-CoV-2 laboratory testing and medication prescribing, GPs reported a high degree of confidence in managing their patients with RTIs in the emerging pandemic. Insight in the highly variable pandemic responses, as measured in this multicountry audit, can aid in fine-tuning national action and in coordinating a pan-European response during future pandemic threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias , Armênia , Bélgica , Teste para COVID-19 , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Alemanha , Grécia , Humanos , Pandemias , Polônia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii2-ii6, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article introduces a series of articles on antibiotic consumption in the community between 1997 and 2017, which provide an update of previous articles covering the periods 1997-2003 and 1997-2009. METHODS: In this article, differences in participating countries, the ATC/DDD classification system, and data collection, validation and analysis between the current and previous series are described. RESULTS: In the previous series, 33 European countries provided valid data for further analysis, while the current series focused on 30 countries belonging to the EU or the European Economic Area (EEA). For both series, data were collected in accordance with the WHO ATC classification system. While the previous series reported data in accordance with the ATC/DDD index 2011, the current series employed the ATC/DDD index 2019. Both series focused on consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) and collected data expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. When studying consumption expressed in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day, countries reporting total care data, i.e. community and hospital sector combined, were included in the previous series but excluded in the current series. While the previous series used non-linear mixed models to evaluate time trends in antibiotic consumption, the current series allowed for inclusion of change-points with a data-driven location. In addition, both series assessed the composition and quality of antibiotic consumption in the EU/EEA. CONCLUSIONS: The updated analyses of two decades of ESAC-Net data provide the most comprehensive and detailed description of antibiotic consumption in the community in Europe.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coleta de Dados , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii37-ii44, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on quinolone consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of main subgroups of quinolones. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of quinolones, i.e. ATC group J01M, in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Quinolone consumption was analysed by subgroups based on pharmacokinetic profile, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, quinolone consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 8.2 between countries with the highest (Bulgaria) and the lowest (Norway) consumption. The second-generation quinolones accounted for >50% of quinolone consumption in most countries. Quinolone consumption significantly increased up to 2001, and did not change significantly afterwards. Seasonal variation increased significantly over time. Proportional consumption of third-generation quinolones significantly increased over time relative to that of second-generation quinolones, while proportional consumption of both third- and second-generation quinolones significantly increased relative to that of first-generation quinolones. Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin represented >40% of quinolone consumption in the community in southern EU/EEA countries. CONCLUSIONS: Quinolone consumption in the community is no longer increasing in the EU/EEA, but its seasonal variation continues to increase significantly as is the proportion of quinolones to treat respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii30-ii36, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on the consumption of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS) in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in composition of the main subgroups of MLS. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of MLS, i.e. ATC group J01F, in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of MLS was analysed and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes, using a classification based on mean plasma elimination half-life for macrolides. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of MLS in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 13 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (Sweden) consumption. Consumption of MLS did not change significantly up to 2003, after which it significantly increased up to 2007. No significant change was observed after 2007. Consumption of MLS showed high seasonal variation. The proportional consumption of long-acting macrolides significantly increased over time compared with that of intermediate-acting macrolides, and proportional consumption of the latter increased compared with that of short-acting macrolides. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of MLS did not change significantly over time during 2007-2017, while the proportional consumption of long-acting macrolides increased. Seasonal variation remained high, which suggests that MLS are still prescribed inappropriately in many countries.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos , Estreptograminas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Lincosamidas
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii7-ii13, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on antibiotic consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/EEA countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main antibiotic groups. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of antibiotics, i.e. antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01), in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Antibiotic consumption was analysed based on ATC-3 groups, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, antibiotic consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor 3.6 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. Antibiotic consumption in the EU/EEA did not change significantly over time. Antibiotic consumption showed a significant seasonal variation, which decreased over time. The number of DDD per package significantly increased over time. The proportional consumption of sulphonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) relative to other groups significantly decreased over time, while the proportional consumption of other antibacterials (J01X) relative to other groups significantly increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, antibiotic consumption in the community in the EU/EEA did not change during 1997-2017, while seasonal variation consistently decreased over time. The number of DDD per package increased during 1997-2017.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Trimetoprima
14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii79-ii85, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This tutorial describes and illustrates statistical methods to detect time trends possibly including abrupt changes (referred to as change-points) in the consumption of antibiotics in the community. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01) in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology and expressed in DDD (ATC/DDD index 2019) per 1000 inhabitants per day. Trends over time and presence of common change-points were studied through a set of non-linear mixed models. RESULTS: After a thorough description of the set of models used to assess the time trend and presence of common change-points herein, the methodology was applied to the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) in 25 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. The best fit was obtained for a model including two change-points: one in the first quarter of 2004 and one in the last quarter of 2008. CONCLUSIONS: Allowing for the inclusion of common change-points improved model fit. Individual countries investigating changes in their antibiotic consumption pattern can use this tutorial to analyse their country data.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii60-ii67, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The quality of antibiotic consumption in the community can be assessed using 12 drug-specific quality indicators (DSQIs) developed by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. We compared quality in 2009 and 2017 in the EU/European Economic Area (EEA) and evaluated the impact of using different DDD values (ATC/DDD indices 2011 and 2019) for the 2009 quality assessment using these DSQIs and a joint scientific opinion (JSO) indicator. METHODS: We calculated the 12 DSQIs and the JSO indicator for 2017 and for 2009 for EU/EEA countries able to deliver values. For each of the indicators we grouped the 2017 and 2009 indicator values into four quartiles. To evaluate changes in quality between 2009 and 2017, we used the quartile distribution of the 2009 indicator values in 30 EU/EEA countries as benchmarks. In addition, we compared the quality assessment for 2009 using the ATC/DDD indices 2011 and 2019. RESULTS: In 2017, a difference in the quality of antibiotic consumption in the community between northern and southern EU/EEA countries remained, but also several eastern EU/EEA countries shifted towards lower quality. Quality of antibiotic consumption decreased between 2009 and 2017 in particular indicator values for penicillin, quinolone, relative ß-lactam and broad- versus narrow-spectrum antibiotic consumption, and seasonal variation. Using different ATC/DDD indices did not substantially change countries' ranking based on their DSQI values. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of antibiotic consumption in the community as measured by the DSQIs further decreased between 2009 and 2017, especially in Southern and Eastern European countries. A continuous effort to improve antibiotic consumption is essential to reduce antibiotic consumption in general and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in particular.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Penicilinas
16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii14-ii21, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on consumption of penicillins in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main subgroups of penicillins. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of penicillins, i.e. ß-lactam antibacterials, penicillins (ATC group J01C), in the community aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of penicillins was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroups, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of penicillins in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 4.9 between countries with the highest (Spain) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. An increase in consumption of penicillins, which was not statistically significant, was observed between 1997 and 2003 and up to 2010. A decrease, which was not statistically significant, was observed from 2010 onwards. Proportional consumption of combinations of penicillins, including ß-lactamase inhibitors (J01CR) increased during 1997-2017, which coincided with a decrease in the proportional consumption of extended-spectrum penicillins (J01CA) and narrow-spectrum penicillins (J01CE). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation in the patterns of consumption of penicillins was observed between EU/EEA countries. The consumption of penicillins in the EU/EEA community did not change significantly over time, while the proportional consumption of combinations of penicillins increased.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Penicilinas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii22-ii29, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on cephalosporin consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/EEA countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of the main subgroups of cephalosporins. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of cephalosporins (i.e. first-, second-, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins; ATC subgroups J01DB, J01DC, J01DD and J01DE, respectively) in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Cephalosporin consumption was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroup, and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, cephalosporin consumption in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied by a factor of 285 between countries with the highest (Greece) and the lowest (the Netherlands) consumption. Cephalosporin consumption did not change significantly between the first quarter of 1997 and the last quarter of 2017. Seasonal variation decreased significantly over time. Proportional consumption of second- and third-generation cephalosporins significantly increased over time compared with that of first-generation cephalosporins, and proportional consumption of fourth-generation cephalosporins significantly decreased compared with that of second- and third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation between countries in the composition of cephalosporin consumption and trends over time, a significant shift towards consumption of more broad-spectrum cephalosporins in the community was observed across the EU/EEA during 1997-2017.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Cefalosporinas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii68-ii78, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Surveillance of antibiotic consumption in the community is of utmost importance to inform and evaluate control strategies. Data on two decades of antibiotic consumption in the community were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. This article reviews temporal trends and the presence of abrupt changes in subgroups of relevance in antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on yearly antibiotic consumption in the community, aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC classification and expressed in DDD (ATC/DDD index 2019) per 1000 inhabitants per day. We applied a range of non-linear mixed models to assess the presence of changes in the consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC group J01) and eight antibiotic subgroups. RESULTS: For the majority of the studied groups, a country-specific change-point model provided the best fit. Depending on the antibiotic group/subgroup and on the country, change-points were spread out between 2000 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the heterogeneity in antibiotic consumption in the community across EU/EEA countries, a country-specific change-point model provided the better fit. Given the limitations of this model, our recommendation for the included countries is to carefully interpret the country-specific results presented in this article and to use the tutorial included in this series to conduct their own change-point analysis when evaluating the impact of changes in regulations, public awareness campaigns, and other national interventions to improve antibiotic consumption in the community.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12 Suppl 2): ii45-ii59, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials were collected from 30 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries over two decades. This article reviews temporal trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and changes in the composition of main subgroups of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim and other antibacterials. METHODS: For the period 1997-2017, data on consumption of tetracyclines (ATC group J01A), sulphonamides and trimethoprim (ATC group J01E), and other antibacterials (ATC group J01X) in the community and aggregated at the level of the active substance, were collected using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology (ATC/DDD index 2019). Consumption was expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day and in packages per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials was analysed based on ATC-4 subgroups and presented as trends, seasonal variation, presence of change-points and compositional changes. RESULTS: In 2017, consumption of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials in the community expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day varied considerably between countries. Between 1997 and 2017, consumption of tetracyclines did not change significantly, while its seasonal variation significantly decreased over time. Consumption of sulphonamides and trimethoprim significantly decreased until 2006, and its seasonal variation significantly decreased over time. The consumption of other antibacterials showed no significant change over time or in seasonal variation. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption and composition of tetracyclines, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, and other antibacterials showed wide variations between EU/EEA countries and over time. This represents an opportunity to further reduce consumption of these groups in some countries and improve the quality of their prescription.


Assuntos
Tetraciclinas , Trimetoprima , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico
20.
Gut ; 70(10): 1815-1822, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to prospectively assess the antibiotic resistance rates in Helicobacter pylori strains in Europe in 2018 and to study the link between antibiotic consumption in the community and H. pylori resistance levels in the different countries. DESIGN: The proportion of primary antibiotic resistance cases of H. pylori and their corresponding risk factors were investigated in 24 centres from 18 European countries according to a standardised protocol. Data on antibiotic consumption in the community were collected for the period 2008-2017. The link between antibiotic consumption and resistance data was assessed using generalised linear mixed models. The model with the best fit was selected by means of the Akaike Information Criterion. RESULTS: H. pylori resistance rates for the 1211 adult patients included were 21.4% for clarithromycin, 15.8% for levofloxacin and 38.9% for metronidazole and were significantly higher in Central/Western and Southern than in the Northern European countries.The best model fit was obtained for the Poisson distribution using 2013 consumption data. A significant association was found between H. pylori clarithromycin resistance and consumption in the community of macrolides (p=0.0003) and intermediate-acting macrolides (p=0.005), and between levofloxacin resistance and consumption of quinolones (p=0.0002) and second-generation quinolones (p=0.0003). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the positive correlation between macrolide and quinolone consumption in the community and corresponding H. pylori resistance in European countries. Hence, H. pylori treatment with clarithromycin and levofloxacin should not be started without susceptibility testing in most European countries.

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