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1.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 6: 23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964108

RESUMO

Genetic risk for complex diseases very rarely reflects only Mendelian-inherited phenotypes where single-gene mutations can be followed in families by linkage analysis. More commonly, a large set of low-penetrance, small effect-size variants combine to confer risk; they are normally revealed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which compare large population groups. Whereas Mendelian inheritance points toward disease mechanisms arising from the mutated genes, in the case of GWAS signals, the effector proteins and even general risk mechanism are mostly unknown. Instead, the utility of GWAS currently lies primarily in predictive and diagnostic information. Although an amazing body of GWAS-based knowledge now exists, we advocate for more funding towards the exploration of the fundamental biology in post-GWAS studies; this research will bring us closer to causality and risk gene identification. Using Parkinson's Disease as an example, we ask, how, where, and when do risk loci contribute to disease?

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(10): 1203-1214, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807949

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis may involve the epigenetic control of enhancers that modify neuronal functions. Here, we comprehensively examine DNA methylation at enhancers, genome-wide, in neurons of patients with PD and of control individuals. We find a widespread increase in cytosine modifications at enhancers in PD neurons, which is partly explained by elevated hydroxymethylation levels. In particular, patients with PD exhibit an epigenetic and transcriptional upregulation of TET2, a master-regulator of cytosine modification status. TET2 depletion in a neuronal cell model results in cytosine modification changes that are reciprocal to those observed in PD neurons. Moreover, Tet2 inactivation in mice fully prevents nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by previous inflammation. Tet2 loss also attenuates transcriptional immune responses to an inflammatory trigger. Thus, widespread epigenetic dysregulation of enhancers in PD neurons may, in part, be mediated by increased TET2 expression. Decreased Tet2 activity is neuroprotective, in vivo, and may be a new therapeutic target for PD.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(10): 1735-1745, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer genetic predisposition is governed by more than 142 loci as revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The functional contribution of these risk loci to breast cancer remains unclear, and additional post-GWAS analyses are required. METHODS: We identified active regulatory elements (enhancers, promoters, and chromatin organizing elements) by histone H3K27 acetylation and CTCF occupancy and determined the enrichment of risk variants at these sites. We compared these results with previously published data and for other cell lines, including human mammary epithelial cells, and related these data to gene expression. RESULTS: In terms of mapping accuracy and resolution, our data augment previous annotations of the MCF-7 epigenome. After intersection with GWAS risk variants, we found 39 enhancers and 15 CTCF occupancy sites that, between them, overlapped 96 breast cancer credible risk variants at 42 loci. These risk enhancers likely regulate the expression of dozens of genes, which are enriched for GO categories, including estrogen and prolactin signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Ten (of 142) breast cancer risk loci likely function via enhancers that are active in MCF-7 and are well suited to targeted manipulation in this system. In contrast, risk loci cannot be mapped to specific CTCF-binding sites, and the genes linked to risk CTCF sites did not show functional enrichment. The identity of risk enhancers and their associated genes suggests that some risk may function during later processes in cancer progression. IMPACT: Here, we report how the ER+ cell line MCF-7 can be used to dissect risk mechanisms for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Células MCF-7 , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco
5.
Curr Genomics ; 20(5): 322-324, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476988

RESUMO

This opinion paper highlights strategies for a better understanding of non-Mendelian genetic risk that was revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex diseases. The genetic risk resides predominantly in non-coding regulatory DNA, such as in enhancers. The identification of mechanisms, the causal variants (mainly SNPs), and their target genes are, however, not always apparent but are likely involved in a network of risk determinants; the identification presents a bottle-neck in the full understanding of the genetics of complex phenotypes. Here, we propose strategies to identify functional SNPs and link risk enhancers with their target genes. The strategies are 1) identifying fine-mapped SNPs that break/form response elements within chromatin bio-features in relevant cell types 2) considering the nearest gene on linear DNA, 3) analyzing eQTLs, 4) mapping differential DNA methylation regions and relating them to gene expression, 5) employing genomic editing with CRISPR/cas9 and 6) identifying topological associated chromatin domains using chromatin conformation capture.

6.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 467-481, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487138

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified 40 ovarian cancer risk loci. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. In this study, we conducted a two-pronged approach to identify candidate causal SNPs and assess underlying biological mechanisms at chromosome 9p22.2, the first and most statistically significant associated locus for ovarian cancer susceptibility. Three transcriptional regulatory elements with allele-specific effects and a scaffold/matrix attachment region were characterized and, through physical DNA interactions, BNC2 was established as the most likely target gene. We determined the consensus binding sequence for BNC2 in vitro, verified its enrichment in BNC2 ChIP-seq regions, and validated a set of its downstream target genes. Fine-mapping by dense regional genotyping in over 15,000 ovarian cancer cases and 30,000 controls identified SNPs in the scaffold/matrix attachment region as among the most likely causal variants. This study reveals a comprehensive regulatory landscape at 9p22.2 and proposes a likely mechanism of susceptibility to ovarian cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Mapping the 9p22.2 ovarian cancer risk locus identifies BNC2 as an ovarian cancer risk gene.See related commentary by Choi and Brown, p. 439.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 146-157, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 160, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 loci associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, most of which are in non-coding regions of the genome. Understanding the function of these non-coding risk loci is critical to elucidate the genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer. RESULTS: We generate genome-wide regulatory element maps and performed genome-wide chromosome confirmation capture assays (in situ Hi-C) in normal and tumorigenic prostate cells. Using this information, we annotate the regulatory potential of 2,181 fine-mapped prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs and predict a set of target genes that are regulated by prostate cancer risk-related H3K27Ac-mediated loops. We next identify prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF sites involved in long-range chromatin loops. We use CRISPR-mediated deletion to remove prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF anchor regions and the CTCF anchor regions looped to the prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF sites, and we observe up to 100-fold increases in expression of genes within the loops when the prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF anchor regions are deleted. CONCLUSIONS: We identify GWAS risk loci involved in long-range loops that function to repress gene expression within chromatin loops. Our studies provide new insights into the genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Acetilação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Baixa/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
9.
Neurobiol Dis ; 114: 53-64, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486295

RESUMO

In genome-wide association studies of complex diseases, many risk polymorphisms are found to lie in non-coding DNA and likely confer risk through allele-dependent differences in gene regulatory elements. However, because distal regulatory elements can alter gene expression at various distances on linear DNA, the identity of relevant genes is unknown for most risk loci. In Parkinson's disease, at least some genetic risk is likely intrinsic to a neuronal subpopulation of cells in the brain regions affected. In order to compare neuron-relevant methods of pairing risk polymorphisms to target genes as well as to further characterize a single-cell model of a neurodegenerative disease, we used the portionally-dopaminergic, neuronal, mesencephalic-derived cell line LUHMES to dissect differentiation-specific mechanisms of gene expression. We compared genome-wide gene expression in undifferentiated and differentiated cells with genome-wide histone H3K27ac and CTCF-bound regions. Whereas promoters and CTCF binding were largely consistent between differentiated and undifferentiated cells, enhancers were mostly unique. We matched the differentiation-specific appearance or disappearance of enhancers with changes in gene expression and identified 22,057 enhancers paired with 6388 differentially expressed genes by proximity. These enhancers are enriched with at least 13 transcription factor response elements, driving a cluster of genes involved in neurogenesis. We show that differentiated LUHMES cells, but not undifferentiated cells, show enrichment for PD-risk SNPs. Candidate genes for these loci are largely unrelated, though a subset is linked to synaptic vesicle cycling and transport, implying that PD-related disruption of these pathways is intrinsic to dopaminergic neurons.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Humanos
10.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 8(1): 13-15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254107

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of Parkinson's disease have revealed polymorphic variants associated with closely mapped genes of interest. We propose here that those genes may only represent the tip of an iceberg of regulatory effects and do not necessary reflect disease relevance. To usefully interpret a risk locus, one needs to consider 5 dimensions of information, which represent the three-dimensional structure of chromatin (dimensions #1- 3), which is locally variable across time (dimension #4), and, most importantly, dependent on cell type and context (dimension #5).


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175882, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407015

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked dozens of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Ascertaining the functional and eventual causal mechanisms underlying these relationships has proven difficult. The majority of risk SNPs, and nearby SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD), are found in intergenic or intronic regions and confer risk through allele-dependent expression of multiple unknown target genes. Combining GWAS results with publicly available GTEx data, generated through eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci) identification studies, enables a direct association of SNPs to gene expression levels and aids in narrowing the large population of potential genetic targets for hypothesis-driven experimental cell biology. Separately, overlapping of SNPs with putative enhancer segmentations can strengthen target filtering. We report here the results of analyzing 7,607 PD risk SNPs along with an additional 23,759 high linkage disequilibrium-associated variants paired with eQTL gene expression. We found that enrichment analysis on the set of genes following target filtering pointed to a single large LD block at 6p21 that contained multiple HLA-MHC-II genes. These MHC-II genes remain associated with PD when the genes were filtered for correlation between GWAS significance and eQTL levels, strongly indicating a direct effect on PD etiology.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(7): 1016-1026, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377418

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 100 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk, the majority of which were discovered in women of European ancestry. Because of different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, many of these genetic markers may not represent signals in populations of African ancestry.Methods: We tested 74 breast cancer risk variants and conducted fine-mapping of these susceptibility regions in 6,522 breast cancer cases and 7,643 controls of African ancestry from three genetic consortia (AABC, AMBER, and ROOT).Results: Fifty-four of the 74 variants (73%) were found to have ORs that were directionally consistent with those previously reported, of which 12 were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Through fine-mapping, in six regions (3p24, 12p11, 14q13, 16q12/FTO, 16q23, 19p13), we observed seven markers that better represent the underlying risk variant for overall breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes, whereas in another two regions (11q13, 16q12/TOX3), we identified suggestive evidence of signals that are independent of the reported index variant. Overlapping chromatin features and regulatory elements suggest that many of the risk alleles lie in regions with biological functionality.Conclusions: Through fine-mapping of known susceptibility regions, we have revealed alleles that better characterize breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.Impact: The risk alleles identified represent genetic markers for modeling and stratifying breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1016-26. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(1): 126-135, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wide backbone, comprising 230,000 SNPs tagging most common genetic variants, together with dense mapping of known susceptibility regions, rare variants from sequencing experiments, pharmacogenetic markers, and cancer-related traits. METHODS: The OncoArray can be genotyped using a novel technology developed by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring algorithm based on principal components analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these analyses will enable researchers to identify new susceptibility loci, perform fine-mapping of new or known loci associated with either single or multiple cancers, assess the degree of overlap in cancer causation and pleiotropic effects of loci that have been identified for disease-specific risk, and jointly model genetic, environmental, and lifestyle-related exposures. IMPACT: Ongoing analyses will shed light on etiology and risk assessment for many types of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 126-35. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Seleção Genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27833659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although technological advances now allow increased tumor profiling, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to the development of different cancers remains elusive. Our approach toward understanding the molecular events that lead to cancer is to characterize changes in transcriptional regulatory networks between normal and tumor tissue. Because enhancer activity is thought to be critical in regulating cell fate decisions, we have focused our studies on distal regulatory elements and transcription factors that bind to these elements. RESULTS: Using DNA methylation data, we identified more than 25,000 enhancers that are differentially activated in breast, prostate, and kidney tumor tissues, as compared to normal tissues. We then developed an analytical approach called Tracing Enhancer Networks using Epigenetic Traits that correlates DNA methylation levels at enhancers with gene expression to identify more than 800,000 genome-wide links from enhancers to genes and from genes to enhancers. We found more than 1200 transcription factors to be involved in these tumor-specific enhancer networks. We further characterized several transcription factors linked to a large number of enhancers in each tumor type, including GATA3 in non-basal breast tumors, HOXC6 and DLX1 in prostate tumors, and ZNF395 in kidney tumors. We showed that HOXC6 and DLX1 are associated with different clusters of prostate tumor-specific enhancers and confer distinct transcriptomic changes upon knockdown in C42B prostate cancer cells. We also discovered de novo motifs enriched in enhancers linked to ZNF395 in kidney tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies characterized tumor-specific enhancers and revealed key transcription factors involved in enhancer networks for specific tumor types and subgroups. Our findings, which include a large set of identified enhancers and transcription factors linked to those enhancers in breast, prostate, and kidney cancers, will facilitate understanding of enhancer networks and mechanisms leading to the development of these cancers.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Epigenômica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30509, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461410

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed at least 26 risk loci, with associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in non-coding DNA having unknown functions in risk. In order to explore in which cell types these SNPs (and their correlated surrogates at r(2) ≥ 0.8) could alter cellular function, we assessed their location overlap with histone modification regions that indicate transcription regulation in 77 diverse cell types. We found statistically significant enrichment of risk SNPs at 12 loci in active enhancers or promoters. We investigated 4 risk loci in depth that were most significantly enriched (-logeP > 14) and contained 8 putative enhancers in the different cell types. These enriched loci, along with eQTL associations, were unexpectedly present in non-neuronal cell types. These included lymphocytes, mesendoderm, liver- and fat-cells, indicating that cell types outside the brain are involved in the genetic predisposition to PD. Annotating regulatory risk regions within specific cell types may unravel new putative risk mechanisms and molecular pathways that contribute to PD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Cromossomos Humanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22462, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26934861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent susceptibility loci for prostate cancer, including the hot spot at 8q24. However, how genetic variants at this locus confer disease risk hasn't been fully characterized. Using circularized chromosome conformation capture (4C) coupled with next-generation sequencing and an enhancer at 8q24 as "bait", we identified genome-wide partners interacting with this enhancer in cell lines LNCaP and C4-2B. These 4C-identified regions are distributed in open nuclear compartments, featuring active histone marks (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K27Ac). Transcription factors NKX3-1, FOXA1 and AR (androgen receptor) tend to occupy these 4C regions. We identified genes located at the interacting regions, and found them linked to positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation in LNCaP and C4-2B, and several pathways (TGF beta signaling pathway in LNCaP and p53 pathway in C4-2B). Common genes (e.g. MYC and POU5F1B) were identified in both prostate cancer cell lines. However, each cell line also had exclusive genes (e.g. ELAC2 and PTEN in LNCaP and BRCA2 and ZFHX3 in C4-2B). In addition, BCL-2 identified in C4-2B might contribute to the progression of androgen-refractory prostate cancer. Overall, our work reveals key genes and pathways involved in prostate cancer onset and progression.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Loci Gênicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata , Fatores de Transcrição , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Cell Cycle ; 15(1): 22-4, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26771711

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/fisiologia , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/tendências , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia
19.
Bioinformatics ; 31(23): 3847-9, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26272984

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Functional annotation represents a key step toward the understanding and interpretation of germline and somatic variation as revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), respectively. GWAS have revealed numerous genetic risk variants residing in non-coding DNA associated with complex diseases. For sequences that lie within enhancers or promoters of transcription, it is not straightforward to assess the effects of variants on likely transcription factor binding sites. Consequently we introduce motifbreakR, which allows the biologist to judge whether the sequence surrounding a polymorphism or mutation is a good match, and how much information is gained or lost in one allele of the polymorphism or mutation relative to the other. MotifbreakR is flexible, giving a choice of algorithms for interrogation of genomes with motifs from many public sources that users can choose from. MotifbreakR can predict effects for novel or previously described variants in public databases, making it suitable for tasks beyond the scope of its original design. Lastly, it can be used to interrogate any genome curated within bioconductor. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/Simon-Coetzee/MotifBreakR, www.bioconductor.org. CONTACT: dennis.hazelett@cshs.org.


Assuntos
Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Software , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(13): 3595-607, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25804953

RESUMO

Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10(-30)), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10(-23)) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10(-15)) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico
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